Dna test singapore: CircleDNA I World’s Most Comprehensive DNA Test

CircleDNA I World’s Most Comprehensive DNA Test

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About Us | EasyDNA Singapore | www.


When you are considering to do a DNA test, it is important that you find out enough about the DNA testing company. We at EasyDNA Singapore are confident that we can meet your requirements and provide you with the best possible DNA testing service

About EasyDNA

EasyDNA appreciates that each and every test can result in a life-changing scenario and it is crucial that you select a reliable DNA testing provider. Our company have had over 10 years experience in DNA testing. Our DNA tests are all internationally accredited and we are situated in over 20 countries worldwide and growing.

Our team has the necessary experience to reassure you of complete peace of mind!

Quality assured!

When choosing a DNA Testing company you should always look at the accreditation that the company’s laboratory holds. This accreditation is an assurance of the quality controlled process that applies throughout your testing experience. Our testing is performed at the most accredited laboratory worldwide.

The lab holds not only the prestigious ISO17025 but also many other international accreditations including AABB and NATA making our legal testing one of the most widely accepted results on an international basis.

Our lab has conducted more than 300,000 DNA tests giving us a leading edge over competitors. Our local office provide services to clients in Singapore and the region and with over 25 international offices all over the globe, we can service clients just about any where!

We care!

Our customer service team is highly trained and available to assist you throughout the testing process. We understand that clients may be anxious and even agitated when the need arise for a DNA test. Our team is always on hand to make the testing process as smooth as possible. The testing process is fairly simple and we will explain to you in detail what is required from start to finish.

MOH to develop guidelines for firms that provide non-clinical genetic testing

SINGAPORE: A search for genetic testing services online turns up calls to “make smarter choices about your health, family and future” and “uncover your ethnic origins and find new relatives”.

These tests, which can be done at home with a kit, are purportedly able to tell a person a wide-ranging number of things from what they should eat for health reasons to what diseases they may get. The tests are done by analysing a small sample of saliva.

To help consumers and to protect their welfare, the Ministry of Health (MOH) is developing a guide for firms that offer this service.

The guide will give directions to providers in areas like marketing, MOH and the Health Sciences Authority said in a joint reply to queries from CNA on the regulations surrounding such testing.

The guide will provide consumers with the right information to make an informed choice about such non-clinical genetic testing, they added.

“As non-clinical genetic tests are not used for clinical purposes and currently do not present the same degree of potential risks and/or harm, they are not regulated under the Private Hospitals and Medical Clinics Act,” the agencies said.

Nevertheless, they cautioned that non-clinical genetic tests should not be used to assess, diagnose, prevent or treat any health or medical conditions.

“Any results from the test should not be regarded as medical information or advice,” the agencies said.  

MOH will continue to monitor the developments in commercial genetic tests to ensure the protection of consumers’ safety and welfare, a spokesperson added.


Mr Michel Mommejat, chief marketing officer and General Manager of Asia at Japan-based genetic testing firm Genesis Healthcare said this will be beneficial, with the increasing interest in genetic science.

“Guidelines will help ensure that companies adhere to the right messaging, and do not mislead consumers. As a result, an open dialogue and education with all stakeholders is a positive development,” he said. The firm started operations here in April 2018.

His firm provides a home test kit that is non-invasive and requires a small saliva sample, he said. The sample is used to analyse details like a person’s predisposition to health-related conditions, body constitution, genetic abilities, genetic behavioral traits as well as information related to skin, diet, and fitness, he said.

“Based on scientific research, it has been established that illnesses can be traced to genes passed down from parents to their child. It also allows people to learn more about how to maximise their workouts, improve their diet or select the right skin care ingredients to better suit them, all based on their unique genetic makeup,” Mr Mommejat said.

Genesis Healthcare, which was founded in 2004 and also provides diagnostic services to medical institutions, has experience working with regulatory bodies, policy makers and ministries in Japan to formulate guidelines and regulatory frameworks, he said.

He added that his firm is “very careful” with how it portrays its products and its messaging and encourages consumers to use its tests as a way of getting to know themselves better. He stressed that all diagnostic matters should be addressed by a consultation with a doctor.

Applications engineer Chee Jianzhi, 32, told CNA that he decided to do such a test while it was on promotion at S$199 because he thought there was “no harm” in it.

He was sent a test kit to his home, and he provided a sample of his saliva and dropped the kit into the mailbox. About five weeks later, he received the results. 

His results included the level of health risks he has, which prompted him to go for a check-up. 

“At this age, not everyone wants to go doctor for checks thinking nothing is wrong, so this got me to do proper checks so I can have more peace of mind,” he said. 

The results claimed that he has a high possibility of getting diabetes, so he cut down on sugar.


Head of the SingHealth Duke-NUS Genomic Medicine Centre Dr Saumya Shekhar Jamuar said that while these tests on ancestral information, kinship, health and disease risks, as well as insights into lifestyle factors, are interesting, there are some limitations. 

Data on genes for the South East Asian population is typically underrepresented in global genomic databases when compared to Caucasian populations, said Dr Saumya, citing research that showed that 81 per cent of research subjects were European, with just 19 per cent representing the rest of the world.

Dr Saumya, who is also deputy director (clinical) at SingHealth Duke-NUS Institute of Precision Medicine and senior consultant in the Genetics Service Department of Paediatrics at KK Women’s and Children’s Hospital, said: “For health and disease risks, gene variants that cause diseases are less well-characterised in the South East Asian population and may not be included in test kits, which means that a ‘negative’ test result may not completely rule out the possibility of the genetic disease.”

The opposite also holds true, as there may also be false positive results where a ‘positive’ result may not truly reflect an increased risk of developing diseases in the local context, he added.

The lack of data also means that ancestral information generated may be less accurate for South East Asians, he said. He said that evolving scientific literature on how lifestyle factors affect genes means that caution needs to be exercised when using such data to derive insights into lifestyle traits such as nutrition, personality and athletic abilities.  

The accuracy of data may vary depending on how the genes are tested, he said.

He urged consumers to practise caution when receiving these results, especially when it comes to health risks.

Mr Chee was aware of what he was getting into, having done research on the tests to get properly educated.

“If you read and you are aware of how it works and what things mean and don’t misinterpret the results, I think it is okay,” he said.

Paternity Testing in Singapore | Paternity Testing Corporation Singapore

What makes the difference in the testing?

All DNA testing is not the same.

The industry standard is 15 dna markers. At times this is not enough testing to accurately decide whether the testing individual is the father or not. This will more commonly happen when the mother is not included in the test, the father has very common DNA, or the child has a mutation from the father’s DNA. When these things happen often times a 15 marker test is not good enough.

Some companies will even issue a report saying they do not know if the tested man is the father.

This is usually the only test offered by companies who charge lower. If the customer wishes to have more testing done to get a accurate result, they will have to pay the current laboratory to send the samples to another different laboratory, such as us, to do further testing to get an accurate results.

We have the ability to test 29 PCR, 8 Y chromosome, and 12 RFLP DNA markers. Giving us the ability to offer the most powerful test, with the highest guarantee on the market today. We will keep testing your samples, until we have met the terms of our guarantee, at and affordable price, and free of extra charges.

A test with a 99% or a 99 paternity index is stating that one in one hundred men, of that population would carry similar genes to the tested child.

A test with a 99.9% or a 1000 paternity index is stating that one in one thousand men of the population would carry similar genes to the tested child, in other words the accuracy of this test is 10 times of what a 99% test would be.

A test with a 99.99% or a 10,000 paternity index is stating that one in ten thousand men of the population would carry similar genes to the tested child, in other words the accuracy of this test is 100 times of what a 99% test would be.
A small change in the accuracy makes a big difference.

How it is calculated:
Most population groups, including Singapore, has a DNA population database. This database shows how popular a certain DNA is in that population. When you look at a positive paternity report, you will see a number result for all of the loci. The higher the number means the less common that particular DNA is in that population group. The lower it is, the more common that particular DNA would be. All of these loci calculate into a paternity index.

A paternity index of 99 is 99%. It is calculated by 99 divided by 100 is 99%
A paternity index of 1000 is 99.9%. It is calculated by 1000 divided by 1001 is 99.9%
A paternity index of 10,000 is 99.99% . It is calculated by 10,000 divided by 10,001 is 99.99%

So a company with a guarantee of 99.99% is offering 100 times better testing than one of 99%. While it is not impossible, although highly unlikely that a 99.99% test could come to an incorrect conclusion for the question of paternity, a test of 99% would be 100 times more likely to have an incorrect result. At the 99% level, false inclusions will occur, leading someone to believe they are the father of a child when they are not.

Pricing | Paternity Testing Corporation Singapore

* All testing is performed at our laboratory in the US. Additional fees of postage will be added but not included in the above pricing. SGD $ 15 for Singapore Post service is about 1.5 weeks. SGD $65 for EMS service for 3 to 5 days, SGD $80 for FedEx Overnight Priority shipping for 1 day. An additional charge of $50 will be included for collection on Sundays / Public Holidays.

Paternity Testing Pricing
Paternity/Maternity Legal Testing
(Trio or single parent)
Home Paternity Testing
(Not for legal use)
Additional Child or Alleged Father +$220
One Day Result
(after sample reaches laboratory)
Same Day Results
(after sample reaches laboratory)
Prenatal Paternity Testing
(Mother’s and Father’s blood)
Family Testing Pricing
Grandparent Testing
(including Mother)
Grandparent Testing
(without Mother)
Family Reconstructions
(including sibship, up to 5 individuals)
Twin Zygosity Testing $434
Forensic Testing Pricing
Criminal Relationship Testing See Above
Y-Chromosome Testing
(per sample)
(per sample)
DNA Typing of single
source forensic samples
DNA Typing of mixed
source forensic samples
DNA typing of urine samples
Blood Detections $400
Semen Detections $400

Legally Verified DNA Test | International Biosciences Singapore

Legally Verified DNA Test

Legal DNA Test

Price: SGD 600
Testing: Child, mother and alleged father samples
Timeframe: 7 to 10 working days from receipt of samples at our office

Legal DNA test results provided meet the standards required by Singapore law courts and can be presented in court to provide evidence of a biological relationship between alleged relatives.

All International Biosciences’ DNA analysis and DNA testing is carried out at a laboratory accredited by the AABB and accredited in accordance with the recognised International Standard ISO/IEC 17025:2005 by ACLASS, a signatory to the ILAC arrangement. Click here to view the full list of Signatories to the ILAC Mutual Recognition Arrangement.

Uses Of a Legal Test

Legal DNA test results are used in various instances including child custody, alimony/ child support, changing the name on a birth certificate, solving disagreements about parentage and even as evidence of paternity in matters of inheritance. The test results provide hard, scientific evidence about which man is the biological father.

International Biosciences cannot unconditionally guarantee your results will be accepted in a court of law. Judges in family courts will always act in the best interests of the child or children. This means that although the results of a legal paternity test cannot be disputed, a judge can still refute the results of a test.

Science Behind The Test

Once we extract a 21 genetic marker profile from the sample of the alleged father and the child (or mother and child in the case of a legal maternity test), we compare the 2 profiles. If we see that all genetic markers on the profile of the alleged father and the child are identical and match at every point, we can confirm that the tested father is the biological father of the child. If genetic markers do not match, then the tested father is not the biological father of the child.

Legal Testing Sample Collection

Unlike a peace of mind test, where individuals are responsible for collecting their own samples, a legal test has a very different procedure in place. A neutral third party sampler will need to be appointed for the sample collection and we will send a legal sample collection kit directly to your chosen sampler. Your kit will contain:

• 4 oral swabs per person
• Instructions
• Consent forms

Carrying out the test is very straightforward. The Court Approved DNA tests require that an independent witness, such as a GP or health professional, oversees the sample collection process and is able to verify photo ID and maintain chain of custody. The chain of custody is essentially a procedure used in legal scenarios where all samples must be collected in a certain way and the provenance of each sample collected documented. The consent forms need also be filled out and include personal details such as names, surnames, email addresses and provide signatures – consent forms need to be returned back to us along with the samples.

The sampler will be only person handling the swabs. Swab samples need to be collected from every test participant by rubbing the swabs inside the mouth for ten seconds.

The instructions inside the kit will explain the procedure to follow and any precautions required.


Singapore admits DNA test procedures not followed

Official DNA testing procedures were not properly followed in more than 400 investigations in Singapore, the city-state’s authorities have admitted.

The health and home affairs ministries said in a joint statement Tuesday that a reagent — a substance that produces a chemical reaction — used in DNA tests between October 2010 and August 2011 was more concentrated than it should have been.

The laboratory manager who prepared the solution alerted his supervisors to the mistake.

In all, 412 cases were reviewed by the Attorney-General’s Chambers (AGC). It said that the DNA results did not “materially impact” the final resolution of 278 closed criminal cases, but it sought re-tests in 87 pending cases.

Authorities sought to allay fears that the error could have led to wrongful convictions.

“Based on the information at hand, there is no indication that anyone has been wrongly convicted as a result of the use of the reagent,” the AGC said.

There was no indication if any of the cases involved the death penalty, which is applied in Singapore to convicted murderers and drug traffickers.

Top criminal lawyer Sunil Sudheesan told AFP on Wednesday that the chances of a miscarriage of justice occurring were slim as DNA was only one of several types of evidence used to prove guilt.

Exonerations correct only a small fraction of false convictions

(c) 2012 AFP

Citation: Singapore admits DNA test procedures not followed (2012, January 4) retrieved 19 October 2021 from https://medicalxpress. com/news/2012-01-singapore-dna-procedures.html

This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.

Health: Science and technology: Lenta.ru

Brazilian clinic “Albert Einstein” has developed the world’s first genetic test to determine the coronavirus. This is reported by TASS with reference to the G1 portal.

According to him, the high-precision analysis was patented in the United States in the international patent system of the World Intellectual Property Organization (PCT). From June, it will be available for coronavirus diagnostics.

Materials on the topic

00:01 – May 21, 2020

00:01 – May 6, 2020

The development of scientists was based on a new generation sequencing technology, which analyzes small DNA fragments to determine the disease.To recognize SARS-CoV-2, the researchers adapted this method to work with RNA, which is present in various types of viruses.

The developers stated that the accuracy of the test is 100 percent and excludes the possibility of obtaining false positive results. At the same time, its effectiveness is comparable to PCR tests, which are now used to detect coronavirus.

In addition, this is the first genetic test that can be used for mass diagnostics, since it can simultaneously analyze 1536 samples, which is 16 times more than with PCR testing.Saliva or nasopharyngeal secretions can be taken as biomaterials. The results of the study appear after three days.

Earlier, scientists from Singapore developed a rapid test that allows you to determine the presence of antibodies to coronavirus in the human body within an hour. The test will also help to assess what proportion of the population has already been infected with the virus and recovered, and how ready the state is to gradually withdraw from strict quarantine measures.

Since the beginning of the pandemic, more than 5.1 million people have been infected with the coronavirus in the world, over 332 thousand have died.In Russia, 317,554 cases of infection were registered, 92,681 people recovered, 3,099 died.

What is happening in Russia and in the world? We explain on our YouTube channel. Subscribe! 90,023 90,000 Media: the first case of infection with the new COVID-19 strain was detected in Singapore


Media: the first case of infection with the new COVID-19 strain was detected in Singapore

Media : in Singapore revealed the first case of infection with a new strain of COVID-19 – RIA Novosti, 24.12.2020

Media: the first case of infection with a new strain of COVID-19 was detected in Singapore

The first case of infection with a new strain of coronavirus was detected in Singapore in a student who recently returned from the UK, writes the Strait Times newspaper with reference . .. RIA Novosti, 24.12.

2020-12-24T04: 43

2020-12-24T04: 43

2020-12-24T07: 38

Coronavirus spread



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MOSCOW, 24 Dec – RIA Novosti. The first case of infection with the new strain of coronavirus was detected in Singapore in a student who recently returned from the UK, according to the newspaper Strait Times, citing the country’s Ministry of Health. The 17-year-old student infected with the new strain of coronavirus has been in the UK since August. The girl returned to her homeland on December 6.According to the publication, the very next day she noted an elevated temperature, on December 8, the student received a positive test result for COVID-19. in those infected who recently returned from Europe. The Ministry of Health noted that 11 more infected could potentially become infected with the mutated variant of COVID-19, but the results have not yet been confirmed.Earlier it was reported that the Singapore authorities are tightening restrictions on entry into the country from the Australian state of New South Wales and the UK due to a new strain of coronavirus. The head of the British Ministry of Health Matt Hancock on December 14 announced the discovery in the southeast of England of a new variety of coronavirus, which was called VUI -202012/01. According to the minister, this type of virus has been spreading before detection for several weeks, including in Denmark and the Netherlands. It is 70% more infectious and spreads faster, but scientists have found no evidence that it is more deadly or more severe.The COVID-19 vaccine being distributed in Britain, according to the minister, is effective against a new type of virus.

https://ria. ru/20201224/koronavirus-15318.html




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in the world, denmark, singapore (country), uk, new south wales, coronavirus covid-19, coronavirus in russia

MOSCOW, December 24 – RIA Novosti. The first case of infection with a new strain of coronavirus was detected in Singapore in a student who recently returned from the UK, writes the Strait Times newspaper, citing the country’s health ministry.

A seventeen-year-old student infected with the novel coronavirus has been reported to have been in the UK since August.The girl returned to her homeland on December 6. According to the publication, the very next day she noted an increased temperature, on December 8, the student received a positive test result for COVID-19.

The country’s Ministry of Health emphasized that in connection with the spread of a new strain of coronavirus in the UK, the National Public Health Laboratory of Singapore is sequencing the COVID-19 genome in those infected who have recently returned from Europe.

The Ministry of Health noted that 11 more infected people could potentially become infected with the mutated variant of COVID-19, but the results have not yet been confirmed.

24 December 2020, 04:21 Spread of coronavirus The COVID-19 mutation identified in Britain was first discovered in October in South Africa

It was previously reported that the Singapore authorities are tightening restrictions on entry into the country from the Australian state of New South Wales and the UK due to a new strain of coronavirus.

The head of the British Ministry of Health Matt Hancock announced on December 14 the discovery of a new type of coronavirus in the south-east of England, which was named VUI-202012/01. According to the minister, this type of virus has been spreading before detection for several weeks, including in Denmark and the Netherlands.It is 70% more infectious and spreads faster, but scientists have found no evidence that it is more deadly or more severe. The COVID-19 vaccine being distributed in Britain, according to the minister, is effective against a new type of virus.

24 December 2020, 03:09 Spread of coronavirus Biologist admitted the presence of new “infectious” strains of COVID-19 in Russia 90,000 DNA analysis linked the accused to the murdered woman in Delhi

Photo caption,

Brutal gang rape of a student in Delhi sparked protests across India

DNA testing in the murder of a 23-year-old Indian student in Delhi linked the five accused to the victim, with stains on their clothes matching her blood samples.

On Monday they will stand trial in Delhi. The case of the sixth suspect is expected to be tried in juvenile court.

Prosecutor Rajiv Mohan told the judge that DNA tests carried out by the Chief Forensic Science Laboratory revealed that blood stains found on the clothes of all the suspects matched blood samples from the murdered girl.

Mohan also read materials from the hospital in Singapore where the girl was taken.It follows from them that death occurred as a result of sepsis and multi-organ failure.

Five suspects, including a bus driver, are charged under seven counts, including murder, kidnapping, robbery and rape. If convicted, they face the death penalty, a punishment rare in India.

The prosecutor also said that the items stolen from the victim were found and confiscated from the suspects.

A group of protesters gathered outside a courthouse in Delhi to demand justice for the murdered girl.

Frank interview

Photo caption,

The names of the deceased student and her boyfriend have not yet been revealed, although his face was shown during an interview with Zee TV

Friend of a 23-year-old Indian student who died after a brutal gang rape , gave the first interview.

The names of the deceased student and her boyfriend have not yet been announced, although his face was shown during an interview with Zee TV.

He said that after visiting the cinema he and his girlfriend could not find a free pedicab and got on a bus with tinted windows.According to him, they were lured into a trap prepared in advance.

“We tried to resist. My girlfriend even tried to fight them, she tried to save me,” he said. “She tried to call the police, but her phone was taken away. I tried to resist them, but then I begged not to touch her.

“Their actions [towards my girlfriend] were so cruel that I can’t even tell you … Even animals are incapable of this,” said the man.

He said that after they were thrown out of a moving bus and tried to move, no one responded to his requests for help for a long time.

“Cars, rickshaws, bicycles slowed down [near us] and then took off. I kept making signs that we needed help. Those who stopped to gawk at us discussed what could happen to us. Nobody did anything.” – said the young man.

According to him, the police officers who arrived at the scene could not agree for a long time on whose territory the incident happened and who should handle this case. While they argued, the woman and her friend lay side by side, bloodied and naked.

However, Delhi police claim that there were no delays in the arrival of the security forces at the scene. The spread report says that the first police squad arrived four minutes after receiving the signal, three minutes after arriving, sent the victims to the hospital, where they arrived 24 minutes later.

The police launched an investigation into the Zee News TV channel for violations of the law due to the disclosure of information about the identity of the victim. His name was not revealed, but his face was shown.

The brutal gang rape of a female student on a Delhi bus sparked protests across India.

AGS: Genetic compatibility analysis

By studying the genetic compatibility of partners, or also “genetic matching”, we prevent the transmission of more than 600 or 3000 genetic diseases to their offspring (depending on the method)

Autosomal recessive diseases are hereditary diseases that are found on our genetic map.Despite the fact that their prevalence in the population is very low (1% of newborns), they are often complex and incurable diseases. In fact, genetic diseases are responsible for about 20% of child deaths and 18% of pediatric hospitalizations.

Most people are healthy carriers of some form of recessive disease. If our couple is also a carrier of the same genetic mutation, the risk of developing the same disease in the child of this couple increases by 25%, and being a healthy carrier by 50%, which can affect his offspring.

To avoid such problems, the Bernabeu Institute and its genetic department “InstitutoBernabeuBiotech” invites patients to perform and genetic compatibility tests , also called Prenatal screening for autosomal recessive diseases, based on an innovative scientific technology called massive parallel DNA sequencing or next generation sequencing (NPS).

This analysis, which we do to all our donor candidates and which we also suggest to carry out for our patients, reduces the risk of having children with these conditions.Thanks to this analysis, instead of 0.5-1 in 100 children, 1 in 40,000-50,000 healthy children are born, which guarantees healthy offspring.

What is a Genetic Compatibility Test (AGS)?

Genetic Compatibility Assay (AGS), also called Carrier genetic test (CGT )®, Carriermap®, CarrierDNAinsight® or Recombine®, is a test that detects mutations in genes responsible for recessive and X-linked diseases.This massive DNA sequencing panel provides the ability to analyze the presence of genes associated with the most serious autosomal recessive diseases, both using the 600 disease test method and the 3000 disease test method. The second method is currently the broadest commercial carrier genetic testing.

What types of AGS do we offer?

The patient can choose any of the following AHS testing methods, depending on the number of genes being studied.

  • Study over 600 hereditary diseases by analyzing 555 genes. For more information on diseases, follow the link (link)
  • Study of over 3000 hereditary diseases by analyzing 2306 genes. For more information on diseases, follow the link (link)

When is a genetic compatibility test recommended?

We recommend taking a genetic compatibility test if you are in the following risk groups:

  • Couple who wants to have children naturally or through artificial insemination with their own gametes .Especially if one of the spouses (or both) have a family history or are carriers of a genetic disease.
  • There is a consanguinity in a couple.
  • A couple who decided to start artificial insemination with donor gametes (oocytes or sperm). The Bernabeu Institute guarantees the genetic analysis of AGS of all candidates for donors of both oocytes and sperm. Thus, we can offer high quality gametes so that future parents do not worry about the health of their unborn child.

Any couple can get this test before pregnancy, and we especially recommend it to couples with consanguinity, as in this case the risk of mutating the same gene is much higher.

What to do if a couple is genetically incompatible?

In the case of a couple’s genetic incompatibility, there are treatments that prevent the transmission of the disease to their children.

  • Another option is gamete donation , among which we will choose a healthy gamete that is not a carrier of the patient’s genetic disease.This option allows you to have healthy children.

Reasons for doing a genetic compatibility test at the Institut Bernabeu.
  • Our clinic for reproductive medicine offers all our gamete donors the widest possible genetic analysis free of charge.
  • This comprehensive study examines all diseases recommended by SEF (Spanish Fertility Association) for any medical examination before conception.
  • The clinic has the latest technology and its own laboratory, which speeds up the receipt of results (2-3 weeks) and guarantees the traceability of the genetic material.
  • Our dedicated medical team concurrently conducts important research to help us deliver and optimize results.
  • The method of genetic compatibility analysis used at the Institut Bernabeu, based on a comprehensive examination of the exome, allows the result to be compared with any ACS result, regardless of the laboratory that performed it

Preimplantation genetic diagnosis or preimplantation genetic test of the embryo (PGD / PGT)

Allows to detect and prevent the transmission of serious diseases to the embryo caused by genetic and / or chromosomal abnormalities that sometimes make it difficult to get pregnant or cause miscarriage in early pregnancy

PGD – what is it and why is this test important?

Preimplantation genetic diagnosis or preimplantation genetic test of the embryo (PGD / PGT) is a genetic analysis of the embryo using a biopsy of its cells before transferring it to the uterus of the expectant mother. This analysis allows us to:

  • Prevent the transfer of embryos that, due to chromosomal abnormalities, may cause early miscarriage or will not lead to pregnancy.
  • To detect and anticipate serious diseases caused by genetic abnormalities at the embryonic stage. Ensure healthy offspring and prevent the transmission of diseases to future generations.

Chromosomal and monogenic abnormalities – what are they?

Healthy people have 46 chromosomes in the genome – 23 from the father and 23 from the mother, which carry hereditary characteristics.In the genome there are 22 autosomes and , one pair of sex chromosomes , which determine sex ( XX in women and XY in men). Each chromosome is a “big book” containing all the genetic information that indicates how the cells of our body should look and work.

But sometimes errors occur during cell division, which can lead to an increase in the number of chromosomes or, conversely, to their insufficient number. Such chromosomal abnormalities are divided into the following types:

  • Numerical – extra or missing chromosomes;
  • Structural – one of the chromosomes is missing some part, or there is an extra part, or this part is in another chromosome, or inversion of chromosomes occurs;

Anomaly in the number or structure of the embryonic chromosomes is the most common cause of rejection when implanted or early miscarriage. This is why PGT-A aneuploidy is a very useful analysis in the diagnosis and treatment of our Implant Rejection Unit.

Sometimes an abnormality occurs in a specific gene and affects the functioning of the body, causing a monogenic disease that is passed on to the next generation.

Types of preimplantation genetic diagnostics

  1. PGT-A chromosomal abnormalities . Preimplantation genetic diagnosis of the embryo for the detection of aneuplodia.
  2. NON-INVASIVE PGT-A chromosomal abnormalities .
  3. OGT-M for monogenic diseases – preimplantation genetic test for detecting monogenic diseases
  4. OGT-SR for diagnosing structural abnormalities

Each test is described in detail below:

1. PGT-A – preimplantation genetic test for the analysis of aneuplodia (chromosomal abnormalities)
By avoiding the transfer of such embryos, we help parents avoid bearing a child with a genetic disease, avoid embryo rejection or early miscarriage.

For example, an extra copy of chromosome 21 is the cause of Down’s syndrome (trisomy 21). Other common chromosomal abnormalities (extra or missing chromosome) are trisomy 18, trisomy 15 or 47, and XXY (Klinefelter syndrome).

For whom is PGT-A recommended?
  • If the expectant mother is over 35 years old.
  • In cases of repeated spontaneous abortion and / or embryo rejection in two or more IVF cycles.
  • Patients with diagnosed chromosomal abnormalities.

Step by step description PGT-A
  1. At the appointment, the gynecologist will develop a plan for the procedure that will start on the first day of your period.
  2. Stimulation of the ovaries to obtain oocytes.
  3. Getting embryos using the IVF cycle.
  4. When the embryo reaches 5-6 days of development, the blastocyst stage will begin: we will take the cells using a biopsy of the embryo.
  5. Cryopreservation of embryos prior to transfer.
  6. Biopsy processing for chromosome analysis and diagnosis.
  7. After receiving the result, the mother’s endometrium is prepared and embryo transfer without chromosomal abnormalities is carried out, while abnormal embryos and unsuccessful transfers are excluded.

2. Non-invasive PGT-A
The newest version PGT-A is non-invasive PGT-A , which consists in chromosome screening of the embryo.Instead of analyzing the cells obtained by biopsy of the embryo, the DNA secreted by the embryo into the nutrient medium is examined. We have checked in laboratory conditions that in the process of development “in vitro” the embryo secretes DNA into the nutrient medium. We can analyze it to determine if the embryo is euploid (normal chromosome set) or aneuploid (chromosomal abnormality). Early studies have similar results to OGT-A with biopsy, although this diagnosis is not currently considered as accurate and reliable as traditional OGT-A.For this reason, the non-invasiveness of the method goes hand in hand with some degree of distrust in the results.

For whom is PGT-A recommended?

Parents who find it difficult to perform an embryo biopsy for ethical and emotional reasons.

3. PGT-M – preimplantation genetic test for the detection of monogenic diseases
Genetic analysis of embryos of future parents – carriers of a hereditary disease.It allows you to detect an abnormality or mutation in a gene that causes the disease.

First step: genetic research of the future parents to identify the error (mutation) of the gene that causes the disease (informative research).

After receiving the genetic information, in the next step, we perform an informative examination, which will allow us to create a specific diagnostic strategy to combat the disease of this family.

Diseases can be autosomal recessive , autosomal dominant and associated with X chromosome, for example: fragile X-chromosome syndrome, hemophilia A, cystic fibrosis, Huntington’s disease, anemia, and Marphan’s syndrome T. d.

For whom is PGT-M recommended?

  • Couples where one of the partners is a carrier of a genetic disease with an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance (50% of children will suffer from this disease).
  • Couples in which the woman is a carrier of a gender-related genetic disease (50% of children will suffer from this disease).
  • Couples in which both partners are carriers of an autosomal recessive genetic disorder (25% of children will suffer from this disease).

Step-by-step description of PGT-M

  1. First of all, a genetic analysis of the parents is required. We need to look at the medical history and identify the gene mutation that causes the disease.
  2. An informative study is then carried out in which we develop a strategy for determining the abnormality in the embryos. Often healthy and sick members of both families should be involved in this study.
  3. The IVF cycle starts. When a woman starts menstruating, the ovaries are stimulated and oocytes are collected after 15-25 days.
  4. In the laboratory we will fertilize them with the sperm of a partner or donor and will grow them until the 5-6th day, i.e. to the blastocyst stage. At this point, an embryo biopsy is performed – several cells are taken for genetic analysis. Embryos are frozen until results are obtained.
  5. The biopsy is processed for genetic analysis and we make a diagnosis.
  6. After receiving the result, the mother’s endometrium is prepared and the embryo is transferred without abnormalities of the studied gene.

4.PGT-SR – preimplantation genetic test for the detection of structural abnormalities
The test detects embryos with abnormal chromosomes – “broken” or with incorrect joining of segments. Such structural chromosomal abnormalities are of different types: deletions, translocations, duplications, insertions, inversions, and rings. The disease manifests itself when the correct expression of a gene is not possible due to an abnormality that affects the structure of the chromosome.

Types of structural chromosomal abnormalities

Balanced reciprocal translocations

Translocation is a type of chromosomal abnormality in which one part of a chromosome breaks off and joins another chromosome. Reciprocal translocations occur when segments are transferred between two chromosomes with a change in the configuration, but not in the number of chromosomes.

Reciprocal translocations are considered balanced if neither loss nor addition of genetic material occurs during their formation. This happens when a section of a chromosome changes its position in the genome.

Unbalanced reciprocal translocation

In this case, the loss or addition of genetic material occurs.The number of copies on the chromosomal region also changes. You can find sections of one chromosome on another.

Robertsonian Translocations

There is a fusion of two acrocentric chromosomes (with one arm) and the loss of one of the ends, while the two chromosomes are combined into one. Carriers have 45 chromosomes instead of 46, and the risk of trisomy is increased.


Loss of a chromosome DNA section.

Duplication of

A segment of a chromosome is repeated along the original region and creates one or more copies of a gene or portion of a chromosome.


Part of a chromosome ends up in an unusual place on the same or on a different chromosome. If there is no addition or loss of genetic material, a healthy baby is born.

Paracentric inversions

Inversions occur when part of a chromosome breaks at two points, the inner segment rotates 180 ° and rejoins the chromosome. In paracentric inversion, the inverted fragment lies on one side of the centromere.

Pericentric inversions

The centromere is inside the inverted fragment


The edges of the chromosome break and join to form a ring. This causes genetic diseases, most often Shereshevsky-Turner syndrome.

For whom is this study recommended?

Couples in which one of the partners is a carrier of a structural chromosomal abnormality.

Step-by-step description of PGT-SR

  1. At the first appointment, the gynecologist will assess your case.
  2. A structural abnormality test may be needed.
  3. At your next appointment, you will be diagnosed and developed a procedure that will start on the first day of your period.
  4. Stimulation of the ovaries to obtain oocytes.
  5. Getting embryos using the IVF cycle.
  6. When the embryo reaches 5-6 days of development, the blastocyst stage will begin: we will take the cells using a biopsy of the embryo.
  7. Cryopreservation of embryos prior to transfer.
  8. Biopsy processing for chromosome analysis and diagnosis.
  9. After receiving the result, the mother’s endometrium is prepared and embryo transfer without chromosomal abnormalities is carried out, while abnormal embryos and unsuccessful transfers are excluded.

Advantages of PGD / PGT

Improved embryo selection : we will know which embryos do not have chromosomal abnormalities and which will guarantee a healthy baby.

Prevention of transfer of embryos that do not take root . There are genetic disorders that are incompatible with life and make it difficult for the embryo to develop at an early stage or even implantation into the uterus.

Thanks to the analysis, we will not transfer or implant embryos, which in the future may lead to a miscarriage or the birth of a child with any syndrome.

Reducing the waiting time for a successful pregnancy. We do not transfer embryos that do not guarantee a healthy baby or will not develop.

Cost reduction . There is no need to freeze and transfer genetically unhealthy embryos, even if they look healthy. In this way, we avoid unnecessary embryo transfer costs that will definitely not lead to a successful pregnancy.

Psychological health. The guarantee of a healthy embryo reduces the possibility of miscarriage and the emotional stress for the couple in such cases.

Disadvantages of PGD / PGT

This is an invasive procedure, as an embryo biopsy is performed for genetic analysis. In addition to the successful experience of using this technique, there is non-invasive PGT-A , which analyzes DNA in the nutrient medium where the embryo develops. He also examines the number of chromosomes, although the accuracy of this method is lower at the moment.

Cycle without transfer . Sometimes all embryos have chromosomal abnormalities and no transfer is performed.On the one hand, this leads to the interruption of the procedure, and on the other hand, it emotionally affects future parents.

Embryo mosaicism. Nowadays, thanks to the development of various genetic analyzes, we can know if the cells of the embryo are genetically different (mosaicism). It remains to be determined whether this fact affects the embryo in any way. Various research papers of the Instituto Bernabeu are devoted to this issue.

Screening. An embryo biopsy analyzes the outside and does not involve the part that results in the birth of the baby.Many scientific studies have shown a high level of their relationship. The material taken contains information about the entire embryo.

Difficulty making a decision. For many couples it is painful for ethical and emotional reasons to make the decision to examine their embryos. In this case, they can perform non-invasive PGT-A. In addition, our clinic offers professional psychological assistance.

90,000 In New York, the paternity test can be taken right on the street

Tuesday, August 21, 2012

The initiative of the enterprising American has caused controversy among the residents of the Big Apple – some New Yorkers are delighted, while others believe that the ease with which it is now possible find out the truth about the true father of their child, they are scared.

Large van with an eloquent inscription “So who really is your father?” (“Who’s Your Daddy”) appears in the morning in the busiest neighborhoods of New York. Anyone can take a swab from the mucous membrane of their mouth and the same swab from the inner surface of their child’s cheek right on the spot and receive the result by e-mail in a few days.

Thus, it is possible to establish paternity or motherhood almost without error, but such a “service”, as many American experts in the field of medical ethics note, can lead to real tragedies in families – for example, if a man who for many years considered the child his own, suddenly finds out that he is by no means the natural father of his son or his daughter.

In order to soften the impression of his business, the owner of the “laboratory on wheels” Jared Rosenthal also performs on-site rapid blood alcohol and drug tests, inviting parents of teenagers to bring their children for examination.

However, the main (and most expensive) service of the mobile laboratory, according to Rosenthal’s plan, is the paternity test. He stated that according to a survey conducted by Identigene, from which he purchased equipment for such tests, 12% of men and 10% of women said that they would like to know for sure whether their children are actually their children (men ) or would like to reliably, with 100% certainty know who is the father of their children (women).

The services of Jared Rosenthal’s mobile laboratory are not cheap even by American standards – one DNA test costs $ 575, but there are many who want to know the truth, perhaps bitter.

“The other day, one man brought 6 of his children at once for testing,” he recalls with a smile.

Source: www.health-ua.org/news

Tags: Who’s Your Daddy, New York, rapid tests, mobile lab, paternity test, DNA test

Pentagon advises military to avoid commercial DNA tests

Pentagon advises military to avoid commercial DNA tests

Alexander Antipov

Other countries may use DNA and fingerprints to expose US national security personnel.

The Pentagon circulated a memorandum in which it advised military personnel not to undergo DNA tests at home. According to the US Department of Defense, commercial DNA tests are largely unregulated, can reveal personal and genetic information, and allow criminals to use that information to spy on or expose US national security officials.

Pentagon spokesman Commander Sean Robertson explained to Yahoo News that “inadvertent detection of markers” for certain diseases and conditions could ultimately harm the careers of military personnel. It is assumed that this decision of the Pentagon is part of measures to protect the biometric data of personnel. As noted by the resource, US intelligence agencies are increasingly worried that other countries may use DNA, fingerprints and facial recognition information to expose US national security officials.

As a reminder, previously unknown cybercriminals allegedly stole confidential information from two contractors of the Ministry of Defense and the Armed Forces of Singapore.The HMI Institute systems affected by the incident contained personal data of 120 thousand people, including the full names and registration card numbers (NRIC) of 98 thousand military personnel and employees of the Ministry of Defense, as well as full names, registration card numbers, telephone numbers, email addresses, dates of birth and addresses of residence of other clients of the institute.

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