Tongue Rings & Barbells | Tulsa Body Jewelry
1. Notice of Important Rights, Obligations and Conditions.
These Terms of Sale (the “Terms”) apply to the purchase and sale of products from Tulsa Body Jewelry through our website https://www.tulsabodyjewelry.com/ (the “Site”). This document contains important information regarding your rights and obligations, as well as conditions, limitations, and exclusions that might apply to you. Please read it carefully.
BY PLACING AN ORDER FOR PRODUCTS OR SERVICES FROM THIS SITE, YOU ACCEPT AND ARE BOUND BY THESE TERMS.
THESE TERMS REQUIRE THE USE OF ARBITRATION ON AN INDIVIDUAL BASIS TO RESOLVE DISPUTES, RATHER THAN JURY TRIALS OR CLASS ACTIONS.
DO NOT ORDER PRODUCTS FROM US IF YOU:
- DO NOT AGREE TO THESE TERMS;
- ARE NOT AT LEAST 18 YEARS OF AGE; OR
- ARE PROHIBITED BY APPLICABLE LAW FROM ACCESSING THIS SITE OR USING OR POSSESSING ANY OF OUR PRODUCTS.
These Terms are subject to change without prior written notice at any time. The latest version of these Terms will be posted on the Site, and you should review these Terms before purchasing any product. Your continued purchases of products from our Site after a posted change in these Terms will constitute your acceptance of and agreement to such changes.
2. Order Acceptance and Cancellation.
Your order is an offer to buy, under these Terms, all products listed in your order. All orders must be accepted by us or we will not be obligated to sell the products to you. We may choose not to accept any orders in our sole discretion. After we receive your order, we will send you a confirmation email with your order number and details of the items you have ordered. Acceptance of your order and the formation of the contract of sale between Tulsa Body Jewelry and you will not take place unless and until you receive an order confirmation email and, if applicable, provided any verification information required by us. We may cancel an order if we determine an order is fraudulent.
3. Prices and Payment Terms.
- All prices posted on this Site are subject to change without notice. The price charged for a product or service will be the price in effect at the time your order is placed and will be set out in your order confirmation email. We reserve the right to cancel any orders arising from typographical errors in any offer by us.
- Posted prices do not include taxes or charges for shipping and handling. All such taxes and charges will be added to your merchandise total.
- Terms of payment are within our sole discretion and payment must be received by us before our acceptance of an order. You represent and warrant that: (i) the credit card or account information you supply to us is true, correct, and complete; (ii) you are duly authorized to use such credit card or account for the purchase; (iii) charges incurred by you will be honored by your credit card company or payment service provider; and (iv) you will pay charges incurred by you at the posted prices, including all applicable taxes and shipping charges, if any.
- We collect sales tax (where applicable) on all orders based on where the order will be shipped. If you are a wholesaler or a reseller, you must provide us with a valid, current resale certificate in order for us not to charge you applicable sales taxes.
4. Shipments; Delivery; Title and Risk of Loss.
- We will arrange for shipment of the products to you. Available shipping options for your products will be on the check-out page. You will pay all shipping and handling charges unless otherwise noted.
- We generally ship orders of in-stock inventory within two (2) business days. We do not ship on weekends.
- Title and risk of loss pass to you upon our transfer of the products to the carrier/delivery company.
- Shipping and delivery dates are estimates only and cannot be guaranteed. Deliveries may be delayed due to events outside of our control, such as inclement weather, natural disasters, or terrorist attacks. We are not liable for delays in deliveries.
- All duties and taxes are your responsibility and must be paid by you unless otherwise noted at checkout.
5. Returns and Refunds.
Except for any products designated on the Site as non-returnable or any products that are configured-to-order or customized and subject to the limited warranty set forth below, we will accept a return of the products for a refund of your purchase price, less the original shipping charges, provided such return is made within 30 calendar days of the invoice date and provided such products are returned in their original, unopened and unused condition. We cannot accept returns of products that have been opened or used unless they are defective and covered by our limited warranty described in Section 6 below.
To return products, you must go to http://returns.tulsabodyjewelry.com/ to obtain instructions on how to return your product. You must return the product to us with its original packaging, including any accessories, manuals, instructions, or other items that were shipped with the product.
You are responsible for all shipping and handling charges on returned items unless the product is defective and subject to the limited warranty set forth below. You bear the risk of loss during shipment.
Refunds generally will be processed within approximately 3 to 10 business days of our receipt of your merchandise (so long as the merchandise is returned in original condition and returned within 30 days of the invoice date). Your refund will be provided as a store credit or credited back to the same payment method used to make the original purchase on the Site. WE DO NOT PROVIDE REFUNDS FOR ANY PRODUCTS DESIGNATED ON THE SITE AS NON-RETURNABLE OR ON ANY PRODUCTS THAT ARE CONFIGURED-TO-ORDER OR CUSTOMIZED.
6. Limited Warranty.
THIS LIMITED WARRANTY GIVES YOU SPECIFIC LEGAL RIGHTS AND YOU MAY ALSO HAVE OTHER RIGHTS, WHICH VARY FROM STATE TO STATE.
WE WARRANT THAT, DURING THE WARRANTY PERIOD, PRODUCTS MANUFACTURED BY US AND PURCHASED FROM THE SITE WILL BE FREE FROM DEFECTS IN MATERIALS AND WORKMANSHIP. ANY PRODUCTS MANUFACTURED BY THIRD PARTIES AND PURCHASED THROUGH THE SITE WILL BE SUBJECT TO THE WARRANTY, IF ANY, PROVIDED BY THE THIRD PARTY.
THIS LIMITED WARRANTY ONLY APPLIES TO PRODUCTS PURCHASED DIRECTLY FROM US THROUGH OUR SITE OR FROM AUTHORIZED RETAILERS. IT DOES NOT APPLY TO ANY PRODUCTS PURCHASED FROM UNAUTHORIZED SELLERS OR ANY PRODUCTS THAT ARE USED OR BOUGHT SECOND-HAND.
WE LIMIT THE DURATION AND REMEDIES OF ALL IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, TO THE DURATION OF THIS LIMITED WARRANTY. SOME STATES DO NOT ALLOW LIMITATIONS ON HOW LONG AN IMPLIED WARRANTY LASTS, SO THIS LIMITATION MAY NOT APPLY TO YOU.
OUR RESPONSIBILITY FOR DEFECTIVE PRODUCTS IS LIMITED TO REPAIR, REPLACEMENT OR REFUND AS SET FORTH IN THIS WARRANTY STATEMENT. NO ORAL OR WRITTEN STATEMENT OR ADVICE PROVIDED BY US OR ANY OF OUR EMPLOYEES OR DISTRIBUTORS WILL CREATE A WARRANTY, OR IN ANY WAY INCREASE THE SCOPE OR DURATION OF THIS LIMITED WARRANTY.
What Is the Period of Warranty Coverage?
This limited warranty starts on the date of delivery and lasts for one year (the “Warranty Period”). The Warranty Period is not extended if we repair or replace a warranted product.
Who May Use This Warranty?
This limited warranty extends only to the original purchaser of products and services from the Site. It does not extend to any subsequent or other owner or transferee. This limited warranty does not cover any products purchased from unauthorized third party sellers who may, for example, sell our products on sites such as eBay or Amazon.
What Does This Warranty Cover?
This limited warranty covers during the Warranty Period (as defined below) defects in materials and workmanship in the hardware components of products purchased from the Site. It does not cover any software components of products.
What Does This Warranty Not Cover?
This limited warranty does not cover any damages due to:
failure to follow the product instructions or to perform any preventive maintenance;
normal wear and tear; or
external causes such as accidents, abuse, theft, or other actions or events beyond our control.
This limited warranty only covers our products and does not cover any other equipment, components, or other devices used in conjunction with our products.
What Are Your Remedies Under This Warranty?
With respect to any defective products during the Warranty Period, we will, in our sole discretion: (i) repair or replace such products (or the defective part) with a comparable product or part free of charge; or (ii) refund the purchase price of such products. We will also pay for shipping and handling fees to send the repaired or replacement product to you if we elect to repair or replace the defective products.
How Do You Obtain Warranty Service?
All requests for warranty service require proof of purchase from the Site (such as an invoice or order confirmation email). To obtain warranty service (that is, a repair or replacement as a result a defective product), you must call 1-918-398-9508 or email our support department at [email protected] com during the Warranty Period to receive instructions on how your warranty service will be handled. We will generally respond within five (5) business days with further instruction, including whether you will need to return the product to us and, if so, how to do so.
Limitation of Liability.
THE REMEDIES DESCRIBED ABOVE ARE YOUR SOLE AND EXCLUSIVE REMEDIES AND OUR ENTIRE OBLIGATION AND LIABILITY FOR ANY BREACH OF THIS LIMITED WARRANTY. OUR LIABILITY WILL UNDER NO CIRCUMSTANCES EXCEED THE ACTUAL AMOUNT PAID BY YOU FOR THE DEFECTIVE PRODUCT THAT YOU HAVE PURCHASED THROUGH THE SITE, NOR WILL WE UNDER ANY CIRCUMSTANCES BE LIABLE FOR ANY CONSEQUENTIAL, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL OR PUNITIVE DAMAGES OR LOSSES, WHETHER DIRECT OR INDIRECT.
SOME STATES DO NOT ALLOW THE EXCLUSION OR LIMITATION OF INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES, SO SOME OF THE ABOVE LIMITATIONS OR EXCLUSIONS MAY NOT APPLY TO YOU.
What Can You Do in Case of a Dispute with Us?
The dispute resolution procedure detailed in Section 11 is available to you if you believe that we have not performed our obligations under this limited warranty or these Terms.
7. Goods for Resale or Export.
If you are a wholesaler or a reseller, you must provide us with a valid, current resale certificate in order for us not to charge you applicable sales taxes.
You agree to comply with all applicable laws and regulations of the various states and of the United States and any country into which you import any products you purchase through the Site. You understand that you are wholly and exclusively responsible for compliance with any resale, exportation, importation, distribution, marketing, labeling, licensing, and registration laws applicable to any products you purchase through the Site. You further agree to indemnify, defend and hold harmless Tulsa Body Jewelry and its directors, officers, employees, and agents from and against any and all causes of action, liabilities, claims, costs, damages and expenses arising out of or related to or in connection with (a) your misuse of the products, (b) your importation, storage, marketing, sale or distribution of the products, and (c) your failure to comply with any applicable law, regulation, or industry standard regarding the export, import, distribution, marketing or sale of the products.
8. Force Majeure.
We will not be liable or responsible to you for any failure or delay in our performance under these Terms when and to the extent such failure or delay is caused by or results from acts or circumstances beyond our reasonable control including, without limitation, acts of God, flood, fire, earthquake, governmental actions, war, invasion or hostilities, terrorist threats or acts, riot or other civil unrest, national emergency, revolution, insurrection, epidemic or pandemic, lockouts, strikes or other labor disputes (whether or not relating to our workforce), delays affecting carriers, telecommunications outage, or power outage.
9. Governing Law and Jurisdiction.
Except for issues governed by federal law, all matters arising out of or relating to these Terms are governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the State of Oklahoma in the United States without giving effect to any choice or conflict of law provision or rule (whether of the State of Oklahoma or any other jurisdiction).
10. Dispute Resolution and Binding Arbitration.
(a) YOU AND WE ARE AGREEING TO GIVE UP (WAIVE) ANY RIGHTS TO LITIGATE CLAIMS IN A COURT OR BEFORE A JURY, OR TO PARTICIPATE IN A CLASS ACTION OR REPRESENTATIVE ACTION WITH RESPECT TO A CLAIM. OTHER RIGHTS THAT YOU WOULD HAVE IF YOU WENT TO COURT MAY ALSO BE UNAVAILABLE OR MAY BE LIMITED IN ARBITRATION.
ANY CLAIM, DISPUTE OR CONTROVERSY (WHETHER IN CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, WHETHER PRE-EXISTING, PRESENT OR FUTURE, AND INCLUDING STATUTORY, CONSUMER PROTECTION, COMMON LAW, INTENTIONAL TORT, INJUNCTIVE AND EQUITABLE CLAIMS) BETWEEN YOU AND US ARISING FROM OR RELATING IN ANY WAY TO YOUR PURCHASE OF PRODUCTS THROUGH THE SITE, WILL BE RESOLVED EXCLUSIVELY AND FINALLY BY BINDING ARBITRATION EXCEPT AS PROVIDED BELOW.
(b) The arbitration will be administered by the American Arbitration Association (“AAA”) in accordance with the Consumer Arbitration Rules if you are an individual consumer or the Commercial Arbitration Rules and Mediation Procedures if you are a business, except as modified by this Section 11. The AAA Rules are available at adr.org or by calling the AAA at 1-800-778-7879. The Federal Arbitration Act will govern the interpretation and enforcement of this section.
The arbitrator will be empowered to grant whatever relief would be available in court under law or in equity. Any award of the arbitrator(s) will be final and binding on each of the parties and may be entered as a judgment in any court of competent jurisdiction.
If you prevail on any claim that affords the prevailing party attorneys’ fees, the arbitrator may award reasonable fees to you under the standards for fee shifting provided by law.
(c) You may elect to pursue your claim in small-claims court rather than arbitration if your claim is within the scope of the small-claims court’s jurisdiction. The small-claims court proceeding will be limited solely to your individual dispute or controversy.
(d) You agree to an arbitration on an individual basis. In any dispute, NEITHER YOU NOR WE WILL BE ENTITLED TO JOIN OR CONSOLIDATE CLAIMS BY OR AGAINST OTHER CUSTOMERS IN COURT OR IN ARBITRATION OR OTHERWISE PARTICIPATE IN ANY CLAIM AS A CLASS REPRESENTATIVE, CLASS MEMBER OR IN A PRIVATE ATTORNEY GENERAL CAPACITY. The arbitral tribunal may not consolidate more than one person’s claims, and may not otherwise preside over any form of a representative or class proceeding. The arbitral tribunal has no power to consider the enforceability of this class arbitration waiver and any challenge to the class arbitration waiver may only be raised in a court of competent jurisdiction.
11. Entire Agreement.
If any provision of these Terms is invalid, illegal, void or unenforceable, then that provision will be deemed severed from these Terms and will not affect the validity or enforceability of the remaining provisions of these Terms.
Buy piercing jewelry – online shop piercinginspiration.com
The founder of Piercinginspiration Has had a great passion for great jewelry since her youth. However, she had the same problem as many other piercing fans: The range of piercings is so large and extensive that it is a huge challenge to find the perfect piercing.
In 2015, the “Pircinginspiration” page was launched on the Instagram social network to create a platform for piercing lovers on which they can find the necessary inspiration for their next piece of jewelry. However, the numerous ideas and inspirations should of course also be able to be implemented – but where are really great piercings actually available?
In order to be able to provide the answer to this question ourselves, the online shop Piercingsinspiration was launched in 2019. All piercings that can be found on the popular Instagram page can be conveniently purchased in the shop.
Passion piercings – where does the enthusiasm come from?
Piercing has been widespread in the western world for many centuries. However, in these times this fad was mainly reserved for the aristocratic circle. Until the 70s, only ear lobe piercing was common among the general public. Translated, the term piercing means something like “pierce” or “pierce”.
In the early 1990s, the punk scene in particular contributed to the fact that it became more and more socially acceptable to equip very different regions of the body with great pieces of jewelry. Since then, piercings have become an indispensable part of everyday life and for good reason! After all, they are a great way to express your own personality and to support your individual style.
Like the world of fashion, the world of piercing is constantly subject to new trends. Eyebrow piercings, Tongue piercings and Belly button piercings enjoyed particularly great popularity in the 90s, for example, today they are Septum piercings and Tragus piercings particularly sought after.
Wide range of piercings and body jewelry at Piercinginspiration
In the varied range of Piercinginspiration Lovers of great body jewelry will find everything their heart desires. If Ear piercings, the classic Barbell and bar piercings, Nose piercings or the practical ones Clicker piercingsthat can be opened and closed with just one movement.
This means that the right piercing can always be found for all areas of the body. Many of the piercings can also be used very flexibly at different piercing points.
In addition, offers Piercinginspiration also practical Piercing accessories if, for example, only a new ball or a new rod is needed for a piercing.
Regardless of which style is personally preferred, Piercinginspiration offers the right piercings for all styles, whether subtle and reserved, romantic, playful or flashy and extravagant. Nipple piercings and Nipple rings also give intimate moments that certain something.
A Trip to Homer Frank Ocean’s New Luxury Shop in NYC
For the past three and a half years, Frank Ocean has been diligently working on a new passion project and business venture — Homer, his own independent American luxury company.
In an interview with Financial Times, Ocean clarifies that his brand’s namesake is derived from the Greek poet. “Homer is considered the father of history and history is meant to endure – the same as diamonds and gold”, Ocean says. “I know Homer used papyrus, but I’ve always liked the idea of carving history into stone.”
Homer is the newest occupant inside of the New York Jewelers Exchange — a commercial and retail location based in Chinatown at 70-74 Bowery. Much like anything that Ocean rolls out, every inch of the minimalist-yet-playful space has been meticulously crafted. Just above the entryway, the cover of the imprint’s now-sold out catalog graces the four-story window. Adjacent to the doors is a mirrored plate that is debossed with the brand name — the ideal spot for snapping a pic, since there’s a strict no-photo policy inside the space.
Ocean’s booth stands out from the other vendors: his products are stacked across the wall in small fluorescent green boxes next to a floor-to-ceiling image of his silky, eye-catching scarves. In front of the Homer employees (themselves decked out in Homer gear), sit four aluminum vitrine installations used as display cases for the products. This includes colorful Plus Sign Scarves ($230-$460 USD) — the brand’s cheapest offerings — while the next three cases are devoted to all of the made-in-Italy luxury wares. An end cap is also stationed towards the farther end of the nook, with a monitor displaying behind-the-scenes clippings of the production process as well as footage of Ocean posing on blown-up installations that mimic the shapes of his jewelry items.
The line offers a vast selection of pendants to choose from, each displayed in their own chartreuse urethane case. Options include an animated character that channels a hybrid look of Pikachu and Jigglypuff, butterflies that come in vibrant hues, dice that are embellished with lab-grown diamonds, H-shaped crests that evoke memories of Samurai armor, a tiny cartoon figure with blinged-out teeth and more. Dispersed throughout the vitrines are other commodities like modernized versions of a Cuban Link bracelet, colored tongue rings that cost $995 USD, rings and belt buckles that are furnished with the word “OK” and hoop earrings that are embedded with a duo of diamonds. Items that sit on the higher end of the spectrum are also prominently displayed, including the $271,500 Sphere Legs bracelet, a $471,000 USD 18K white and yellow gold H-Crest necklace and Homer’s holy grail — an iced-out skull and crossbones-shaped Legs High Jewelry Necklace which bears a handsome $1.8 million USD price point.
Quality was fundamental to Ocean when it came down to producing the collection. Some of the accessories — such as the H-Crest pendant that’s made from .925 sterling silver — are on display at the shop, but aren’t available to buy yet, because they haven’t yet passed through the brand’s stringent quality assurance. This serves as a testament to the attention to detail imparted into this effort — you’re not just buying products that have Ocean’s name attached to it.
While Homer may seem like it came totally out of left field, Ocean hinted that it was in the works as far back as 2019. In his last interview with GQ Magazine, Ocean was asked by Vegyn — a British producer whom he worked closely with on Blonde and Endless — if he had any New Year’s resolutions. His response? “I didn’t do my last one, to be honest with you. My last one was self-decoration, and I haven’t finished any of my jewelry, so I’m gonna carry that on to next year.” Fast forward two and half years later, and we now know that his ambitions have been realized.
Luxury signifiers have always been associated with Frank Ocean throughout his career: he incorporated his iconic orange BMW M3 E30 on the cover of Nostalgia, Ultra, made songs about Raf Simons and Chanel bags, shown off his Pierre Paulin sofa and spoke about his $100,000 USD Ai Weiwei bowl at the end of Tyler, the Creator’s recent song “LEMONHEAD.”
Still, Ocean’s latest high-end initiative feels different, displaying a fresh form of expression that compliments the artist’s successful music career. It also serves as further proof that anything Ocean touches turns to gold — this time, literally.
The company’s 25-piece debut collection is shoppable in two ways: via phone order or by an in-person appointment at its New York retail store, which can be booked on the brand’s website.
Piercings You Can Hide At Work
No piercings at work. It seems archaic. Most of society has embraced, or at least accepted, piercings and piercing culture. Yet a surprising number of businesses still refuse to allow piercings at work.
Nobody wants to give in to the haters but, let’s face it, we all need the paycheck. So if you want to keep your piercings, you need to learn how to keep them under wraps from time to time. This article gives some tips for hiding your piercings at work.
Hiding Piercings With Clothing
You can hide most of your body piercings and jewellery just by making the right clothing selections.
Hiding Bellybutton Piercings & Jewellery
Naval piercings are among the easier body piercings to hide at work. If your work insists on a no-piercing policy, odds are they also want you to wear a shirt. Avoid tube tops, keep those tops buttoned-up and there you go. Your belly button piercing is hidden.
Hiding Nipple Piercings & Jewellery
Nipple piercings are another body piercing that are easy to hide with clothes. Once again, if your work isn’t okay with piercings, they probably don’t want you going topless either. Other than fishnet tops, just about any shirt will cover up your nipple piercings.
The other thing to consider is the jewellery itself. Using smaller less conspicuous, nipple jewellery prevents them from poking too obviously through the shirt. Wearing thicker clothing, like sweaters can hide even large nipple piercing jewellery.
Hiding Dermal/Microdermal Piercings & Jewellery
The location of your dermals or microdermal makes a difference. You can only hide facial ones by covering your face. However, you can cover other common locations, like the collarbone or hips, with smart clothing options.
Collarbone dermal jewellery is easy to hide with a scarf or high-cut shirt. You can cover hip dermal piercings with overlapping shirt and pants, or with a dress.
Hiding Piercings With Your Hair
Earrings are some of the most acceptable piercings in workplaces. Yet, not everywhere allows them. Fortunately, ear piercings are some of the easiest to hide. As long as you have mid-length or long hair at least.
Most ear piercings can be hidden by simply wearing your hair down. The thicker and darker your hair is, the more effective this technique is. As well, earrings that are higher up on the ear and closer to the back are especially well hidden. Cartilage piercings like daith, conch, and helix piercings are especially easy to hide.
Facial hair is another great way to hide piercings. A beard is an easy way to hide labret and medusa piercings. Smaller, less vibrant pieces are harder to spot. The thicker and darker the beard, the better of a hiding place it is.
Hiding Facial Piercings at Work
Facial piercings are some of the hardest to hide at work. As well, most facial piercings are intended to stand out. Who gets a monroe piercing and doesn’t want to show it off?
The most likely candidates for hiding facial piercings are mouth and nose piercings.
Hiding Nose Piercings & Jewellery
Next to earrings, nostril studs are some of the most often accepted piercings in workplaces. That’s good news because they’re especially hard to hide. Short of comically oversized sunglasses, there aren’t a lot of options for hiding nasal studs.
Septum piercings are a different story. They can be hidden simply by picking the right jewellery type. A circular barbell, for example, can be effectively hidden simply by flipping the ends into the nostril.
Hiding Mouth Piercings & Jewellery
Piercings inside the mouth, like smiley or tongue piercings can be easy to hide as well. The goal here is minimizing exposure. A tongue ring or tongue web piercing is actually pretty hard to notice unless your mouth is open wide. Staying conscious of covering your mouth when yawning or eating helps to make a tongue piercing harder to spot.
Smiley, or scrumper, piercings are easy for most people to hide. If you tend to smile while showing a lot of teeth, however, you may have to tone that down. A big toothy smile will reveal your scrumper jewellery.
Not every employer that doesn’t allow jewellery does so because they’re a square. Sometimes it’s a safety consideration.
Jobs working with heavy machinery, for example, often recommend no loose clothing or jewellery, and having short or tied-back hair. It’s easy for things to get caught in machinery, which can lead to injury. In this case, maybe jewellery is best avoided at work. Or at least minimizing risk by your jewellery choice. A stud piercing, for example, is less likely to catch than oversized hoop earrings.
Picking Your Initial Piercing Jewellery
For a new piercing, it is important to pick the right jewellery. Depending on where you get pierced and how you care for it, the healing process can take as long as 3 months.
Keep in mind that you might not be able to remove the jewellery before the piercing has healed.
You can start with “invisible rings” if hiding jewellery is your primary concern. These are clear or neutral-colour piercing jewellery that are harder to notice. The problem with using these while your piercing heals is that you don’t get to show off your cool new piercing until you are able to replace it.
Ensure any clear retainers you use are glass. Alternatives like PTFE or plastic/acrylic are not safe for long-term wear in the body. They are especially not safe for fresh piercings.
Shocker Air Pintle Ring Trailer Tongue Mount 20,000lbs Bolt-on
- Smoother safer towing. Improves your ride, reduces wear & tear on pickup & trailer
- 20,000 lb rated towing capacity with heavy duty pintle ring for using with pintle hook. 2,000 lbs tongue weight rating
- HD pintle ring is 6″ OD x 3″ ID
- Great for heavy duty trailers, farm applications and from end dumps to flat beds
- Quickly mounts to trailer tongue. Choose from vertical channel mount (fits 3-1/2″ wide channel with 2″ on center bolt pattern) or square plate 4 bolt mount (4-1/2″ square bolt pattern)
- Air Ride Towing: Built-in air bag for a smoother towing experience with built in height adjustment plus weight adjustable.
- Perfect when you don’t know what pickup will be hauling your trailer
- Fine tune for your towing weight. Just add air for heavier loads.
- Absorbs the road bumps, thumps & bangs on whatever road you travel
- Optional weld-on vertical tongue adapter available
Free Ground Shipping* | Shocker Guarantee | Free Returns
The Shocker Air trailer tongue mount with a pintle ring mount attachment is made for heavy duty trailers. Bolts to trailer tongue vertical channel or flat plate on front of trailer a-frame. Features at 20,000 lb towing capacity. Upgrade your trailer with air ride technology. Pintle ring size is 6″ OD x 3″ ID. This air bag pintle ring trailer tongue mount is great for reducing trailer fatigue and made for trailers and pickups with stiff suspension. Smooth out your ride. Plus is great if you have an end dump trailer or HD flat bed trailer and you never know what pickup truck will be hauling it. The Shocker air is attached to your trailer and ready for whatever truck is pulling it. Simple bolt on installation in minutes. Choose from the vertical channel or square plate mount (4-1/2″ bolt pattern and bolts into place). Shocker air provides the ultimate smooth ride. The Shocker Air is a miniature air suspension unit mounted between your truck and trailer. This Shocker mounts by sliding into a standard receiver tube. Bolt this to the front a-frame of your trailer and join the smooth towing movement. This military style ring, hooks up to a pintle / military style hitch mount. Great for farm applications and heavy duty trailers for quick hookup.
The air bag is mounted above the trailer tongue for maximum ground clearance. You will find the advantage of the Air Shocker trailer tongue coupler is your ability to adjust air pressure for best ride and load control.
Air Ride Pintle Ring Hitch: Shocker Air is designed with a built-in air bag for a smoother towing experience. Featuring a built in height adjustment plus weight adjustable. Just add or reduce air depending on the weight of your trailer and it’s contents.
Adds Life To Your Trailer: Commonly used on end bumper and flatbed trailers. It adds life to your trailer. By reducing wear and tear on pickups driveline and frame as well as the frame of the trailer! Treat yourself, your equipment, and your passengers to a much smoother ride. You’ll never go back to the ‘old days’ of continual bumps, jerks, and vibrations. Join the list of satisfied customers that are using Shocker hitches. Order one today and get ready for your ultimate smooth towing experience the next time out.
Provide Comfort: With a smoother ride! Travel a lot on concrete highways? No more jarring every time you cross a section divider. Your Shocker air hitch absorbs the thumps and bumps.
Simple Pivot Design: uses a rocker arm pivot design which produces a down and back motion, much different than other air hitches on the market. Our design eliminates the need for slides, parallel linkages, rollers, shock absorbers, or multiple air bags common to other air hitches.
Improves Safety: By giving you improved control of your tow vehicle and trailer. The air bag receiver hitch system allows for better control of your pickup and the trailer it is towing.
Shock Dampening Action: Shocker air hitch effectively absorbs the jerking, tugging and damaging forces experienced with a typical hard connection when towing trailers. There is no reason to beat yourself or your equipment up with a hard connection between your trailer and your receiver hitch.
Saves Money: By reducing trailer breakage on both the trailer and the trailer contents! The Shocker hitch absorbs the damaging forces experienced with a typical hard connection. This greatly reduces the chances of breaking welds and doing other long term damage to your equipment as well as the valuable cargo you have inside the truck and trailer.
Air Trailer Tongue in Action
Safety Notice: The Shocker air trailer tongue coupler with pintle ring is a heavy duty unit that in most cases exceeds factory receiver hitch weight capacities, therefore it is imperative that you always read and follow the tongue and towing weight recommendations of the receiver hitch that is mounted on your tow vehicle as wheel as the rating on your hitch ball and hitch ball mount.
California Residents: Prop 65 Warning
Shocker Air Trailer Tongue Mount with Coupler Installation
Maximum Weights for Tongue Mount Air Shocker: 20,0000 towing capacity
Safety Notice: The Shocker Hitch is a heavy duty unit that in most cases exceeds factory receiver hitch weight capacities, therefore it is imperative that you always read and follow the tongue and towing weight recommendations of the receiver hitch that is mounted on your tow vehicle.
When used properly these products will make noticeable improvements in your trailer towing quality. Giving both truck and trailer a smoother ride with less trailer fatigue and breakage.
Shocker Trailer Tongue Coupler / Pintle Hitch Installation:
Vertical Channel & Square Plate adaptor styles only:
Replace existing ball coupler on the tongue of trailer with the Shocker Hitch Tongue Mount Hitch.
Verify or lengthen safety chains and wiring connections to ensure proper clearance when turning corners.
To Set Air
Load trailer the way it will be towed. Inflate airbag on Shockerhitch.
CAUTION: Keep hands and clothing away from moving parts of hitch to avoid pinching and injury.
As air pressure increases, the unit will rotate lifting the hitch and trailer tongue. Install air until green bushing has 1/4″ clearance from the red frame. Always inflate air bag to set the Shocker Hitch, never deflate air bag to set Shocker Hitch, unsatisfactory results may occur.
How long will it hold air?
This is a sealed system that will hold air for weeks or months. If you haul the same trailer with the same load weight, it should be good for quite some time.
How do I know the Shocker Air trailer tongue mount with fit my trailer?
We have 2 mounting options. Square plate mount: Simply bolts in place of existing coupler and has a 4-1/2″ square bolt pattern. Vertical channel mount: Simply bolts in place with existing trailer vertical channel for typical trailer couplers. We do offer a weld on channel adaptor for your trailer tongue that can also be used if you don’t have one on your trailer.
Does this affect my trailers ground clearance?
No, the air bag is above the trailer tongue for maximum ground clearance
How often do I grease it?
The grease does not just lube the pivot; it also keeps water and dirt out. You cannot over grease it, once every few months should do it.
Does the Shocker air trailer tongue limited my tailgate with hooked up to the trailer?
Maybe. It depends on your vehicles ball mount length. You can still open your tailgate, but it may rest on your air bag.
How does the air ride trailer tongue coupler work?
The air shocker is like a teeter totter. One end is an air bag, a pivot in the middle, and a ball at the other end. This gives a “pillow” effect at the ball end.
How much does an Shocker Air trailer tongue mount weigh?
The Receiver Air Shocker weighs 50 pounds
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Golden ring of Russia, tours from Moscow, prices 2021
Anyone who can contact our company will be able to make an unforgettable trip to anywhere in our country on comfortable buses. Qualified and friendly managers, taking into account the client’s preferences, budget and other wishes, will select the perfect sightseeing tour from Moscow.
Advantages of sightseeing tours in Russia
Among the advantages of bus tours across the territory of our country, the following can be distinguished:
• Absence of language barriers and the need to cross the border;
• No need to issue a passport and do additional vaccinations, which, for example, are vital when visiting exotic countries;
• Lack of acclimatization;
• Economical. Bus tours in Russia are sold at tempting prices, without unnecessary markups, extra charges, fees and are several times cheaper than similar programs designed to visit foreign countries;
• A wide selection of dozens of unique programs. Choosing to travel by bus in Russia, you combine a pleasant vacation with educational excursions;
• Excellent service. Experienced guides present the material in an interesting way, and the drivers operate the bus “softly” and professionally;
• Opportunity to learn the history of Russia, enjoy native, but diverse landscapes, historical monuments, sights and objects of cultural heritage;
• Year round and compatible. Bus excursions across Russia from Moscow do not depend on the season and weather.They are held regularly, can be combined with each other;
• Availability. Rest assured that there will always be free space. However, despite this, it is recommended to book bus tours in advance, especially for New Years, Christmas and May holidays.
How to choose a tour?
Today, bus excursions across Russia go to different directions. It may be a trip to the Black Sea and visiting the sights of Sochi, which was transformed before the Olympics, a trip to the ancient castles of Kaliningrad and a visit to the Amber Room, a tour of the traditional cities of the Golden Ring or a voyage to the wonderful Lake Baikal. Each tour is interesting, exciting and unique in its own way. So it is worth taking advantage of every tempting tourist offer.
Excursion tours along the Golden Ring of Russia
Tours along the Golden Ring of Russia offer a look at Russia as it was 800 years ago. It is here that you will find the oldest churches in Russia and its most famous monasteries, and it is here that you will learn how Russia originated 700 years ago. The Golden Ring of Russia is one of the best kept secrets in Russia.This is a group of ancient kingdoms surrounding Moscow in a ring (hence the name), which was once a powerful kingdom.
The most popular destination among bus excursions from Moscow is tours along the “Golden Ring” of Russia. The unique and ancient cities of our Motherland, which are planned to be visited as part of the excursion program, boast an interesting history, a variety of heritage and cultural monuments, as well as ultra-modern infrastructure facilities.
Golden Ring! – what’s this?
The “Golden Ring” of Russia is the ancient cities of the former North-Eastern Russia, located today in seven regions. In each of these cities, which have been centers of folk crafts since ancient times, cultural and historical monuments have been preserved in their original form.
Choosing this excursion by bus across Russia, everyone will visit Sergiev Posad and Rostov the Great, glorified in the legends of the cities of Pereslavl-Zalessky and Yaroslavl, the hospitable Kostroma and the majestic Vladimir, the city of brides – Ivanovo and Suzdal.
Some Golden Ring tours may include other cities, for example. Shuyu, Murom, Dmitrov, Ples, Gus – Khrustalny and others.Therefore, it is best to check the exact route with the company’s managers.
Advantages of bus excursions in Russia
Sightseeing tours in Russia on comfortable and modern buses from Moscow have a number of advantages, among which we can single out:
• No need to issue a passport, get vaccinated and overcome language barriers;
• Economic benefit;
• Opportunity to admire the beauty of our country during the trip, if necessary, you can go out and, for example, take a picture with your favorite sights or landscapes;
• Minimum percentage of accidents and emergencies, compared to travel by rail or air;
• Bus excursions across Russia. They do not depend on the season and do not have a “seasonality”. They are always available to everyone. However, it is best to book seats in advance for the most popular destinations;
• Compatibility. Bus tours go well with each other. Therefore, one tour can be supplemented with another without any problems, and, for example, after visiting the cities included in the “Golden Ring” of Russia, go on excursions to Sochi;
Interesting excursion programs and experienced guides will make each tour exciting and interesting.
Bus tours in Russia – save time and money, but giving a lot of positive emotions and new knowledge.
Bronze ring | Reserve “Arkaim”
At the end of the XX century in the Southern Urals was discovered the brightest center of cultural genesis of the ancient Indo-European peoples. Archaeologists managed to discover unique archaeological objects at the turn of the 3rd-2nd millennium BC. – fortified settlements and burial mounds of the Sintashta-Arkaim culture. All of them received the code name “Country of Cities”.
The architecture of the fortified settlements of the so-called “Country of cities” distinguished them from all other ancient settlements of the wide Eurasian steppes. Their housing structures turned out to be not detached houses, but interconnected residential complexes of many large premises, probably designed according to pre-planned plans. Each house of these “cities” had a frame-and-pillar structure, was sub-rectangular, slightly deepened into the ground and connected to neighboring rooms through common walls.As a rule, in each settlement there were dozens of residential premises, which were located either radially, forming round and oval layouts, or in a line, forming rectangular buildings. A distinctive feature of these settlements from others was the presence of fortifications. Along the perimeter of each, and sometimes inside, the settlements were surrounded by powerful walls, ditches and ramparts, which are now treated as defensive. The size of each settlement is usually about 20 thousand square meters.
Soils and wood were used as materials for the construction of the fortified centers of the “Country of Cities”.In isolated cases, and only for facing the lower part of the defensive wall, stone was used. Inside each dwelling were stoves, hearths and a well. And, of course, numerous artifacts were discovered, using which we can reconstruct the life of the population.
People who lived in fortified settlements were engaged in cattle breeding at home. Metallurgy of copper and bronze played an important role in their economy. Ore was mined from the Trans-Ural deposits. There is an assumption that it was their presence that played a key role in the emergence of the “Country …”.
The burial mounds-necropolises located near the settlements demonstrated rich burial rituals. They often contain collective burials in pits-crypts, which apparently functioned for a long time in those days. Wooden burial chambers were built in the grave pits, the burial ceremony was accompanied by animal sacrifices, and numerous implements were placed in the pits together with those buried in the pits.
The Sintashta-Arkaim culture was glorified all over the world by the remains of spoked wooden wheels or whole chariots, which were fixed in some grave pits.Today it has become an indisputable scientific fact that these are the oldest chariots in the world.
The population of the so-called “Country of cities” was rather mixed, it was dominated by people of Caucasian appearance, although some of the inhabitants of the “Country …” had distinct uraloid anthropological features. Most experts believe that these people spoke one of the languages of the Indo-European language family, possibly belonging to its Indo-Iranian branch (which in history is better known under the self-name “Arya”).
The beginning of the construction of the “Country of cities” is associated with the population of the Sintashta-Arkaim archaeological culture. But the overwhelming majority of the monuments are multi-layered, they have been rebuilt and rebuilt several times. Thus, the settlements remained inhabited until the end of the Bronze Age, the entire second millennium BC, representatives of the Timber, Alkul, Fedorov, Cherkaskul, Mezhov and Sargarin-Alekseev archaeological cultures continued to live on them.
By the will of fate, the most famous archaeological site of the “Country of Cities” was the settlement of Arkaim, discovered in 1987.The discovery of most of the other settlements and burial grounds of “Strana …” was made in the late 1980s – early 1990s as a result of deciphering aerial photographs made by talented scientists I.M.Batanina and N.V. Levit. Large-scale archaeological research is still being carried out at these sites by archaeological expeditions of the Arkaim Reserve, ChGPI (SUSPU), ChelSU, SUSU, the Institute of History and Archeology of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences and many other specialists from domestic and foreign research institutions.
The Arkaim settlement gave birth to a large museum and tourist complex. Fourteen archaeological complexes of the “Country of cities” were taken under protection and became part of the “Arkaim” Reserve. The results of the study of these monuments turned out to be key for understanding the history of the Indo-European peoples of the Eurasian steppe. To designate these 14 complexes, the Arkaim – Country of Cities project was implemented in 2017. Museum Guide to the Bronze Ring of Russia ”, as a result of which each monument received a designation on the spot, and you have the opportunity to use this guide.
The author of the article: A.E. Kryuchkov, bell ringer of the Church of St. Nicholas the Wonderworker on Bolvanovka in Moscow,
musician, artist of the Bolshoi Theater of Russia
The bell is a spiritual weapon. With its help, a person conducts his “spiritual warfare” The sound of a bell, like the sound of this battle in the hands of a person, takes on the appearance of a double-edged sword, which is absolutely material and is called the bell tongue. When creating a language, it is necessary to use all knowledge and all experience, as in the creation of a bell, because the language is similar to the human senses and its inconsistency or damage, like in humans, leads to deficiencies in the perception of the surrounding world, that is, to the inconsistency of the full extraction of the sound of the bell . ..
When learning a language, questions immediately arise: why has such a form, such a ratio of weight, fastenings, such techniques of possession and sound production, developed historically? After all, both a weight on a twig and even a ball on a chain are functionally efficient. To understand the optimal working functions of a language, it is necessary to consider it in 1. historical, 2. physical, 3. acoustic and 4. musical domains.
The tongue itself, like the bell, consists of several main parts.Let’s call them from bottom to top: a) – end stop or grip, to which cables and ropes are attached for swinging; b) – apple – shock and the heaviest part; c) – a rod that regulates the length and strength of the tongue, and d) – a suspension ring – as a place of attachment to the bell. The quality of the language, that is, the optimal properties of the sound it produces and the ease of control, depend on each correctly calculated part. The centuries-old experience of our ancestors left us with examples of the high art of making both bells and tongues. Our task at the moment is to study this experience and highlight the necessary and important working and artistic criteria for creating a language for each bell.
If we take into account the combat system and the tongue suspension system, then the latter will undoubtedly turn out to be more ancient, since initially the bells had an obvious method of ringing, which implied the free movement of the lightweight tongue along a given trajectory. A lightened tongue was needed to provide a gentle shock load when ringing a swinging bell in both edges, that is, the apple itself was much lighter and narrower compared to the tongues of the later “manual” method of ringing.However, the precise suspension system was formed exactly when the necessary trajectory of the tongue was needed. After all, he could not hang out and spin arbitrarily in all directions. It was necessary to set a strict direction of movement. Therefore, in the ancient, rare in our time, common languages, one can note a large pendant ring, which has not only a round, but also became more widespread – a triangular shape of a suspension. This made it possible to attach it to a wide leather band, which gave the direction of movement. With the enlargement of the bells and the transition to the manual method of ringing, the language itself changed: it became heavier, with a pronounced percussion part – an apple, since the immobility of the bell made it possible to make its sound ring thicker.As a result of the fact that the ringing became more diverse, the requirements for the working part of the language increased, since it became possible to subtle nuances in the extraction of sound, characteristic, handwriting and style of the ringer itself. Language has become an important tool in the means of expressing ringing. Artistic and stylistic functions began to be added to the signaling, announcing function of ringing. This, perhaps, began to explain the universal love for the bell ringing.
When bell-casting production in our country was stopped for decades, many traditions and foundations, unfortunately, were lost. With the resumption of ubiquitous ringing and foundry, the question naturally arose – where to start? What are the examples and sources of parameters and properties of the sound of bells? Surely these are the bells themselves. The study of their sound, ancient profiles, sizes, metal compositions have become a huge and deep storehouse of useful information. In those years, the main interest was precisely the bells. The secrets and traditions of the production of the bells themselves were sought and renewed. And what produced the sound, the bell tongue, was considered a secondary matter.Now you can find on modern bells examples of iron “beaters”, which simply amaze with the “simplicity” of their technical, aesthetic and sound properties and features.
PROBLEM 1: It is necessary to correct the imbalance that has appeared between the quality of bells and tongues.
To do this, you need to go the same way as in the study and production of bells. It is necessary to start with a comprehensive analysis of ancient samples of high “linguistic” art, which can be found on the bell towers, where ancient bells have been preserved, and, thank God, there are a lot of them. Our ancestors have accumulated centuries of experience in the production of high-quality, corresponding to the bell, languages.
ANALYSIS OF ANALOGUES
rice. A. Meyerberg.
Let’s turn to history, namely to the 17th century and the bells of the master Alexander Grigoriev.In the drawing made by the Austrian diplomat and traveler Augustin Meyerberg, you can see the Great Moscow Bell and its tongue, the image of which is distinguished by its cone-shaped shape (Fig. 1). These conclusions can be confirmed by the actually existing language, or rather by most of it. This is the language of the former 35-ton bell of the same master, cast by him for the Savvino-Storozhevsky Monastery in 1668. It was one of the most euphonious bells in Russia. Only a large lower part of the tongue has survived from it (photo 1). In comparison with the old drawing, there is a surprising similarity in the taper of the shapes. The striking apple of the tongue is distinguishable, but not clearly expressed in comparison with the powerful shaft. The language has harmony and beauty, which can also be the criterion of perfection. It doesn’t look like modern languages. It can be safely assumed that the physicomechanical properties of this language differed from modern ones by a different distribution of mass and center of gravity, which was located not near the apple, but much higher, in the rod (which has a single whole with it).This reduced the inertial load on this rod and stabilized the shank at the point where the suspension ring was attached to the bell, which twitched and vibrated less at the moment of impact. However, such languages of the master A. Grigoriev, with its cone-shaped form, are not quite typical for the traditional, late shaping of the bell tongue with a more pronounced striking part – an apple and a narrowed shaft. Probably, in the 17th century, the traditions of the bell ringing were still strong, the bell tongues of which were lighter and resembled an elongated cone.However, with all the variety of forms of languages in our centuries-old history, by the 19th and early 20th centuries, a certain optimal form and proportion of the language had developed, which was traced by such large producers of that time as Olovyanishnikov, Finlyandsky, Samgin. This shape and proportion of the bell tongue is guided by the profile and dimensions of the bell, as already noted. The main percussive part of the tongue is its apple, calculated by the thickness of the percussion ring of the given bell. Examination of many antique bells of different sizes and their tongues provided a definite picture of proportions.With the ratio of the thickness of the impact ring to the total diameter of the bell 12.5 / 1-13.5 / 1, the diameter of the apple is 1.75-1.65 of the thickness of the impact ring. Accordingly, if the thickness of the impact ring approaches 10/1, then the size of the apple increases to 2. 0 to the wall thickness, and vice versa, if the proportions of the bell are 14 / 1-15 / 1, then the diameter of the apple decreases to 1.6-1.5.
An example is the N.I. Olovyanishnikov weighing 4264 kg, located on the belfry of the Bolshoi Theater. With an impact ring thickness of 146 mm, its proportion to the overall diameter (1880 mm) is 12.87 / 1. The apple of the tongue shown in photo 2 has a diameter of 265 mm and its proportion to the impact ring is 1.8. This is the true language of Olovyanishnikov, because on his other bell weighing 1528 kg, the tongue is exactly the same in shape and proportions (photo 3). The impact ring of the bell is 102 mm and the ratio with the diameter is 13.5 / 1. This suggests that the striking ring is thinner than that of the first bell, and therefore, with a diameter of 175 mm, the apple of this tongue has a proportion of 1. 75 to the thickness of the impact ring.
Another example of the language of K. Slizov (1750) on his bell weighing 6560 kg and a diameter of 2200 mm has an apple diameter of 300 mm (photo 4)). With the impact ring of the bell 176 mm thick, and the proportion to the total diameter of 12.5, the proportion of the apple of the tongue to the thickness of the ring is 1.7. This comparison shows that Olovyanishnikov’s languages are more powerful than Slizov’s, which, however, cast his bell masterpieces much earlier.
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY:
To identify and substantiate the criteria for the creation of modern properties, technologies and approaches to the manufacture of languages. The final generalized requirement for the research result is the substantiation of the acoustic norm – “ the bell should sound, and the tongue should be silent ”.
The necessary criteria for evaluating such a language are:
1. the property of the material,
3. center of gravity,
4.acoustic structure and
They influence the disclosure of all the sound qualities of the bell.
PROBLEM 2: Modern cast languages have a high frequency overtones wave, due to the physically uniform density of the material. This wave, mixing with the high-frequency overtone wave of the bell, interferes, mutually amplifies, generating combination tones. When struck, sound occurs both in the homogeneous metal of the bell and in the homogeneous metal of the tongue.And two high-frequency waves, entering into resonance, give an audible sound in the upper part of the sound spectrum and we hear a clang, which is expressed in the harshness of the sound attack. This is clearly visible in the frequency analyzer program. In forged languages, parasitic overtones arise, but they fade out very quickly, because they cannot persist, trying to pass through the layering and inhomogeneous density of the metal.
QUESTION: How to get the maximum effect of the acoustic heterogeneity of the manufactured tongue?
It is generally known that the best material for making a tongue is iron, or soft, low carbon steel, and not just metal, but forged metal.Our skilled predecessors, despite manual labor and poor technical capabilities, had extensive experience in the manufacture of forged products, since forging was the most widespread method of metalworking.
Transition diagram of cast dendritic structure
Many experienced blacksmiths mastered the technology of processing heavy, multi-pound iron billets.However, forging iron was not only a method of metalworking, but also giving it special properties. Forged metal has a modified structure. (Forging scheme). Under the influence of hammer blows in a red-hot workpiece, the layers of the crystal lattice shift, the structure and mechanical properties of the metal change in opposite directions. There is a sliding of the grains of the metal relative to each other, since the strength of the grains is higher than their bond with each other. Together with them, non-metallic inclusions are drawn out.During forging, the metal structure takes on a fibrous structure, since inhomogeneous sections of the workpiece – gas bubbles, slag inclusions and crystal grains are stretched in the direction of metal forging. The coarse-grained structure of the metal turns into a fine-grained one, due to the crushing of crystals under hammer blows. It turns out an elongated and tangled structure – fibers. The mechanical properties of such a metal are higher, since it is compacted due to the elimination of voids, welding bubbles, stretching and flattening of its grains.The density of the metal acquires layering, variability, and heterogeneity as in wood. As a result of forging, a layer of metal appears on the surface of the bell tongue denser than in its middle, where it is looser. The property of a bimetal arises in the product, that is, in a chemically homogeneous material, heterogeneous structural changes occur, and, consequently, properties. If we add to this the fact that there were different ways of forming the apple of the bell tongue, including the method of forge welding when winding iron strips, then the effect of acoustic heterogeneity of the manufactured tongue was maximized, because the interlayer space also served as a damper for the parasitic sound frequencies of the tongue itself.Such a property of the metal met the final requirements – the bell should sound, and the tongue should be silent, – possessing the shock rigidity of the surface layer, exciting the entire spectrum of bell overtones, and, at the same time, with acoustic viscosity, extinguishing the parasitic overtones of the impact. There were other ways of forming the striking part of the language. A rod was forged separately, and the apple was put on it and fettered by forge welding. On some specimens of tongues, this is clearly visible, because the joint seams were not always well smoothed, for example, the tongue weighing 26 kilograms on the eighth bell of 43 pounds 30 pounds, located on the belfry of the Bolshoi Theater, where the side part of the pendant ring and an apple dressed on a rod were chained.(photo 5 and 6). But the most aesthetically beautiful impression is left by solid and forged tongues. This was the most difficult and difficult process of forging a massive workpiece and required a whole brigade of blacksmiths and a technically well-equipped forge.
At the end of the 19th, at the beginning of the 20th century, the production of such large languages became a frequent phenomenon, as large metallurgical enterprises appeared, which made it possible to serially produce languages with a high quality of finishing.An example is the languages of Olovyanishnikov and Finland, the proportions and appearance of which did not change, despite the difference in weight.
TASK 1. The language must be well balanced. An unbalanced tongue cannot optimally invest the impact energy into the bell. First of all, the lower frequencies of the sound suffer from this, and the bell’s potential cannot be fully revealed. Of course, the physicomechanical assessment of the language is not limited to the properties of the metal. A very important criterion in this row is the weight of the language.
QUESTION: What are the criteria for choosing a language weight? It was determined on the basis of the parameters of the bell itself, namely: its weight, profile shape, that is, the thickness of the shock ring and the degree of subsequent narrowing of this shape, as well as the ratio of the thickness of the shock ring to the total diameter of the bell. The variability of performance within these limits could be very high, since to lower the basic tone of the bell, the manufacturer could make the wall thinner, and to increase it – thicker, therefore, with the same diameter, the impact energy was different, and the weight of the tongue was calculated based on these factors.Typically, the average ratio of these values is 12.5-13 times the thickness of the impact ring to the total diameter of the bell. What is below these values indicates a thick wall, and what is above is a thin one.
The tongue should be well balanced a) along the length of the end stop or grip, b) the width and height of the apple, c) the thickness and length of the rod, d) the size of the hanging ring, both by these parts between themselves and by the proportions of the bell. Balance is that golden mean, thanks to which there is an accurate focusing of all the richness of the sound in the bell, its dynamics and duration.
One of the main thoughts of this study is the statement that: the center of gravity of each bell tongue should be located in the area of the golden section point, which gives the maximum efficiency, namely 3/8 below, and 5/8 above the total length of the tongue. If you study several ancient languages, it turns out that their balance was that golden mean, that is, the center of gravity is located in the area of the golden section, which is a confirmation of one of the main ideas of this study.Since ancient times, this division of the whole into parts is considered to be classical, for it built a work according to the laws of harmony. Having studied several dozen languages of old manufacturers, we can conclude that, of course, they did not have a unanimous opinion about the proportions of the appearance of languages, especially for earlier and smaller manufacturers, the technical equipment of which did not differ in great capabilities, and languages suffered from some clumsy and handicraft. However, as far as weight, suspension ring and balance are concerned, the values of these values were quite close, since everyone needed to get an equally similar result to extract the sound of the bell.Particularly close to the golden ratio are the proportions and forms of languages in large factory manufacturers such as Olovyanishnikov, Finlyandsky and Samgin. First of all, this concerned a powerful rod and a hanging ring, due to which the center of gravity was located just above the apple in the lower part of the rod.
PROBLEM 3: The languages of modern manufacturers can be characterized mainly by the following problems – insufficient strength and thickness of the rod and the complete absence of a suspension ring as a counterweight. As a result, the properties of the language are reduced to the function of a great sledgehammer.
MODEL 1. In this regard, studying the options for the location of the center of gravity point in the bell tongue, one can imagine two extremes – a weight at the bottom on a twig or a weight at the top with a twig on the bottom (Fig. 1).
In the first variant, the center of gravity is absolutely low, almost at the point of the battle.Due to the weakness of the suspension rod system, such a tongue will not be stable during impact, because inertial loads will bend and twist its weak rod, as a result of which the moment of impact on the bell will be lubricated and unstable. The color of the sound characteristic of the bell in the form of overtones will not be detected, even if the weight of the percussion part is increased, which is dangerous for the bell. In the end, such a “rod” will simply break off from inertial loads. However, this version of the language is much more efficient than the second version of the extreme – a weight at the top, and a twig at the bottom.Here we have a center of gravity almost at the suspension point. Consequently, all the kinetic energy is also located in the zone of the greatest mass, which has the minimum amplitude and is not able to influence the impact force. Therefore, our twig, having an amplitude, but not having mass and energy to strike, will only strike and tinkle against the edge of the bell without a hint of an intelligible sound. The CONCLUSION in the considered examples suggests itself unequivocally: the center of gravity of the bell tongue should be located in the middle zone. But this zone also has an extent.
MODEL 2. Therefore, consider an example of a language for an absolutely equilibrium balance point. It will be a solid, even cylinder with a center of gravity exactly in the middle (Figure 2a). The stability and performance of this tongue will be much higher, since it excludes bends and twisting at the moment of impact, due to the same mass and diameter along the entire length. However, the total mass of the tongue, as described, should be proportional to the weight of the bell and, most importantly, its striking part should correspond to the thickness of the striking ring of the bell.In this case, the general correspondence between the weight of the bell and the weight of the tongue will give its insufficient mass at the point of impact, since the mass of such a tongue is evenly distributed over its entire length. And, conversely, if the mass of the lower, striking part of the tongue corresponds to the thickness of the lower part of the bell, an excess mass will appear at the suspension point, which will overload the tongue, give an excess total mass and have a bad effect on controllability. The conclusion suggests itself – the mass must be redistributed, facilitating the upper part of the tongue and strengthening the lower one. Thus, in these examples, a new shape of the tongue appears – cone-shaped or tear-shaped, in which the center of gravity shifts closer to the point of impact (Fig.2b). This is confirmed by the language of A. Grigoriev, the lower part of which has been preserved in the Savvino – Storozhevsky Monastery (photo 1).
TASK 2. Minimization of dynamic loads on attachment points.
One of the main conditions for this task should be the correct suspension of the tongue, namely, the closest possible arrangement of the suspension and mortgage rings. This achieves a minimum dynamic play at the suspension point and possible impact blur.Also, the suspension of the bell should be as close as possible to the beam in order to exclude its swinging. A number of interdependent tasks arise, namely:
QUESTION: How to create an independent suspension on the scale of the entire bell tower?
The tongue is a massive and actively moving part of the bell, which is subject to inertial influences. And since the tongue has two points of contact with the bell (at the place of impact and at the place of suspension), the inertial forces acting on it can be divided into two categories – the inertia of the impact and the inertia of stabilization, respectively.The problem of inertia of impact is the inertia of motion and vice versa, the problem of inertia of stabilization is the inertia of statics. At the moment of impact, the apple of the tongue should bounce off the impact ring in time, without “sticking” or smearing the sound extraction during this impact. After all, a full-fledged sound of a bell arises not only as a result of the impact of an apple on the edge of its sound ring, but also by the need for this impact NOT TO INFLUENCE with its consequences the developing sound wave. If the center of gravity of the tongue is close to the point of impact, then the inertia arising from the impact is excessive and deprives the impact of the necessary short duration of contact with the impact ring of the bell.The tongue “sticks” for an unnecessarily long time at the point of the battle, smearing and extinguishing some of the bell’s overtones. Why does this occur when the total weight of the language has not changed? Because the point of greatest mass can be moved inside the tongue, changing its shape and proportions. If it is moved close to the point of impact, then the movement of such a tongue becomes more difficult, since the arc of movement of the maximum weight is lengthened, inertia increases and the return time increases. The language becomes clumsy and difficult to control. Therefore, the center of gravity of the tongue should be located higher, at the bottom of the rod.The tongue should, as it were, stand on tiptoe, raising its “waist” and try not to trample the bud of the sound that is opening. This will ease the inertial load of the tongue on the point of impact at the moment of impact and will allow the tongue to be more mobile and easier to control and focus the impact while maintaining the same weight. This weight distribution will give the upper part of the tongue the necessary mass to minimize the jerk of the suspension ring on impact. This will be the inertia of stabilization.
However, it must be reiterated that the main condition for such a minimization should be the correct suspension of the tongue, namely, the closest possible arrangement of the suspension and mortgage rings.As well as the suspension of the bell, it should be as close to the beam as possible in order to exclude its swinging. And here a chain of interconnected nodes of interaction arises: tongue – bell, bell – suspension clamps, suspension clamps – beam, beam – bell tower brickwork. In this chain, it is necessary to take into account not only the optimal interaction of these links, but also their safety. Since the impact of the tongue on the edge of the bell causes dynamic loads along this entire circuit, it is imperative to provide for softening, shock-absorbing, damping properties of each of these contact points.This does not mean that they will extinguish the sound of the bell; rather, on the contrary, they will extinguish the resonant overtones of the entire chain of joints, the end point of which is the ends of the beams embedded in the walls. Therefore, starting with the soft, on the sling, suspension of the tongue, a soft pad is also needed at the point: the ears are the kingpin at the bottom of the clamps, and the kingpin is the beam at the top. This application minimizes the dynamic load on the beams: vibration and shaking. Modern suspended beam systems are now unthinkable without the use of various metal profiles, for example, such as an I-beam, channel or rectangular shaped tube.But metal, unlike wood, is an excellent conductor of vibrations and vibrations. Therefore, such beams create more problems than wood in places where they are embedded in the walls. In these places, it is necessary to think over the damping properties of the nodes as much as possible.
However, the main condition for the safety of the entire suspension system described above is the direction of the tongue strike, which creates a wave of dynamic loads on the suspension nodes. The vector of this direction should be directed along the beam so that dynamic loads are damped along its length, and not across, causing deformations of the support nodes.This, of course, is a separate topic for study, but one thing is clear: at all metal-to-metal junctions, a softening, shock-absorbing and durable material is needed. Polyurethane can serve as such a material, especially since its rigidity can be varied. Thus, before considering the shapes and properties of bell tongues and the peculiarities of their interaction with the percussion ring, it is necessary to create an independent suspension on the scale of the entire bell tower, and then solve the following problem:
OBJECTIVE 3.Performing. To solve it, not only the correct suspension of the tongue and the performing skill of the ringer are required, but also fine tuning of the tongue during its manufacture for the optimal location of the balance point. And moving this point, returning to the original theme, gives serious differences in sound quality and has a significant impact on the technique of ringing. An analogy arises in the peculiar anthropological nature of the structure of the language, where the belt, that is, the center of gravity, must be at a specific level.As a person “girded” takes to work, knowing that nothing bothers him, so the tongue, “girding” with its golden point of balance, begins to easily, without unnecessary hindrances, bow to God to the right and to the left. The bell ringers know how many ancient languages, up to several hundred kilograms, can be controlled in the process of ringing with literally two or three fingers. Now it is easy to imagine how the tongue behaves with a low center of gravity. He is like a man with his pants down, for not to step or shout is a shame.
Note also that the very shape of the impact apple is of great importance. It is this shape of the apple, such as a rounded trapezoidal cylinder or a truncated cone, that is optimal for striking, since it allows you to accurately hit the curved part of the sound ring of the bell – sweeping or striking. The height of the impact apple should in no way be less than its diameter, but rather more by a quarter. This makes it easier to align the center of gravity of the tongue along the golden ratio.
PROBLEM 4.Empirically, observing the behavior of the suspension ring, that is, the shank of the tongue, one can note the difference in the dynamics of the movement of this ring at the moment of impact – jerking. This always threatens to weaken and even break off the tongue depressions. To reduce it, it is necessary to achieve in the production and suspension of tongues so that there is: a) – the embedded and suspended ring at a minimum distance, b) – the common center of gravity at the point of the golden section and, finally, c). – the place of impact of the apple itself at the thickest, widest point of the apple.This means correct balance, less effective dynamic energy leakage and better focusing of the impact.
MODEL 3. From the course of elementary school physics, one can recall an example of the correct focusing of dynamic energy in an exhibit with five steel balls on vertical threads hanging close to each other along a straight axis. We took the first ball back and released it. He hit the other four, but only the last – the fifth – flew off, and the three middle ones did not move. This example showed the optimal focusing of the impact, since the correct balance of the parts was verified, that is, the weight of the balls and the direction of impact – according to a single vector of all points of diameters.But, undoubtedly, the working part of the apple cannot be limited only to the point of impact. There is a zone in the direction of the middle of the apple where the impact is maximum. But, even without taking into account the impact zone, the shape of the apple in the form of a tapering cylinder with rounded edges seems to be optimal also from the point of view of operational properties. Nowadays, there are already few places where rawhide is used to attach the tongue, especially walrus, for heavy tongues. Leather, even oak leather, stretches over time. But even modern soft methods of fastening to a synthetic tape – a sling tend to sag for various reasons (partial stretching, slipping out from under the clamps-ties).In this case, such an apple shape still allows you to accurately hit the angle of the sound percussive ring of the bell, despite the suboptimal strike point. However, a soft, tape-like tongue suspension technique, especially heavy ones, is preferable to a rigid attachment, which experiences strong inertial loads at the moment of impact. The soft sling not only dampens the inertial recoil acting on the break of the rod and suspension ring, but also seriously dampens the acoustic overtones of the entire tongue.
RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS.It is under these conditions that the tongue will be silent and not clang. Now we can be sure that all the considered parts of the language have a double function – physical and acoustic. In addition to the main contact part of the tongue – its apple, the rod and suspension ring are of great functional importance. The rod experiences the main leverage – pendulum loads, therefore, its thickness and strength have an important effect on the duration of the entire tongue. Insufficient forging and thickness cause cracks and breakage of the tongue rod, which forces additional tightening plates to be welded onto it.An example is the 400-kilogram tongue of the large 12-ton bell of the Danilov Monastery. At the beginning of the twentieth century, four reinforcing plates were welded onto the top of its rod. Insufficient, unbalanced rod thickness can affect the sound quality of large bells, the heavy tongue of which has a large inertia that bends this rod towards the impact. This deflection and return to the starting position takes time. But even small fractions of a second are enough for the apple of the tongue, “sticking” to the wall of the bell and waiting for the amplitude stabilization of the rod, to extinguish part of the sound spectrum, distorting the overall picture of potential sound.The thickness of the rod is also of great importance for the centering of the tongue, based on the principle of the golden ratio. For this, the rod must carry its important part of the total weight.
Having studied many ancient languages, we can conclude that most well-balanced languages have a wide core at the base, smoothly turning into the upper release of the apple, and have certain STRUCTURAL PRINCIPLES:
1. – the width of the base of the rod must be at least half the maximum diameter of the apple.
At the same time, the tongue receives not only strength, which is more important for large bells (from 1 ton and above), but also the necessary center of gravity.
2. – The taper of the rod should be smooth and reach 2/3 of the base width.
The upper part has an important stabilizing function. As mentioned above, the tongue has two points of contact with the bell. One short-term, in the area of impact on the sound ring, and one constant in the suspension zone.These two points determine the performance of all interdependent parts of the language as a single musical instrument leading to the sound of the bell. Fasteners and connections, mostly in the field of dynamic loads, are subject to a special mode of action. These are vibration, shaking, jerking and jerking. Therefore, stabilization plays an important role in the final impact process and the reliability of the joints, which makes it possible to reduce the destructive tendencies. This role is assigned to the upper part of the tongue, namely the part of the rod and the suspension ring.As stated above, the top of the bar should not taper too much to maintain sufficient counterweight. As for the pendant ring, in most ancient languages its shape was defined in the form of a rounded triangle, so that it would be more convenient to attach a wide leather belt or a ribbon – a sling to the upper straightened part. However, it can be noted that the massiveness of the pendant ring often significantly exceeds its sufficient margin of safety. This indicates the ring stabilization and counterweight function for the necessary balance and balance at the golden ratio, and the main area of muffling the acoustic overtones of the entire tongue.It is like the plumage of an arrow or as the wing flaps of an airplane gives stability in achieving the final result. After comparing many ancient languages, especially their mountings, the size of the pendant rings and the behavior at the moment of impact, we can conclude:
3. – the outer width of the ring should be 10-15% greater than the impact apple diameter, and the rod thickness should not be thinner than 50% of the lower part of the rod or ¼ of the apple diameter.
There is one more practical observation, which consists in comparing two rings – hanging at the tongue, and the mortgage at the bell.It is expressed in thickness. The thicker the locking ring is in comparison with the tongue ring, the less the inertia of the jerk upon impact, and vice versa. This is probably due to the area of coverage and fit of the sling to the embedded ring. The larger the coverage, the more stable the tip of the tongue in the dynamics of the blow.
Now we can say with confidence that:
1 – the suspension ring is no less important place of the tongue than the impact apple, because it carries the tasks of a) – fastening, b) – stabilizing counterweight, c) – muffler of acoustic overtones of the entire tongue, in the suspension system of which there is a wide leather tape or synthetic tape – slings were and are of great importance as soft damping materials.
2 – the rod is not only the distributor and weight regulator, but the key to the strength of the tongue.
3 – The apple needs the damping properties of layered forged metal, physically drowning out all kinds of overtones. In combination with the correct suspension on a soft line, these conditions will give the maximum desired result – an acoustically neutral tongue.
PERSPECTIVE. Now it is difficult to say that all the benchmarks in the criteria for creating languages by the old masters meet the same requirements.In the studied 30 languages, there is a wide variety of proportions and forms. This shows that each manufacturer had their own design methods with their own priorities and parameters. However, now, during a period of rough and unsteady principles of modeling and creating bell tongues, the described proportions and points could become an important reference point in the creation of well-balanced languages that would help improve the sound of many already recreated examples of bell art.
Language is a complex and important tool in revealing all the subtleties and features of the sound of a bell.It consists of many interdependent parts, the proportions of which are inherent in the proportions of the bell. Each part of the language carries not only physical, but also acoustic properties and functions, therefore, bell tongues are a musical instrument that requires:
1.- special knowledge,
2.- fine understanding and
3. – professional attitude.
How I found out about Amazon Ring, or Dirty Deeds by the Hands of Ukrainian Programmers
Six months ago I tried to get a job in a call center in Kiev for a research project.I didn’t care which one. In the subway, I saw an advertisement that one requires people who know English. That evening I wrote a letter where I indicated that I knew English and would be interested in cooperation. In response, I was sent a link to the test in English. I passed it and expected to be immediately offered a job. But it was not there! They said they would have to go through one more step – a telephone interview. Well, I thought, I’ll get through. I got a call and we spoke English. At the end of the conversation, I said that I could start working in the near future.But this was not the end of my ordeal: there was also the third step of selection! I was surprised. Why such a dropout in a call center?
At this step, I was sent the coordinates of the office where it was planned to conduct a personal interview. Only at that moment the name of the company for which I would work was found out, and before that I, it turns out, was dealing with a third-party HR agency. The company was called Ring. I opened her website, where I found out that these guys are doing something like video intercoms. It didn’t really interest me then.I just came for an interview – I was looking for their building for a long time, because there were no signs. I was shown inside a rather comfortable office. In one of the rooms, I saw workers who had photographic material from video cameras on their screen, on which they were marking something. I immediately realized that they are engaged in object recognition and are dealing with artificial intelligence (AI), which I deal with in my profession.
– Are these people doing artificial intelligence training?
– Right, – I got back.
“Ring pledged to pay the sick leave and leave on parole.”
The interview took about 20 minutes, I was tested for my knowledge of English, they told me that I had to reply by mail to letters from clients. The working conditions were offered quite tough: it is necessary to take both day shifts and night shifts, and it will not be possible to establish a sleep schedule. But the salary is attractive – 14 thousand hryvnia, and you can ask for more. All employees are sole proprietors, which is not uncommon for Ukraine ( “Well, you know, everyone does that!” ).Ring pledged to pay sick leave and leave on parole.
At some point, interviewers began to test my motivation. “We need dedicated workers. We are a friendly team, our career growth is possible! ” Apparently, my motivation was not enough for them: I said that I had dropped out of the university and now I am looking for another program, I want to work during a break. The next day I received a letter with a refusal: my “type” did not suit them.
Some time has passed since then, but I remember this visit, because it was very strange.On the one hand, for some reason the name of the company was kept secret for a long time, on the other hand, I was offered a high salary for a call center by Kiev standards, and on the third – there was clearly some high-tech work going on here.
Recently I found out what exactly Ring Ukraine is doing. It is a subcontractor of Ring, and Ring is a subsidiary of Amazon. That is, for some reason they wanted to hide that they were working with Amazon. Why? I will try to answer this question further.
One of the company’s offices is located here, in the Kiev tower number 2 in Pechersk,
What does Amazon Ring do?
Ring, a startup bought last year by Amazon for $ 800 million, is developing doorbells with built-in security cameras.These cameras record high quality video and are equipped with a motion sensor. Each time you move in the area of the camera, it is activated and starts recording. Users can log into the application from a smartphone or other device and find out what is happening under their door, as well as watch videos from the previous time. These cameras are sold by ~ 10 thousand users around the world, but are mainly used in the United States.
“Innocent people could be harmed if a company embraces artificial intelligence technologies uncritically.”
In addition to the cameras, there is an application called Neighbors , in which users can exchange recordings. The company positions it as a good old neighborhood watch ( neighborhood watch ), preventing crime in the neighborhood. This is what the company’s marketing strategy focuses on – it plays on people’s fears. Considering that crime in the United States has been significantly decreasing over the past quarter century, the risk of getting over the head in your own yard with a crowbar is rather low, and such a marketing ploy is not the most honest.Lest the reader be puzzled, the crime rate in the States is still quite high. But given that it is higher in poor areas and lower in rich ones, where cameras are installed, digital “neighborhood surveillance” seems superfluous there.
The company provides camera data to more than 400 US police stations in different cities. Police officers can go to the Neighborhood app and ask users for videos of potential suspects. In addition, Ring and the police are going to work together to subsidize cameras so residents can buy them at a discount.It is clear that the police are interested in this. And, on the one hand, this is good, since you can help solve crimes. But, on the other hand, if a company begins to uncritically introduce artificial intelligence technologies, innocent people may suffer, which will be discussed below.
Head of department that does not exist
More questions will come when Ring starts using AI face recognition technology.In this case, the camera itself will identify from the database who took a step to the right and who took a step to the left.
Amazon probably suggests that if the Western public finds out that cameras use facial recognition technology, then meticulous questioning and other criticism may follow. And they don’t want a bad image. Therefore, Amazon Ring representatives still claim that nothing of the kind is used in their security cameras.
Maybe the latter is true, but the company’s division in Ukraine, Ring Ukraine, seems to be working on this technology.On their website, they describe their activities this way:
We develop semi-automatic crime prevention and monitoring systems that are based on, but not limited to, face recognition.
Ring Ukraine has offices in Kiev and Lvov. Now Ring Ukraine employs 1,000 people, and next year the number of employees may grow to 1,500. The company is actively recruiting new AI engineers.
There is a hoax: the company does not use face recognition technology and does not seem to be going, but the development of the toolkit is in full swing.Foreign publications began to promote this issue. Here’s what they found.
A vacancy for a Deep Learning Engineer from Ring Ukraine was recently posted on LinkedIn. The employee was required to have experience in areas such as computer tools for object detection, action and face recognition. When an Amazon Ring representative was asked about the vacancy, he said that “Ring has no office in Kiev, there are third-party contractors working there” , and declined to comment further.
The BuzzFeed News portal also found an online presentation by the 2018 “Head of Ring’s face recognition”, a certain Alexander Obednikov. It shows how cameras can better recognize road signs as well as perform “face recognition without alignment”. In April of this year, Obednikov spoke at the Open Data Sciences conference in Kiev, where he designated his position as “Head of the Face Recognition Department at Ring Ukraine.” According to his LinkedIn profile, he is still working on “computer vision problems” at Ring Ukraine, but the phrase “face recognition” is not mentioned there.The foreign press asked Obednikov for comment, but he abstained, as did Ring’s representatives in America.
“In November 2018, Amazon Ring filed two patent applications that describe technology to identify” suspicious people “and add them to a” suspicious person database. ”
I also tried to get an answer from them about what developments they are doing in Ukraine, but I didn’t receive a response to my appeal.
More – more! In November 2018, Amazon Ring filed two patent applications that describe technology to identify “suspicious people” and add them to the “suspicious person database”. So it looks like the company is definitely gearing up to put AI into practice in its cameras. By the way, cameras often capture in their range not only the door, but also part of the street, which provides the police with information about the movement of other persons. Many people maintain privacy that is violated in this way.
According to the user agreement, Ring has unlimited and free access to content from video cameras, and can use it “for any purpose and in any media format on any media channel”, so they gave the video materials to programmers and markers from Ukraine so that they could teach “neurons »Recognize suspicious objects and people.
It was during this activity that I found the markers in the Ring Ukraine office.
How to mistake a deputy for a murderer
What is the catch here if data based on user agreements will be voluntarily transferred to developers and the police? The fact is that neural networks usually learn from data compiled previously by humans.So, in order to teach the neural network to distinguish between pictures of cats and dogs, a person must “feed” the AI pictures of cats and dogs with markings, that is, by matching them with the corresponding labels. Therefore, people first designate objects in the photo, and a neural network is usually learned on the basis of such “picture-signature” pairs. This is called “markup”.
The problem is that in the real world, no one is interested in distinguishing cats from dogs – but more applied problems, such as distinguishing a good employee applying for a vacancy from a bad one.By the way, Amazon had such a tool in development, but the project had to be frozen and deleted. Why? It’s simple – he was trained on a database with information about hiring from past years – and people, as we know, are often not alien to sexism, so in this database, all other things being equal, men were hired more often than women. Therefore, being trained on such an array, AI took over human bias.
The same can happen with the tool for identifying and building a database of suspicious people.For example, in the United States, it often happens that persons with a non-white skin color are endowed with a higher degree of danger, as well as those who can apparently be attributed to lower social classes. A neural network trained on such data will also be more likely to flag poor people with non-whitish skin as more dangerous. Accordingly, police departments will receive messages from Ring more often about such people.
“In the United States, it often happens that individuals with a non-white skin color are endowed with a higher degree of danger, as well as those who can apparently be attributed to lower social classes.”
Wrong decisions made by AI can have serious devastating consequences. So, recently, the state of Michigan adopted an AI tool that singled out those who cheat at the labor exchange and illegally receive unemployment benefits. This tool was incorrectly marked as violators of about 40 thousand people who were fined. Many of them opened a lawsuit on this matter, and the courts are still dragging on.
The same is the case with Ring cameras.The accuracy of face recognition in all known similar tools is not one hundred percent. For example, Amazon’s facial recognition tool Rekognition recently mistook 28 members of the US Congress for criminals in testing. Accuracy is often lower for non-white skinned individuals. Therefore, in the case of African Americans, it will be easier to mistake a decent person for a criminal. This is how innocent people can get into trouble.
Unfortunately, the level of expertise in anti-discrimination issues in Ukraine (as well as in the post-Soviet region in general) is rather low.Programmers, testers and markers who come to work in Ring Ukraine, most likely, do not even suspect what consequences the technology they develop overseas may have.
Application screenshot – attempted robbery from the back door of the house
Learn to obey the ethics of technology “from the inhabitants of heaven”
Why Ring Ukraine chose to hide its presence in Kiev from prying eyes is understandable.After all, Amazon Ring does not want to admit that its office in Ukraine is developing face recognition tools. After all, this could attract unwanted attention from the American public, which is quite sensitive to these issues.
But another question remains: why does Ring Ukraine turn up employees with the “wrong type” at interviews?
And where do you think the fuck crept up? He crept up the next day. Piggy called and said, everything went well, the impressions are good, the skills are there, but your type is not the same … (!) <...> It is important for [them] that every hiring was productive.And what is wrong with the type ?! To which I did not receive an articulate answer, except that they are developing rapidly and they need a person of a certain type.
I was almost told that my type did not suit them, they say, although with knowledge everyone speaks fine with me, well, what a madness!
Apparently, my type did not suit them either: I have few ambitions for career growth.Where does such a selection of “ambitious” personnel come from?
“Kira selects” ambitious and efficient “to her team. In fact, this translates into the fact that low-level workers are dissatisfied with both the office and work.”
Perhaps it is the personal whim of the company’s operational manager, Kira Rudik, who is “a startup at heart”. Kira graduated from the Kiev-Mohyla Academy, “worked in several IT companies in Ukraine and the United States, went from a tester to a top manager.”In 2016, she became the chief operating officer of the Ukrainian division of the Ring startup. In an interview for the Tech Liga portal, Kira clearly emphasizes that her hard work and personal qualities made her so successful, and, apparently, everyone can do that. In an interview, she refers to representatives of American multinationals as “celestials” who have launched businesses many times, and now that Amazon acquired Ring in 2018, she has the opportunity to learn from them.
Recently, Kira went into politics, joining Svyatoslav Vakarchuk’s “Voice” party. “One of my tasks, – she says, – in general for my entire career in IT – is the struggle for the image of Ukraine in the international arena. I want more business to come to us. ”
That is, Kira selects “ambitious and hard-working” people for her team. In fact, this translates into the fact that low-level workers are dissatisfied with both the office and the work. This is because the ambitious and hard-working people are expected to work for the idea, but they, it turns out, want to work for money.
But that was a lyrical digression. It is important that Kira does not speak anywhere about possible problems with algorithmic discrimination in the Ring project, especially in the context of the fact that it can have serious legal consequences. Also, apparently, she does not care much that Amazon has long been known for its disdainful attitude to the rights of its workers, the withdrawal of profits from offshore and other often inherent “celestials” features.
One can only guess what benefit she sees from the arrival of such businesses in Ukraine.
Look at that viroblyati: automation at Ukrainian enterprises (Oksana Dutchak, Andriy Gladun)
Marks, hyip and algorithms: what can be the sociology of digital technologies (Taras Salamanyuk)
Cyberproletariat: global work in the digital vortex (Nick Daur-Wizford)
IT workers need to unite (J.S. Chen)
90,000 Jeweler profession – how to become a jewelry designer, where to study
Italy is the birthplace of famous jewelry brands, including Bvlgari and Pomellato.And the Made in Italy label is an internationally recognized quality mark. Italian universities prepare their masters carefully: through full immersion in the modern realities of the profession and work on projects for large companies.
Courses in Istituto Marangoni
Istituto Marangoni, a leading creative university in Italy, offers training in jewelry and accessories making in short-term courses and undergraduate programs.
Students in the one-year Jewelry Design program study illustration, drawing and rendering, gemology, jewelry design history, and industry and marketing.Each of them designs their own collection, which is being worked on in close cooperation with jewelry companies. At the end of the training, students demonstrate their projects at fashion shows, meet important industry players and journalists.
IM graduate Marta Vazkez tells students about her experience at Aristocrazy
The “Design and Management of Luxury Accessories” program is intended for those who already have experience and education in the creation of accessories and are ready to launch their own collections.Students in practice get acquainted with technological processes, properties of materials, research the market and modern industry trends. The final project is its own collection of accessories, made in collaboration with a prestigious Italian company.
Students present sketches for the Italian brand of accessories and footwear Moreschi
If, in addition to jewelry, you are interested in accessories in general, we recommend the one-year Intensive Design of Accessories. Program participants create sketches and prototypes of products, learn to form and promote jewelry collections.In parallel, students conduct creative research to find out how design ideas fit into the global fashion context.
Finally, Istituto Marangoni offers the opportunity to obtain a Bachelor’s degree in Fashion and Accessory Design. Students master all the skills a designer needs – from classic illustration to the latest computer programs and 3D printing. A significant part of the program is devoted to marketing and business management, so after graduation you can get a job in a large company or launch your own brand.
Ring from a student Istituto Marangoni
Development of an extracurricular event in English in grade 2 “Musical Brain-ring”
Teacher: Natalia Sergeevna Smirnova
Type of event : Lesson-competition.
Goals and objectives of the lesson:
improving expressive reading skills;
developing listening skills;
activation and training of phonetic skills;
repetition of the studied lexical material;
maintaining interest in learning English;
development of creative abilities;
development of thinking, memory, attention, logic, imagination and observation.
Creation of a favorable psychological climate conducive to the formation of the personality of students.
Materials and equipment: colorful pictures, presentation, texts in English, assignments on leaflets, songs
I Organizational moment
Good morning children. Nice to meet you. Today we’ll have an unusual lesson. Listen to the song and try to guess the topic of our lesson.
Song “This is love”
What are we going to speak today? What is the topic of our lesson? Love can be different. Love can be to people, to animals and we’ll speak about love to music. Do you like music? Are you ready to start our Musical Brain-ring? Great!
II Setting targets and tasks
Today we’ll listen to the music, read a poem, work with the text and do some other tasks.We’ll have a real competition. That’s why we should divide into two teams. Name your teams. Well. You’ll get the melodies; the team who has got most of the melodies will be the winner. (Appendix 1)
III Phonetic charging
We have a poem. Listen to the poem and your task will be finish it with your own sentence.
M y song is number one
I can dance and I can r U n
I can li S ten and sing
I t shines like a sun
___________________________ (I can have a lot of fun)
What word do we get in the poem? (Music)
IV Forming Skills Listening
Tell us please, can you play musical instruments? What instruments can you play? Now, you will hear different instruments and your task will be to guess the instrument
Team 1 Team 2
1.Piano 1. Guitar
2. Drum 2. Violin
3. Accordion 3. Pipe
V Improving reading skills
We see that you know different instruments. And what about singers? Do you have your favorite singer? You will get the text, you should put the sentences in the logical order to get the picture of a singer. Name the singer and one of his or her song.
Music plays a great role in our life.
It helps us to relax.
We listen to music when we are happy or unhappy.
There are different songs and singers.
We like to sing because music helps us to show our emotions. (Appendix 2. Appendix 3)
Let’s have a rest and dance.
VI Formation Skills Monologue Speech
You are great dancers and do you like to sing? Do you know a lot f songs? Let’s see if you are good singers or not.
You will see a word and you task is to remember Russian song with this word.
Team 1 Team 2
You are great singers and great pupils. Thank you for your work.
Do you like the lesson? What do you like most of all? How do you feel? Count your melodies.How many have you got? The winner is a friendship.
Music plays a great role in our life.
It helps us to relax.
We listen to music when we are happy or unhappy.
There are different songs and singers.
We like to sing because music helps us to show our emotions.
plays 9060 role
It helps us to relax.
We listen to music when we are happy or unhappy.