Diamond cut exotics: Diamond Cut Exotics – Visit Hollyweed

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suneducationgroup.com Diamond Cut Exotics 3.5g press it in cali Tins preapplied labels Home & Garden Canisters & Jars



suneducationgroup.com Diamond Cut Exotics 3.5g press it in cali Tins preapplied labels Home & Garden Canisters & Jars

such as a plain or unprinted box or plastic bag. See the seller’s listing for full details. See all condition definitions : Material: : tins. Diamond Cut Exotics 3.5g press it in cali Tins preapplied labels. Glass Jar Designs. Tin Designs. Ready Made mylar label bags. Preroll Tube Designs. Why Choose Us!. Condition:: New: A brand-new, it may be delivered in non-retail packaging. unused, Tin , Brand: : Unbranded ,, unopened and undamaged item in original retail packaging (where packaging is applicable). If the item comes direct from a manufacturer.








Diamond Cut Exotics 3.5g press it in cali Tins preapplied labels

70 THERMOSTAT 50 GLOWWORM KFB 20 30 C77-P0136 S202539 40 60, 5 M Croissant Coffee Cup Oilcloth PVC Vinyl Wipe Clean Tablecloth Covering.

ARAMID OEM SPEC REPL BELT EXMARK 1-633173 633173 LAZER Z TRACER TURF RANGER, 5D Diamond Embroidery waterfall landscape full Diamond Painting Cross-Stitch CL. Camera Shutter Assembly Group Repair for Canon 450D 500D 550D 600D 1000D. Disc Coded Dial Lock Metal Combination Locks for Jewelry Case Safe Box Cabinet, Diamond Cut Exotics 3.5g press it in cali Tins preapplied labels, 6 White 4.5cm Doves Birds On Wire Wedding Doves Real Feather Tail. Blue Turquoise Giclee Canvas Abstract Colour Picture Wall Art, Velvet Fabric Tub Chair Armchair Scalloped Wing Back Accent Chair Lounge Sofa UK, Giant Inflatable Pegasus Swimming Pool Ride On Float Raft Beach Lounger Bed Toy, 2/4/10x 15W/25W Oven Lamps Cooker Light Bulbs 240v SES E14 300 Degree UVNJ.Clear House Shaped Glass Hanging Hydroponic Flower Planter Vase Bottle Decor.
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8 Step Mudah Untuk Melanjutkan Kuliah Ke Luar Negeri

Pada dasarnya SUN Education menyediakan pelayanan komprehensif, lengkap dan mudah dalam satu atap. Mulai dari konsultasi gratis pilihan studi, proses pendaftaran ke institusi yang dituju, pengurusan visa hingga pelayanan selama siswa studi di luar negeri.

Berikut adalah pelayanan prima SUN Education, yang dirangkum ke dalam 8 Langkah Mudah Pengurusan Studi ke Luar Negeri:

1STEP 1: ENGLISH PREPARATION

Faktor terpenting sebagai modal utama untuk sukses belajar di luar negeri adalah penguasaan akan bahasa Inggris. Sebagai persyaratan masuk suatu institusi, diperlukan hasil nilai IELTS™, TOEFL®, SAT® atau GMAT®.

SUN Language & Training Centre merupakan divisi integral dari SUN Education yang hadir untuk memberikan solusi terbaik untuk persiapan Anda. Tidak perlu jauh-jauh, tes internasional-nya pun dapat dilakukan di salah satu cabang SUN Education terdekat.

2STEP 2: KONSULTASI DENGAN KONSELOR SUN EDUCATION GROUP

Dapatkan informasi lengkap mengenai bidang studi, prospek karir, pemilihan negara dan universitas berdasarkan minat dan kemampuan.

SUN Education bekerjasama dengan Biro Psikologi terkemuka: Tes Bakat Indonesia, memberikan pelayanan extra bagi siswa yang membutuhkan bimbingan lebih lanjut mengenai penjuruan studi dan eksplorasi minat bakat.

3STEP 3: PROSES APLIKASI

Untuk mendaftar diperlukan dokumen seperti mengisi formulir pendaftaran, nilai akademis (ijasah, rapor, UAN), ujian bahasa Inggris internasional (IELTS™, TOEFL® atau tes lainnya) dan fotokopi paspor.

Tambahan dokumen lainnya bila diperlukan adalah seperti surat akademik dan profesional, personal statement, surat referensi kerja dan proposal riset. Tidak perlu khawatir, semua proses pengurusan dokumen di atas akan dibimbing oleh konselor SUN Education yang berpengalaman.

4STEP 4: OFFER LETTER

Konselor SUN Education akan membantu mem-follow up penerimaan dari institusi yang dituju. Tergantung dari level studi dan institusi yang dituju, biasanya dibutuhkan waktu 1 minggu hingga 2 bulan untuk mendapatkan surat penerimaan ini.

5STEP 5: PEMBAYARAN BIAYA SEKOLAH (TUITION FEE)

Setelah menerima Offer Letter dan semua persyaratan akademis dipenuhi, maka siswa akan diminta untuk melakukan pembayaran biaya uang sekolah dan/atau biaya lain yang diperlukan.

6STEP 6: PENGURUSAN VISA PELAJAR

Konselor SUN Education akan mengurus surat permohonan visa pelajar di negara yang bersangkutan. Untuk mengajukan visa pelajar diperlukan dokumen seperti formulir visa, surat penerimaan (letter offer), bukti keuangan dari orangtua atau pihak sponsor, bukti akademik terakhir, akte lahir, kartu keluarga dan lainnya.

7STEP 7: TIKET, AKOMODASI DAN PENJEMPUTAN

Konselor SUN Education akan membantu dalam hal pengurusan tiket pesawat, akomodasi dan penjemputan di negara tujuan.

8STEP 8: PRE DEPARTURE BRIEFING

Mengikuti pengarahan (pre departure briefing) dari konselor SUN Education sebelum berangkat ke negara tujuan. Selama siswa studi di luar negeri, konselor kami pun akan selalu siap membantu.

2 September 2021

Jerman menjadi salah satu negara di Eropa yang menjadi tujuan mahasiswa Indonesia saat berkuliah di luar negeri. Dengan biaya […]

1 September 2021

Siapa yang punya cita-cita kuliah hukum? Apalagi kalau jurusan hukumnya di universitas luar negeri seperti Inggris. Inggris sendiri memiliki […]

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LIHAT SEMUA NEWS

Event Bulan Ini

Promoting IG Live UIC College – 04 September 2021

Uncategorized

Study in Singapore Week 08-10 September 2021

SUN Education
Senayan STC STC Level 1 No. 55-58 STC Senayan, Jalan Asia Afrika, RT.1/RW.3, Gelora, Kota Jakarta Pusat, DKI Jakarta 10270 Indonesia

Study in Singapore Week 08-10 September 2021

SUN Education
Senayan STC STC Level 1 No. 55-58 STC Senayan, Jalan Asia Afrika, RT.1/RW.3, Gelora, Kota Jakarta Pusat, DKI Jakarta 10270 Indonesia

Study in Singapore Week 08-10 September 2021

SUN Education
Senayan STC STC Level 1 No. 55-58 STC Senayan, Jalan Asia Afrika, RT.1/RW.3, Gelora, Kota Jakarta Pusat, DKI Jakarta 10270 Indonesia

Western Sydney Info Session – 11 September 2021

SUN Education
Senayan STC STC Level 1 No. 55-58 STC Senayan, Jalan Asia Afrika, RT.1/RW.3, Gelora, Kota Jakarta Pusat, DKI Jakarta 10270 Indonesia


LIHAT SEMUA EVENTS

Kuliah Ke Luar Negeri Merupakan Impian Setiap Orang

Menyandang gelar sarjana dari universitas luar negeri dengan berbagai pengalaman unik akan menjadi nilai jual tersendiri ketika memasuki dunia kerja, terutama saat kembali ke Indonesia.

Tentunya untuk mencapai semua hal tersebut, semua persiapan harus direncanakan dengan matang.


  • Saya telah mendengar SUN Education sebelumnya dari keluarga dan teman-teman saya dan mereka mengatakan bahwa layanan yang disediakan adalah benar-benar baik dan sangat membantu. SUN Education sangat membantu saya untuk belajar ke Selandia Baru dengan pelayanan dan respon yang cepat dan orang-orang yang benar-benar baik. Terima kasih khususnya kepada para konselor yang membantu saya menyelesaikan persyaratan dan dokumentasi untuk gelar master saya. Mantan Sekolah: Universitas Tarumanegara Jurusan: Magister Akuntansi Institusi: University of Waikato
  • Pengalaman saya bersama SUN Education sangat menyenangkan. Saya percaya SUN Education adalah agent pertama yang saya pilih karena memiliki latar belakang dan kinerja yang sangat baik. SUN Education dan konselornya sangat gesit dan membantu 100% keperluan dan ketentuan yang dibutuhkan oleh universitas yang dituju. SUN Education sangat mempercepat proses segalanya. Former School : SMA Bogor Raya Major                 : Diploma of Business (Part 2) Institution        : Monash University
  • SUN Education membantu saya untuk mencari referensi kampus dan memudahkan mengurus dokumen untuk ke universitas. Former School : Universitas Trisakti Major                : Master of International Business Institution       : Curtin Singapore
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Diamond Cut Exotics 3.5g press it in cali Tins preapplied labels

Diamond Cut Exotics 3.5g press it in cali Tins preapplied labels

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Synthetic Diamond – an overview

1.6.1 Intrinsic defects

The concentration of vacancies (also known as GR1 defects) in bulk synthetic diamond has been estimated to be of the order of ~26 ppm [108,109], and the concentration of monovacancies in polycrystalline diamond has been measured at ≤7 ppm [110]. There is also evidence to suggest that the majority of these vacancies will be located in the vicinity of the diamond surface [111,112]. Previous studies have also examined the diffusion barrier for individual vacancy defects in bulk diamond, both theoretically [113–115] and experimentally [112,116,117], and a study of the preferred location, concentration, and stability of these point defects in nanodiamond was recently reported [118].

In this study, Barnard and Sternberg used DFTB computer simulations to investigate the structural and energetic stability of vacancies in model diamond nanoparticles with clean and hydrogen passivated surfaces. Since there is currently no way of determining experimentally where a vacancy is likely to be located in a given particle, the authors sampled a range of possible substitution sites in the bucky-diamond and passivated nanodiamond structures. The particles used in this study are a C837 truncated octahedral bucky-diamond and a hydrogenated C837H252 truncated octahedral nanodiamond, each displaying six {100} facets and eight {111} facets. The vacancy defects were introduced individually at different lattice sites, so as to sample the full range of crystallographically and geometrically unique lattice sites within the particles.

Fully relaxed C837 and C837H252 nanoparticles were used as initial configurations, and the point defects were substituted for carbon atoms located along specific (albeit zig-zagged) substitution paths within the lattice, extending from the centro-symmetric atom to different points on the surface. The directions of these substitution paths are shown in Figure 1.9, and are denoted as A, B, C, D and E, for substitution paths terminating at the center of the {100} surface, {111} surface, {100}/{111} edge, {111}/{111} edge, and the {111}/{111}/{100} corner, respectively. If we consider the nanoparticle morphology as analogous to the shape of the diamond Brillouin zone, the substitution paths (A, B, C, D, and E) begin at the Γ point and extend along the X, L, U, K, and W directions, respectively. In all, the vacancy defects were introduced at over 50 geometrically unique sites within the diamond nanoparticles, to effectively sample configuration space. Following inclusion of the defect, the entire structure has then been re-relaxed using the same method [118].

Figure 1.9. Substitution paths for the inclusion of a geometrically and crystallographically diverse range of point defects in a truncated octahedral diamond nanoparticle.

Figure 1.10 reproduces the site-dependent defect energies for the (a) hydrogen passivated nanodiamond and (b) bucky-diamond. In this study, the relative energy EEcenter was used, defined as the total energy of the nanoparticle with a given vacancy site relative to the energy of the nanoparticle with the vacancy in the centro-symmetric position. The x-axis represents a scaled (dimensionless) nanoparticle radius defined by dividing the distance from the center to the vacancy site (rX) by the total distance from the center to the extremum (RX) in each path (X). Hence r/R = 0 is the center and r/R = 1 is the outermost vacancy site located on a surface, edge, or corner. In Figure 1.10, the small site-to-site fluctuations in energy are due to redistribution of charge (electronic relaxations), whereas large energy variations are due to local changes in the structure of the lattice (ionic relaxations). In general, these site-to-site variations of the vacancy energy are comparable to (or larger than) the diffusion barrier for neutral vacancies in diamond [112–117]. As we will see in the following sections, the same technique has been used in other complementary studies on other functional defects, dopants, and impurities.

Figure 1.10. Stability of vacancy point defects (A) in a C837H252 nanodiamond and (B) C837 bucky-diamond, calculated with DFTB.

Source: Reproduced with permission from Ref. [118]. Copyright 2008, American Scientific Publishers.

The results of this study showed that the (in)stability of the vacancy defect depends on the location of the defect within the nanoparticle and on the type of surface structure. Even when the surfaces are stabilized by hydrogen, the vacancy is thermodynamically unstable when the substitution site is within six atomic layers of the surface/edge/corner. At this point, there is a thermodynamic driving force for diffusion that increases. The study also showed that the stability of the nanodiamond itself is also affected by the presence of vacancies, particularly when they are close to the surface/edges/corners. This was particularly significant in the case of the bucky-diamond, where dramatic changes in energy were reported, due to subsurface graphitization of the “inner surface” of the bucky-diamond core. In these cases, the defect did not need to reside in (or near) the “shell” of the bucky-diamond, as the subsurface graphitization could be activated when the defect is up to as many as eight atomic layers away from the extrema. This resulted in structural asymmetry, where {111} facets in the vicinity of the defect exhibit a dual-shell (onion-like) structure, while the remaining {111} facets retain the single-shell surface structure [118].

These results suggested that diffusion is likely to occur spontaneously at temperatures used during synthesis, or possibly during irradiation, as there is a strong thermodynamic driving force for diffusion of vacancies in diamond nanoparticles toward the surface (escape) even when the surfaces are stabilized with hydrogen.

70 Exotic Diamond Engagement Rings Designs To Select For The Grand Day

Diamond engagement rings look classy and beautiful. You can choose a pair of couple engagement ring for you and your partner or even opt for two different ones. The choice depends on your preference and of course on your budget. Here are some of the best diamond engagement ring designs that you can choose from:

Diamond Engagement Rings Designs

Double Halo Engagement Ring: The crown has one round diamond and smaller diamonds encircle this one from all the sides. The band is embellished with brilliant round cut diamonds too.

Marquise Diamond Engagement Ring: As the name suggests, this ring has diamonds in the shape of marquise or navettes adorning the band. The crown has one diamond in a prong setting. This is a vintage design. Opt for the ones that are made with rose gold.

Solitaire: Simple and elegant, a solitaire diamond ring is another choice you have.

Choose one of the above diamond engagement rings to surprise your better-half.

Absolutely Chic Cut Diamond Engagement RingAdorable Diamond Ring DesignAdoring Vintage Style Diamond Engagement RingAlluring Fancy Cut Diamond Engagement RingAmazing Floral Inspired Diamond Engagement Ring With Matching Diamond BandAppealing Ring DesignArtistic Diamond Ring DesignAttractive Three Stone Garnet, Heart And Diamond Engagement RingAwesome Diamond Cut Engagement RingBeautiful Handmade Diamond RingBold Diamond Rings SetClassic Blue Sapphire With Diamond Perfect For Engagement RingClassy Channel Set Diamond Ring DesignCreative Diamond Engagement Ring DesignDashing Solitaire European Cut Diamond RingDecorative Diamond Ring DesignDesigner Yellow Diamond Engagement Ring DesignDiamond Ring Design IdeaDroolworthy Diamond Ring DesignElegant Diamond Ring DesignEnchanting Diamond Ring Design IdeaExciting Twist Style Diamond Engagement RingExclusive Diamond Engagement RingsExquisite White Sapphire And Diamond Paisley Pattern Engagement RingExtraordinary Diamond Ring DesignEye-catching Diamond Ring DesignFabulous Round Diamond Ring DesignFancy Spring Ring Model IdeaFantastic Diamond Ring Design IdeaFashionable Diamond Ring DesignGlamorous Brilliant Diamond Engagement RingGorgeous Diamond Engagement Ring Design IdeaGraceful Floral Motif Of Round DiamondsHalo Diamond Ring DesignHeart Shape Diamond Engagement RingImpressive Rose Gold Diamond Engagement RingIncrediable Diamond Ring DesignLovely Diamond Ring Design IdeaLuxurious Diamond Engagement Ring DesignMarvellous White Gold Diamond Engagement Ring SetMind Blowing Diamond Ring IdeaModish Four-Claw Split Shank Diamond Engagement RingNatural Diamond Ring DesignOutstanding Design Of Diamond RingOval Diamond Ring DesignPear Shape Diamond Ring Design IdeaPerfect Diamond Ring DesignPlatinum With Diamond Ring Design IdeaPretty Rose Gold With DiamondRemarkable Engagement Ring SetRose Gold Diamond Ring Design IdeaSapphire With Diamond Engagement Ring IdeaSassy Diamond Ring DesignSilver Black Diamond Engagement Ring DesignSmart Marquise-Cut Halo Diamond Engagement RingSpectacular Diamond Ring Design for EngagementSposticated Diamond Engagement Ring IdeaStack Of Diamond With Dark Grey Diamond RingStunning Ribbon Diamond Ring With Radiat Cut DiamondStylish Engagement Ring DesignSuperb Diamond Ring Design IdeaSwanky Engagement Ring IdeaTrendy Diamond Engagement Ring DesignTwisting Split Shank Diamond RingUltimate Diamond Engagement RingUnique Diamond With Platinum Engagement RingWhite Gold With Diamond Engagement Ring SetWonderful Gold Diamond Engagement Ring Idea

images via www. pinterest.com

A Look Into The Magical World Of Louis Vuitton Exotics

Last week during Art Basel Miami, Louis Vuitton opened up an extraordinary space to showcase its exotic bags for a client event. Vlad and I were able to check it out for ourselves, and let’s just say this was one of those dreamy moments where you are not only surrounded by gloriously beautiful bags but also in a setting that feels like its out of a movie.

The exotic collection was showcased on the 4th floor (which is typically not open) at Louis Vuitton’s Miami Design District store. With cascading plants lining the walls, a grass floor, and bags floating from clear swings against the wall, a Louis Vuitton dream became reality with popular styles like the Capucines and Petite Malle in a range of exotic finishes sprinkled throughout.

There was a standout at the event, the a one-of-a-kind Louis Vuitton Capucines BB in Crocodile Porosus Skin with over 5ct of diamonds. This bag was a sight to behold, with Bleu Canard shiny crocodile which is a rich blue hue, teal in color, which shows off the skin well and highlights the gold hardware and diamond accents. Both yellow gold and white gold hardware with a weight of around 225g adorned the bag and a top it on the LV closure are approximately 275 diamonds.

The 10 baguette cut diamonds had a total weight of around 2ct while the 265 brilliant cut diamonds that added the intense glimmer and shine added the other 3ct of diamonds. When it comes to diamonds on a bag, most think of Hermès, but after seeing this bag I will never forget it.

On top of that, an Artisan was there to share a demonstration on the making of the Petite Malle Crocodile from the Louis Vuitton Atelier in Paris. Working as a craftsman since he was 17 years old, clients were able to discuss the making of the Petite Malle (which takes 100+ pieces and a very precise hand to mount and create the bag). Though there were tons of bags to view, Louis Vuitton offers MADE TO ORDER where you can choose among a range of 25 colors and 6 shapes in crocodile for a custom bag that will be produced for you in France.

The newest shape introduced into the market during the event was the Louis Vuitton Milla, an ultra-luxe, ladylike bag with hardware and details inspired by features of original Louis Vuitton trunks.

Louis Vuitton always does color well, and when it comes to exotics it is no different. From bright hues that immediately catch your attention to classic black, there was every color of the rainbow atop each bag being shown. Matte skins were also used along with tricolore tie dye and metallic finishes. Though the event in Miami is over, many of the pieces are still on sale. To inquire, call 866.VUITTON.

Amazon.com: 25 pounds of kiln dried, fancy exotic tropical woods: mahogany, mango, spanish oak, granadillo, etc. : Grocery & Gourmet Food

This listing is for 25 pounds = around 6 to 7 board feet of the finest, highly figured tropical exotic woods. This is a sample pack with an assortment of unfinished pieces and a variety of species. This pack includes shorts and cutoffs. This is a great listing for someone who makes pens, marquetry, intarsia, or for small crafts. These woods have been kiln dried. You can check our Diamond Tropical Hardwoods website to see the species that we sell.
Here is a list of the woods that we sell: Costa Rican Mahogany, mango, granadillo, cocobolo rosewood, teak, broadleaf mahogany (swietenia), spanish cedar, yellowheart, orangeheart, redheart, santa maria, pink rosewood (a true dalbergia!) goncalo alves tigerwood, monkeypod, and mango.This 25 pounds of wood will include some of these species. The pictures show some of our beautiful wood made into nice things.
We have low temperature humidification kilns so the wood dries slowly and will not have stresses, checking, and problems associated with high temperature kiln drying. Your purchase will help us to continue reforesting abandoned cattle pastures in Costa Rica, a country that has had some of the highest deforestation rates in the world. Please visit our websites Diamond Teak to see the high quality of our furniture or Diamond Tropical Hardwoods to see our fancy tropical exotic woods. We have been in business for more than 20 years and have a platinum reputation for quality and service. We sell the highest figured lumber, logs, and others fancy exotic woods such as cocobolo rosewood, monkeypod, Spanish cedar, etc. The Chain-of-Custody (COC) is a registered trademark of the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) and the Smartwood and Rainforest Alliance. Our reforestation projects in Costa Rica have been FSC and Smartwood/Rainforest Alliance certified for many years. You can be 100% certain that this teak wood has been harvested from environmentally-sound projects that help the local people.

Stingray skin- The most unforgiving of the exotics

What is stingray skin?


Stingray skin, also known as shagreen, is the upper portion of certain species of shark and ray used in leathercraft.

Today, the skins we buy to make wallets, watch straps, wrapped boxes and small bags, are mostly from farmed stingrays in Asia. In particular, Thailand.

The skin has a fibrous flesh side made up of collagen fibres, much like regular leather, but that’s where the similarities end.

The surface is made up of small spheres, sometimes called pearls. They are larger in the centre of the skin and smaller on the outer edges.

Each tiny sphere is made up of a hard substance called dentin, with an even harder outer coating of enamel. Very similar to your teeth.

The stingray uses this tooth like outer armour as a defence system against attack, which is why the spheres only cover the area of the ray around the vital organs. 

During processing, the soft meaty exterior wings are removed (for food consumption), and the upper layer of shagreen is sent off for tanning.

This is why stingray skin isn’t consistent with the shape of a live stingray.

Most stingray skins are chrome tanned which allows the skin to remain strong and flexible for product manufacture.

There are two types of finishing for shagreen.


One is simply left un-sanded before being dyed a particular colour. This gives a caviar like look to the finished skin (as the above images show). The other finish is sanded.

Sanding is usually done after the dying process where a machine sands away a portion of the surface exposing the un-dyed dentin underneath the enamel. Some finishes are dyed after sanding if a more uniform colour is required.

This will provide a uniform thickness across the skin which is also desirable for book binding, small cases, boxes, cabinets, humidors and wherever a raised effect is undesirable.

Finally, the sanded skin is put through a machine which imparts a polished finish that catches the light, providing a striking appearance (see below picture).

As leathercrafters the issues we face when using this skin are many.

Cutting the skin is the first hurdle.

The material that prevents a predator’s sharp teeth from penetrating this armour layer, is also resistant to the knife, pricking iron and awl.

Edge finishing can also be a challenge.

Especially with un-sanded skins, as the variation in the surface allows edge paint to seep between the spheres through capillary action, and the finished result is less than desirable with bleeding colour.

Stitching is another hurdle.

Since no awl can safely penetrate the dentin/enamel layer. Doing so risks stabbing yourself, or worse, blunting your awl blade 😉.

Another problem that plagues us is the texture itself.

No thread is tough enough to tell this unusual surface what to do. The spheres can play havoc with stitching consistency and the look of the completed product.

So how do you tame this wild and unforgiving skin?


Rather than fight the natural tendencies and properties of this precious skin,

it is best to understand it’s strengths and weaknesses and

work with the skin rather than against it. 

Now, as you’re still here, you obviously take your leathercraft very seriously and you want to learn more.

I would like to give you a FREE course created just for you! This is going to help you improve your knowledge and accelerate your skills faster and higher than you previously thought possible.

Start discovering in minutes, what some masters have taken decades to understand!

Get the information showing you how to use the best leather and skins in your work.

Start by claiming your FREE course which will reveal secrets known only to select tanneries and master leather craftsmen, and very shortly – YOU!.

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P.S. For a limited time there will also be a BONUS 20 page tool buyers guide which will help you to understand which tools you need and which tools you don’t, depending on your experience (The ‘3 step method ‘).

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List of 24 Gemstones with Names, Pictures, and Colors

Gemstones have played numerous roles in the myths and tales of human societies throughout history. Although some are believed to have unique powers, each shares a typical beauty, distinct with a unique color, birthplace, and story. Gems come in every color of the rainbow and are gathered from all edges of the globe, with each colored gemstone possessing a one-of-a-kind production of lovely color.

Below are some of the popular gemstones with their names, pictures and  colors.

  • ALEXANDRITE
  • AMETHYST
  • AQUAMARINE
  • CITRINE
  • DIAMOND
  • EMERALD
  • GARNET
  • JADE
  • LAPIS LAZULI
  • MOONSTONE
  • MORGANITE
  • ONYX
  • OPAL
  • PARAIBA TOURMALINE
  • PEARLS
  • PERIDOT
  • RUBY
  • SAPPHIRE
  • SPINEL
  • TANZANITE
  • TOPAZ
  • TOURMALINE
  • TURQUOISE
  • ZIRCON

1. ALEXANDRITE

If you like magic, specifically the magic of science, you will like Alexandrite, the color-change treasure. In daylight, it appears greenish, carrying a full-spectrum visible light. In the lamplight, it is a red gem with a warm raspberry tone. You could see it flick back and forth by switching from fluorescent to incandescent light. The value of the gemstone increases as the color change becomes more distinct.

It is genuinely spellbinding to see the magnificent changing colors in this beautiful gem; you might feel the mystical magic and lore credited to it. It is stated to reinforce instinct, help in creativity, and inspire the creative imagination.

Initially uncovered in Russia’s Ural Mountains in the 1830s, it is now discovered in Sri Lanka, East Africa, and Brazil. However, this gem is scarce and important.

2. AMETHYST

The ancient Greeks and Romans believed that Amethyst would prevent the invigorating powers of Bacchus and maintain the user clear-headed and quick-witted. For centuries, Amethyst has been related to several myths, tales, and religious beliefs in many cultures.

Not only is it the beautiful color that makes this gem so prominent, but it is also extensively offered in different shapes and sizes that make it more affordable. Amethyst matches both warm and cool colors, and therefore, it looks terrific embedded in both yellow and white metals. This one-of-a-kind ability suggests that it boosts practically every color in your wardrobe.

3. AQUAMARINE

The name Aquamarine represents itself, indicating seawater. Aquamarine quickly brings to mind its stunning pastel skies blue or the bright color of the sea.

For centuries, this timeless gemstone has been an icon of youth, wellness, integrity, and hope. Given that this gem is the color of water and the skies, it embodies immortality. Aquamarine is believed to have a calming influence on married couples, making it a fantastic anniversary gift.

Aquamarines are found in a series of blues, from a light pastel and a greenish-blue to a deep color. Darker colors of blue are increasingly uncommon and, subsequently, increases the value. Aquamarine is regularly a light gemstone, but the color could be a lot more extreme in bigger gemstones. Smaller-sized aquamarines tend to be much less vibrant.

4. CITRINE

This bright, radiating gem has been regarded as a gift from sunlight. The name Citrine, which is French for “lemone”, fits well with its color range of succulent lemon yellow to a brilliant orangey-brown. Many people pick a  Citrine based on their individual preferences. Some of the most in-demand Citrine gemstones have a clear, glowing yellow-colored to brownish red color.

In ancient times, Citrine was brought as security against snake venom and evil thoughts. Today, Citrine is called the seller’s stone and relates to success and prosperity.

Citrine is one of the most affordable and popular gems. It is relatively plentiful and offered in a wide range of sizes and shapes, consisting of huge sizes. These factors make it an excellent gem for that big, vibrant statement piece.

5. DIAMOND

In ancient times, diamonds were objects of desire. Formed one hundred miles below the Earth’s surface over a billion years ago, diamonds are the hardest treasure. They have a long history of folklore, a few of which claimed that diamonds were developed when bolts of lightning struck rocks, while others said that the treasure possessed healing powers. For centuries, rubies have been adorned by ladies and men and regarded as the supreme present and a symbol of eternal love.

Today, GIA diamonds are still appreciated all over the world. Until the middle of the twentieth century, there was no requirement to examine rubies. The GIA created the first—and, currently, internationally accepted—requirement for describing diamonds: Color, Clarity, Cut, and Carat Weight. Today, the 4Cs of Diamonds Quality is the universal approach for examining any diamond’s quality worldwide.

Locating the excellent diamond cannot be ignored. See our diamond education and learning section for tips and details on how you can locate the best diamonds for you.

6. EMERALD

Green is the color of Spring and has long signified love and rebirth. As the gem of Venus, it was likewise considered to assist in fertility.

Cleopatra, Egypt’s tempestuous women monarch, was as renowned for using Emeralds in her time as Liz Taylor is for putting on diamonds in our time. Old Egyptian mummies were often buried with an Emerald carved with the verdure icon – thriving greenness – on their necks to signify eternal youth.

The deeper and more dazzling the color of green, the extra useful the gemstone will be. The most stunning and valuable Emeralds show an intense bluish tone in enhancement to their primary strong green color. Among the rarest of treasures, Emeralds are almost always found with birthmarks, referred to as inclusions. Some inclusions are expected and do not detract from the stone’s worth as much as with other gemstones.

7. GARNET

This treasure is available in a rainbow of colors, from the deep red Hippie Garnet to the Russian Demantoid’s lively greens and African Tsavorite. We also see it appearing in the oranges and browns of Spessartite and Hessonite from Namibia and Sri Lanka and the subtle pinks and purples of Rhododendron.

Legend says that Garnets illuminate the evening and safeguard their proprietors from problems. Tourists have long brought garnets to protect against accidents far from the residence. Garnet is the birthstone for January. However, with a spectacular variety of colors and mystical powers, it has been gifted at events for centuries on end.

8. JADE

Jade has been treasured in China as the royal gems since at least 2950 BC. Given the idea to maintain the body after death, Jade could be found in the emperors’ tombs from thousands of years ago. To this day, many individuals believe that Jade will secure them from harm.

Jade is recognized for its dazzling green and shimmery, smooth shapes, but it is likewise available in lavender, pink, yellow, and white. One of the most familiar shapes is the flat, donut-shaped disc called a pi, generally put on as a pendant.

Wearing a spectacular item of Jade jewelry will certainly make any individual ‘green’ with envy.

9. LAPIS LAZULI

Recognized by man as early as 400B.C., Lapis Lazuli has always been cherished. Used to create the stunning ocean blues and the lively sky blues in paintings throughout the Renaissance, Lapis Lazuli is a tinted gemstone revered for centuries.

Its name suggests “blue stone,” and it could not be more precise. Lapis Lazuli is a dark blue microcrystalline rock that often shines with gold pyrite incorporations. This spectacular treasure is evocative of the stars in the midnight sky. Lapis Lazuli was also thought to be a strong medication. The Romans believed this gem to be a powerful aphrodisiac. Between Ages, it was thought to keep the arm or legs free and healthy the heart from envy, fear, and mistake.

Once you cast your views on this treasure, you will be entranced by its charm of beauty.

10. MOONSTONE

Ancient Romans believed that this shimmering rock was developed from frozen moonlight, giving it the name Moonstone.

It comes in colors varying from colorless to grey, brownish, yellow, green, or pink, and quality that goes from transparent to clear. The best Moonstone has a blue sheen, excellent quality, and a lifeless body color. Located in India and Madagascar, rainbow Moonstone has a selection of colors, from pink to yellow, peach, purple, and blue.

A great Moonstone is quite rare. We have looked to the ends of the Earth to locate several of the globe’s most sensational Moonstones.

11. MORGANITE

With its dazzling radiance and soft colors of clear pink, peach, and hot fuchsia, it is not surprising that it is referred to as the rock of divine love. The delicate pink treasure promotes love and success.

With colors of pink controlling the garment industry, Morganite is a favorite for females of every age. Coming in pinks from subtle lavenders to bright fuchsias and even light pink apricot blends, it radiates appeal and tenderness. Its mass appeal is due to its functional pink colors that compliment all skin tones and can be set in white or yellow gold.

12. ONYX

When we think of Onyx today, we often preface words with black to distinguish it from other selections of Onyx. This treasure comes in white, reddish-brown, brownish, and grouped. A selection of Onyx that is reddish-brown with white and lighter reddish bands is known as sardonyx.

Black never goes out of design, which is why you can never fail with black Onyx. Its appealing abundant black color can be both traditional and modern.

13. OPAL

In old times, the Opal was known as the Queen of Gems because it included the colors of all other gems. Each Opal is as unique as our fingerprints. Some choose the calming flashes of blues and greens; others like the brilliant reds and yellows. With its rainbow of colors, as you turn and move the Opal, the color plays and moves, offering you a treasure that can be worn with a plethora of ensembles.

Australia’s Lightning Ridge is known for its magnificent and uncommon black Opals. The suitable Opal displays broad patterns covering the surface area, with all the rainbow colors, including red. Since Opals are the most specific gemstone with their series of colors, pick one that reflects your color preference and pattern.

14. PARAIBA TOURMALINE

Paraiba Tourmaline gemstones have become one of the most valuable and precious gems on the planet, even though it was only found in the 1980s. Its unusual shades of electric blues and greens are like the heavenly seashores of Paraiba, where this gem is extracted. These unique, vibrant blue, and green colors are not found in any other gemstone worldwide.

15. PEARLS

Throughout history, humanity has appreciated and worshipped pearls. Persian folklore called them “the tears of the gods.” Ancient Chinese tale declares that the moon holds power to produce pearls, instilling them with its celestial glow and mystery.

Given that they are the only gems developed within a living creature, pearls are exceptional. Because all-natural pearls are tough and unusual to recover from the sea’s depths, man developed the strategy of culturing salt and freshwater pearls from mollusks meticulously seeded with toxic irritants like those created by nature.

Cultured pearls are available in several gorgeous colors, from light cream to white to rose, lilac, green, gold, gray, and black. There are four main types of cultured pearls: Akoya, South Sea, Tahitian, and Freshwater, each having distinct qualities that distinguish it from the other.

Today, pearls are timeless and contemporary; a pair of white pearls could be timeless, though an armband of chocolate pearls is more contemporary. In the case of pearls, it is crucial to note that regardless of the color or size, they could be worn daily and can enhance the most official outfit.

16. PERIDOT

Peridot is one of the few gemstones that exist in one color only, a unique trademark lime green. In old times, it was believed that Peridot was a present of nature to celebrate the annual creation of a new globe. Peridot is claimed to bring the user extraordinary powers and properties to safeguard against nightmares when provided as a present. It is likewise believed to instill powers and impact through the wearing of the gems.

Today, most Peridot comes from Arizona, but it is additionally discovered in China, Myanmar, and Pakistan. Peridot is available in several colors, varying from yellow-colored green to brownish, yet the brilliant lime greens and olive greens are some of the most wanted. If you choose citrus tones or planet tones, you will discover that Peridot belongs in your jewelry collection.

Peridot gemstones smaller-sized compared to 3 carats are very common. Still, gems over five carats are uncommon and, therefore, have a greater value. Peridot weighing 10 to 15 carats are more unusual but give a strong and bold look for an inexpensive cost.

17. RUBY

Ruby stands for love, courage, emotion, and interest. For centuries, this gem has been considered the king of all gems. It was thought that using a fine red Ruby bestowed good fortune on its owner. Rubies have been the prized ownership of emperors and kings throughout the ages. But now, the Natural Rubies are the most valued gems.

The color of a Ruby is one of the most vital attributes of the gems. Rubies are available in a variety of red tones, from blue and purple-red to orange-red. Ruby’s brightest and most important color is typical “a Burmese Ruby”—a sign that it is a rich, passionate, warm, full red color with a mild blue hue. This color is usually described as “pigeon blood” red, a Ruby color connected with the Mogok Valley mines in Myanmar. The color Pigeon Blood Ruby red is not connected with the color of a pigeon’s blood but with the color of a white pigeon’s eye.

18. SAPPHIRE

Many individuals quickly visualize a stunning violet-blue gemstone when hearing the word “Sapphire,” which is Greek for blue. For centuries, the Sapphire has been described as the supreme blue gemstone because it guarantees sincerity, commitment, purity, and dependability. To keep with this practice, Sapphires one of the most popular involvement gems today.

Sapphire is discovered in numerous world components; however, the most valued Sapphires come from Myanmar (Burma), Kashmir, and Sri Lanka. Sapphires with highly saturated violet-blue color and “velvety” or “drowsy” transparency are more unusual. The purer heaven of the natural Sapphire, the better the price. However, people find that the darker tones of Sapphire could be just as enticing.

Sapphires are not just blue; they are available in virtually every rainbow color: pink, yellow, orange, peach, and violet shades. The most desired color for the expensive Sapphire engagement ring is the beautiful and rare Padparadscha: a pink-orange corundum with a distinctive salmon color reminiscent of an exotic sunset. These ultra-rare, ultra-expensive stones are among one of the most sought-after gems worldwide.

19. SPINEL

Centuries ago, Sanskrit writings described Spinel as the little girl of Ruby. The brilliant red color of Spinel is so closely related to Ruby that both are frequently perplexed with one another. Spinels are rarer than Ruby, yet they can be in huge sizes, unlike Ruby.

In addition to stunning rich reds, Spinel could be discovered in tones of orange, beautiful pastel pink, and purple. Of particular passion is a brilliant, warm pink with a tint of orange mined in Burma, which is among the most fantastic gemstone colors and unlike any other treasure. Spinel also can be found in gorgeous blues, but these are exceptionally rare.

A Spinel is thought to protect the owner from harm, fix up differences, and calm away unhappiness. Nevertheless, its real charm is the variety of rich, fantastic, and affordable colors.

20. TANZANITE

Tanzanite is a unique gem unlike others and can only be discovered in one place on Earth: the foothills of Mount Kilimanjaro. This treasure has an exotic silky blue with a rich overtone of purple—a rare color.

Among today’s most prominent blue gemstones, Tanzanite diamond engagement rings can be found in various shapes, sizes, and striking arrays of blue tones. Seldom pure blue, Tanzanite usually displays its trademark overtones of purple. Tanzanite usually consists of lighter tones in smaller sized sizes, while the lavender color is extra common. In bigger sizes, Tanzanite presents typically a further, richer, and beautiful blue.

21. TOPAZ

In colors of yellow, brownish, honey, green, blue, red, pink, and in some cases no color at all, Topaz has a mass appeal. Topaz is often found in an amber gold, yellow, or a flushing pink-orange; however, a light pink or a sherry red Topaz is remarkable. One of the most valued colors of Topaz is called Imperial Topaz and features a stunning orange with pink touches. Blue, the rarest color of Topaz, is the most usual today due to man’s capacity to boost its color; Topaz with natural blue color is extremely rare.

The ancient Egyptians and Romans associated this gold gem with the sun god, offering it the power to recover and protect, enabling it to eliminate enchantment. With its worldwide mass appeal, you will quickly be under its spell when you find that perfect Topaz.

22. TOURMALINE

Offered in a spectrum of color and color mixes, Tourmaline meets its name, suggesting “mixed stone.” With a rainbow of colors, Tourmaline can easily enhance any jewelry collection. Cranberry red, hot magenta, bubblegum pink, orange, peach, canary yellow, mint, grass and forest green, ocean blue, violet, Tourmaline comes in these colors, among others

Tourmaline is likewise recognized for presenting several colors in one gemstone. These tri-color or bi-color gems are formed in many combinations and are highly treasured. One multi-color variety is Watermelon Tourmaline and features green, pink, and white color bands. The gemstone is reduced into thin slices with a pink center, white ring, and green edge to resemble its namesake.

With Tourmaline available in many colors, you are sure to discover one in your favorite color.

23. TURQUOISE

Turquoise is amongst the earliest recognized gemstones. Its popularity has spanned the world for centuries, having graced Egyptian Pharaohs’ necks and decorated very early Native Americans’ ceremonial dress. This gorgeous robin’s egg blue gemstone has been connected with healing powers, promoting the wearer’s standing and wide range, protecting from wickedness, and bringing good fortune.

Turquoise is an opaque, light to dark blue or blue-green treasure whose finest color is an intense blue. Recognized as the matrix, these veins of color are sometimes in the form of a detailed pattern called a spider web.

24. ZIRCON

Most individuals think of an intense sky blue when they hear Zircon. However, it is also offered in lovely planet tones of green, dark red, yellow, brown, and orange. Today, one of Zircon’s most popular colors is the dazzling blue and brilliant Caribbean Sea colors.

In the Center Ages, Zircon was claimed to help in resting, bringing success, and advertising honor and wisdom in its proprietor.

Its beautiful color, rarity, and affordability are why it is becoming increasingly popular today. Some treasure collectors seek Zircon from various places, catching gems in every color of the rainbow—anemic (colorless), green, blue, yellow, brownish, orange, dark red, and all the colors in between.

Diamond cut wedding rings: the glow of eternal love

Diamond cut jewelry is unique. They attract the sun’s rays and bring to life amazing light overflows. Many brides and grooms choose cut rings as wedding jewelry. What is the secret of the attractive power of these products and how to choose a precious attribute of family life?

What is diamond cutting

This is a type of jewelry processing, which involves the creation of incisions on the precious metal.Placed in different directions, they fold into patterns and provide the effect of light refraction. The reflections of the sun’s rays on a cut metal are comparable to the shine of diamonds. This explains the origin of the term. Another name for faceted products is diamond-plated jewelry.

Patterns on precious metal are created by hand. This is a laborious process that requires professionalism and care from the jeweler. Only top-level craftsmen have the ability to carve intricate ornaments without damaging the soft precious material.Talented jewelers create real works of art using a chisel. Upscale diamond-cut products impress with shimmer and intricate decor.

Precious dusting adorns various types of jewelry. Today, diamond-cut earrings, bracelets, pendants and wedding rings are produced. Carved jewelry is featured in the catalogs of leading jewelry brands and is attracting the attention of buyers around the world.

Features of engagement jewelry with dusting

Rings with diamond cut are in steady demand among grooms and brides.The popularity of carved products is due to the peculiarities of their design.

Wedding rings with a diamond cut in most cases refer to jewelry without inserts. In the design of products, attention is focused on carved ornaments. The shimmer of cut metal is a self-sufficient decorative element and does not require the insertion of stones.

In real life and in the photo, a diamond-cut engagement ring looks discreet but stylish. It is suitable for those who do not accept bright inlay, and consider smooth products without decor to be too simple and boring.

Affordable price – an additional advantage of diamond-cut wedding rings. The absence of precious inserts reduces the raw material costs of manufacturers. The carved decor allows even the most budgetary diamond-cut wedding rings to look solid and expensive. The cost of products starts at 1,500 rubles for a silver jewelry. A gold ring will cost 2-3 times more.

Materials of cut products

Spray jewelry is made from various precious metals.

Diamond-cut silver wedding rings are jewelry that combines grace with a democratic price.

Articles made of white and yellow gold are classics among the precious attributes of marriage. When creating diamond-coated rings, 585 or 750 material is used.

Red gold jewelry is a modern trend in jewelry fashion for brides and grooms. The pieces combine the traditional appeal of a diamond cut with an unusual rich shade of the material.

Platinum rings – jewelry with a noble cold luster. They are a luxurious alternative to yellow metal products.

Jewelry design

Precious dusting is a way to personalize jewelry. Modern diamond cut wedding bands are available in a variety of designs. Popular types of decor:

  • Geometric ornament.
  • Patterns with plant motifs.
  • Through holes.Diamond cut acts as an additional decoration for openwork fantasy rings.
  • Combination of embossed design with smooth metal. Rings with a combination of textures look strict but expressive.
  • Inlay is a rare element of diamond-cut wedding rings. Preference is given to white stones – diamonds or cubic zirconia. They are used in a minimal amount and maintain the shine of the carved edges of the rings.

Recommendations for the selection of products

The purchase of wedding rings is a crucial stage in preparing for the wedding.Symbols of conjugal love should be of high quality and please with an aesthetic appearance. Points to pay maximum attention to when buying diamond cut rings:

  • Material. Gold jewelry is often favored by grooms and brides. This metal has long been associated with family well-being and wealth. According to experts, a diamond-cut wedding ring in white gold is the most successful choice. Metal looks good on any skin tone. The play of light on cut white gold pieces is the most attractive.
  • Integrity of the surface of the rings. The selected specimens must be free from defects, cracks and other imperfections.
  • The size of the jewelry. A suitable product does not cause discomfort when worn on the finger. To choose a diamond cut wedding ring of the desired diameter, you need to take into account the width of the ring. Delicate jewelry fits freely and is easy to remove. Wide specimens hold onto the finger more tightly and require a choice in favor of a ring of a larger diameter.
  • Unity of design is a desirable criterion for pairing jewelry for the bride and groom.Wedding rings made in the same vein are a symbol of mutual love and harmony between loving people. They can be absolutely identical or contain a common decorative detail. Custom-made diamond-cut wedding rings are an alternative to off-the-shelf jewelry. The master will take into account the personal wishes of lovers for the design and symbolic details of the jewelry.

Disadvantages of faceted jewelry

The owners of diamond-coated rings indicate 3 difficulties that they had to face in the process of using their products:

  1. The relief pattern wears off over time.This property is attributed to the softness of the precious metal.
  2. Faceted surface accumulates dirt.
  3. Complexity of repair. High-quality restoration of jewelry with a complex pattern is not within the power of every master.

How to handle and care

Careful use of diamond-cut wedding rings will avoid negative points and ensure the beauty and durability of your products.

  1. It is recommended to protect jewelry from the effects of active household chemicals.
  2. When doing chores, wear gloves or take off the ring. This approach will eliminate the risk of contamination and mechanical damage to the precious metal.
  3. The ring is cleaned in water with soap suds and a little ammonia. Then the product is rinsed with running liquid and wiped dry with a soft cloth.

A diamond cut ring is a worthy contender for the title of an engagement jewelry. In the design of the products, conciseness and individuality are combined.The range of prices and design options for the rings leaves ample scope for choosing a precious symbol of love with a diamond sparkle.

What is the ideal diamond cut?

Cut is one of the characteristics by which the quality of a diamond is assessed.But did you know there is a perfect cut? Let’s find out why this is important.

Diamond Cut is the way in which a finished stone is formed from rough diamond material.

The cutter will strive to create a diamond with specific proportions and a predetermined number of facets.

What is a perfect cut?

The ability of a diamond to reflect light and demonstrate brightness depends on how it is cut, or rather, on the proportions of its various parts in relation to each other.

Perfect Cut means the diamond is sized to refract and reflect light in a way that maximizes radiance and brilliance. On the other hand, the farther the proportions of a diamond are from the dimensions that are considered ideal, the more light entering the stone flows out of it.

Because the edges of poorly cut diamonds are not well aligned to retain maximum light, they appear dull and lifeless.

Perfect cut is a concept that is of paramount importance when deciding which diamond to buy.But what are the exact standards for an ideal, and what dimensions should a stone have to be close to it?

There are several widely used standards for what an ideal cut should look like. However, the basic concept of each of these guidelines remains the same – the best cut should maximize the beauty of the diamond.

Principle of diamond cutting.

Cut affects the three main characteristics of a diamond, which determine how light interacts with the stone: brilliance, dispersion and shimmer.

Glitter is visible when light striking the stone is reflected back. If the depth (or height) of the diamond is too high or too low, then light entering it will not bounce back, creating a sparkle, but instead will flow out of the stone, remaining invisible.

As a result, the brilliance of too deep or too shallow diamonds leaves much to be desired.

Dispersion consists in the fact that the structure of the diamond breaks up when the light hits the color spectrum.The result is seen as a play of colors when looking at a diamond, and is also called “fire”.

Shimmer is the ability of a diamond to sparkle with intermittent flashes when you move it in front of your eyes.

A well cut stone shows a lot of brilliance, while a poor cut diamond looks much less alive.

Different standards for perfect cut.

Speaking of the classic round brilliant cut, the main characteristics that determine the quality of a diamond are the size of its top, the diameter of its girdle (the widest part of the stone) and its depth (or height).

In addition, the facets of a diamond are judged on how standard their shape is and how well they fit together.

While it may seem that the definition of an ideal cut is general, there really is no universal rule as to what its exact proportions should be.

In fact, there are at least one and a half dozen standards for measuring cut.

The most widely used standards today are the American Standard, Practical Fine Cut and Scandinavian Standard.The first one is used in North America, while the other two are mainly used in Europe.

Proportions.

Although there are different standards for a perfect cut, the proportions they use do not differ significantly in meaning.

The first thing you should know about diamond measurements is that they are expressed as a percentage of the diameter of the diamond’s belt, which is simply the edge of the stone and also the widest part.

Let’s take a look at the most important dimensions of a perfect diamond.Numbers are given as a range of values ​​that include the standards of the most widely used criteria:

Pad diameter: 90 120 53% -57.5% (This is the diameter of the flat top of the diamond, i.e. the pad.)

Crown Height: 90 120 14.4% -16.2% (This is the vertical distance from the waist to the top of the stone; the crown is the top from the waist to the platform.)

Pavilion depth: 43.1% -43.2% (This is the vertical distance from the waist to the bottom of the diamond; the pavilion is the lower portion from the waist to the lowest point.)

Thus, using the above numbers, we can conclude that an ideal diamond should have a top 53% -57% wide from the girdle, a pavilion approximately 43% deep, and a crown approximately 14.5% -16% high.

The total height of an ideal diamond, measured from its flat top to the sharp bottom of the stone, is approximately 60%, plus or minus 2-3 percent.

If you are going to buy a diamond, you probably do not need to measure all these values ​​yourself: they will be included in the certification report, and you just have to find them.It is not recommended to buy diamonds that do not have such a certificate confirming their quality.

Assessment scale: a shortcut to assessment.

You do not need to study all the above measurements in detail for every stone you look at.

There are many variables involved in evaluating a cut and the process can be very complex. However, you can easily see how close a stone’s cut is to the ideal standard by looking at the diamond certificate and checking the cut grade.

The two most authoritative bodies that evaluate cut varieties are A.G.S. (Gemstone Society of America) and G.I.A. (Gemological Institute of America).

A.G.S. use a range of varieties from “ideal” to “bad”, while G.I.A. rates varieties from “excellent” (highest grade) to “poor” (lowest grade).

G.I.A. (Gemological Institute of America) does all the work for you, and taking into account the different standards for lengths and angles, it assigns a cut for each diamond that it certifies.

If the diamond you are looking at comes with a G.I.A.classification report, study it. G.I.A. assigns grades to cuts using the following categories: excellent, very good, good, fair, and poor.

Other laboratories have different weights and grade names, but they all follow the same logic: the closer the dimensions of a certain cut are to the set of proportions that are considered ideal, the higher the grade assigned.

As a general rule, try to avoid bad cuts, and if you buy anything below a good grade, you shouldn’t expect too much of your diamond in terms of brilliance or shine.Overall, anything rated “good” or higher is an excellent choice.

However, keep in mind that how a stone is cut is one of the most important determinants of its appearance, so the high price to pay for the best cut can definitely be worth it.

How to check the quality?

To determine the quality of a particular cut, you can check how it is graded, look at the brilliance of the stone, or measure the diamond.

Variety check.

One of the easiest ways to check the quality of a diamond cut is to look at the grade, provided that the stone comes with an attestation certificate.

Using grades to determine quality works best with round diamonds. Other cuts do not have such well-defined grading standards, but you can use some key diamond proportions as a guideline for quality.

Gloss test.

Brilliant cuts such as round and princess are designed to increase the brilliance of a diamond, which is why you can use this characteristic to determine how well a stone is cut.

You can compare two diamonds of the same cut, and if one has more brilliance than the other, it is likely that the brighter stone has a higher quality cut.

This method is still only applicable for comparing brilliant cuts. If you are evaluating stepped cuts such as emerald and asher, which are not intended to improve brilliance, then it is best to look at the size and proportion of the diamond.

Checking dimensions and proportions.

One of the most accurate ways to determine the cut quality of a stone is to examine some key dimensions and calculate proportions.

But before you start checking sizes, you should be familiar with several terms that are constantly mentioned when measuring and evaluating a cut:

Belt: is the outer edge of the stone and most proportions are expressed as a percentage of the belt diameter (for round stones) or width (for non-circular shapes).

The belt itself can be classified on the basis of its thickness, and cuts with extremely thin or extremely thick belts are undesirable; something in between these two extremes is acceptable.

Caletta: This is the facet at the very bottom of the diamond. The stone may not have a culet at all, and this is also acceptable. The ideal culet is very small, medium and large is less desirable.

Land: is the top-most face of the stone, and its percentage is calculated by dividing the diameter of the land by the width of the girdle.

Depth: is the distance from the platform to the bottom of the stone, divided by the belt diameter or width.

Round proportions

The ideal round area ratio is between 53% -58%.Very good round diamonds typically have area in the 52% -53% and 58% -60% ranges. Values ​​below 51% or above 64% are for fair or poor varieties.

The overall depth ratio should ideally be 57.5% -59.5%, but 64% is still considered good.

The pavilion depth (part below the waist) should ideally be approximately 43% of the chord diameter, but values ​​of at least 41% and no higher than 45% are also acceptable. Values ​​outside the 41% -45% range are considered undesirable.

Proportions of cuts oval, marquise, pear and heart

The recommended sizes for the oval cut also largely apply to its derivatives: marquise, pear and heart.

For all these cuts, the ideal area is 52% -64%. Values ​​less than 51% or greater than 68% are also acceptable and are a sign of a good cut. A percentage of 50% and below or 69% and above is not considered superior quality.

The recommended percentage of depth for the oval cut and its derivatives is between 58% and 62%, values ​​up to 53% and up to 70% are also acceptable.Less than 53% and more than 70% are not recommended.

The recommended length to width ratios for these cuts are as follows:

Oval: between 1.25 and 1.60; ideally in the range 1.30-1.50.

Marquise: between 1.65 and 2.30; ideally in the 1.85-2.00 range.

Pear: between 1.35 and 1.80; ideally in the 1.40-1.55 range.

Heart: between 0.80-1.10; ideally in the range 0.90-1.05.

Princess cut proportions

The percentage of the princess cut area should be 60% -75%.It is not recommended to buy a diamond with a market percentage higher than 80% or lower than 56%. The ideal percentage of depth for this treatment is between 65% and 75%. Values ​​outside the 60% -80% range are considered undesirable.

Princess cut with a length to width ratio between 1.00-1.05 is most desirable because these stones appear square, while higher ratios are obtained with elongated shapes.

Cushion cut proportions

The ideal area for cushion cuts is between 58% and 70%.Percentages higher than 71% and lower than 56% are undesirable. Recommended values ​​for percentage of depth: ideally 58% -70%; less than 56% and more than 71% are not recommended. The optimal length to width ratio for non-square cushion diamonds is between 1.10 and 1.30.

Ratios of cut radiant

The percentage of “excellent” or “very good” cut radiant shall be 60% -70%. Values ​​that fall between 54% and 74% are also acceptable, while percentages outside this range are not recommended.

The ideal percentage of depth for a radiant cut is also in the 60% -70% range. Values ​​below 57% and above 74% are undesirable. The most popular aspect ratio for a non-square radiant is 1.10-1.40.

Emerald cut and usher proportions

Emerald Cut and Usher are essentially the same, the latter is just a square version of the former. A site percentage in the 60% -70% range is considered best for these cuts, and values ​​of at least 55% and at most 73% are still considered good.

Avoid diamonds with values ​​lower than 54% and higher than 74%. The percentage of depth in these cuts must be between 60% and 70%. Values ​​lower than 57% and higher than 74% are not recommended. For emerald cuts, the preferred length to width ratios are 1.20-1.80. The ideal length to width ratio for usher cuts is between 1.00 and 1.05.

Diamond Cut Jewelry | Rings, earrings, pendants with diamond cut

Quite often in the descriptions of jewelry you can see the term “diamond cut”.In layman’s terms, this is one of the types of metal processing that uses diamond cutters. They cut gold and silver in a completely original way, which cannot be achieved with any other tools.

Forming wedge-shaped grooves of different depths and cutting angles, craftsmen create the finest patterns on the metal. The play of light and an interesting pattern made up of such grooves create the impression that you are looking at a product with inserts made of real diamonds.

On the chain links, flat cuts are visible, which are made using diamond cutters.This kind of gold processing is eye-catching, especially in the sun, when the light is dazzlingly reflected from these edges. It seems that this chain is all made of a precious stone.

The diamond cutting of the rings also looks amazing. This is the best way to accentuate the shine and catchy metal of the metal. For such rings, diamond inserts are not even required – they already sparkle incredibly in the light. This is a great choice of jewelry for both men and women.Choosing a diamond-cut ring, you show others your excellent taste and legibility in expensive things.

Gold and silver earrings, decorated with a diamond cut, will appeal to young girls and ladies of all ages. These exquisite jewelry will become your favorite, and this is not surprising – such exquisite shapes and sparkling edges can make any look solemn, and the owner of such earrings is a real princess.

Achieving the perfect diamond cut is difficult.This is done only by the most experienced specialists and experienced jewelers. Therefore, all products on which such processing is present look very interesting, but at the same time elegant and sophisticated. Most often, such jewelry does not have precious stones in the design that distract the eye from the artful design, but there are collections of exclusive jewelry with diamond inserts.

The Sea of ​​Gold company offers the widest range of diamond-cut precious metal jewelry.Earrings, rings, chains, bracelets made in this way will become an integral part of your image and will say a lot about your taste. All jewelry presented in the catalog have quality certificates. You can buy diamond cut jewelry in our store at the best prices ..


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Diamond is … What is Diamond?

Diamond
Diamond in parent rock
Formula C
Impurity N
System Cubic
Color Colorless, yellowish, brown, sometimes green, blue, reddish, black
Line color Missing
Gloss Diamond
Transparency Transparent
Hardness 10
Cleavage Perfect by {111}
Fracture Cancer to splinter
Density 3.47-3.55 g / cm³
Refractive index 2.417-2.419

Almaz (from Arabic.ألماس, ‘almās , which goes through Arabic. from ancient Greek. ἀδάμας – “indestructible”) – mineral, cubic allotropic form of carbon. Under normal conditions, it is metastable, that is, it can exist indefinitely. In a vacuum or in an inert gas at elevated temperatures, it gradually transforms into graphite [1] .

Physical and mechanical properties

The main distinguishing features of diamond are the highest hardness among minerals (but at the same time brittleness), the highest thermal conductivity among all solids 900-2300 W / (m · K) [2] , high refractive index and dispersion.Diamond is a dielectric. Diamond has a very low coefficient of friction against metal in air – only 0.1, which is associated with the formation of thin films of adsorbed gas on the crystal surface, which play the role of a kind of lubricant. When such films are not formed, the coefficient of friction increases and reaches 0.5-0.55. The high hardness gives the diamond exceptional abrasion resistance. Diamond is also characterized by the highest (in comparison with other known materials) modulus of elasticity and the lowest compression ratio.The energy of the crystal is 10 5 J / g-at, the binding energy of 700 J / g-at is less than 1% of the energy of the crystal.

The melting point of diamond is 3700–4000 ° C at a pressure of 11 GPa. In air, diamond burns at 850–1000 ° C, and in a stream of pure oxygen it burns with a faint blue flame at 720–800 ° C, ultimately converting completely into carbon dioxide. When heated to 2000 ° C without air access, diamond transforms into graphite in 15-30 minutes [1] . The average refractive index of colorless diamond crystals in yellow is about 2.417, and for different colors of the spectrum it varies from 2.402 (for red) to 2.465 (for violet).The ability of crystals to break down white light into its individual constituents is called dispersion. For diamond, the variance is 0.063.

One of the important properties of diamonds is luminescence. Under the influence of sunlight and especially cathode, ultraviolet and X-rays, diamonds begin to luminesce – they glow in different colors. All types of diamonds glow under the influence of cathode and X-ray radiation, and only a few under the influence of ultraviolet radiation. X-ray luminescence is widely used in practice to extract diamonds from rocks.

The high refractive index, along with high transparency and sufficient dispersion of the refractive index (play of color) make the diamond one of the most expensive gemstones (along with emerald and ruby, which rival diamond in price). A diamond in its natural state is not considered beautiful. The beauty is given to the diamond by the cut, which creates conditions for multiple internal reflections. A cut diamond is called a diamond.

Structure

The system is cubic, the crystal lattice is face-centered cubic, a = 0.357 nm = 3.57 Å, z = 4, space group Fd3m (according to Hermann – Mogen).Carbon atoms in diamond are in a state of sp³-hybridization. Each carbon atom in the structure of a diamond is located in the center of a tetrahedron, the vertices of which are the four nearest atoms. It is the strong bond of carbon atoms that explains the high hardness of diamond.

Schematic representation of the crystal lattice of a diamond

Painting

The vast majority of gem-quality diamonds are yellow and brown diamonds. Yellow-colored diamonds are characterized by a H-3 structural defect. Depending on the concentration of these defects, yellow shades from subtle to clearly visible are possible.In colorless diamonds, in which even a spectrophotometer fails to detect the presence of H – 3 defects, they can also be present if blue luminescence is present. Only 10–12% of all studied diamonds with a clearly visible yellow tint, indicating the presence of H – 3 centers, did not have blue luminescence or it was weakened. This is due to the presence of impurities in the structure of the diamond, which cause quenching of the luminescence. An important optical property of the H −3 center is that the blue luminescence color is complementary to the yellow tint.This means that if the visual reactions from the intensities of the radiation of these shades are equal, their total reaction to the evaluator’s eye will be the same as from colorless (white) radiation; that is, under certain conditions, the yellow tint of the color is compensated by the blue tint of the luminescence. In the general case, there is an inequality of color intensities by zones and an inequality of visual reactions from the yellow color of the color and the blue color of the luminescence. You can consider luminescence as a factor of “compensation” for yellow color, acting with a “plus” or “minus” sign.This leads to a number of practical implications for some aspects of diamond appraisal and marking prior to sawing.

It is necessary to take into account the combined effect on the eye of the sorter of the yellow tint of the color and the blue tint of the luminescence of the crystal. Therefore, diamonds of the first color should be divided into those from which diamonds of higher colors can be obtained, and those from which they cannot be obtained. During the incoming inspection of crystals, all non-luminescent diamonds should be removed from the total number without the slightest presence of a yellow tint (a slight brown tint is allowed) and with a transmission of more than 70%.These diamonds can be considered as starting crystals for 1.2 color diamonds. Their number reaches no more than 1-3% of the total number [3] .

Each colored diamond is a completely unique piece of nature. There are rare colors of diamonds: pink, blue, green and even red [4] .

Examples of some colored diamonds:

Diamond diagnostics

In order to distinguish a real diamond from its imitation, a special “diamond probe” is used to measure the thermal conductivity of the stone under study.Diamond has a much higher thermal conductivity value than diamond substitutes. In addition, the good wettability of the diamond with fat is used: a felt-tip pen filled with special ink leaves a solid line on the surface of the diamond, while on the imitation surface it crumbles into separate droplets [5] .

Finding diamonds in nature

Cut diamond

Diamond is a rare, but at the same time quite widespread mineral. Commercial diamond deposits are known on all continents except Antarctica.Several types of diamond deposits are known. Already several thousand years ago, diamonds were mined on an industrial scale from alluvial deposits. Only by the end of the 19th century, when diamondiferous kimberlite pipes were first discovered, did it become clear that diamonds did not form in river sediments.

There is still no exact scientific data on the origin and age of diamonds. Scientists adhere to different hypotheses – magmatic, mantle, meteorite, fluid, there are even several exotic theories.Most are inclined to magmatic and mantle theories, to the fact that carbon atoms under high pressure (usually 50,000 atmospheres) and at a great depth (about 200 km) form a cubic crystal lattice – the diamond itself. Stones are carried to the surface by volcanic magma during the formation of the so-called “explosion tubes”.

The age of diamonds, according to some studies, can be from 100 million to 2.5 billion years.

Meteorite diamonds are known of extraterrestrial, possibly pre-solar origin.Diamonds are also formed during impact metamorphism during the fall of large meteorites, for example, in the Popigai astroblem in northern Siberia.

In addition, diamonds were found in the top rocks in the associations of ultrahigh pressure metamorphism, for example, in the Kumdykul diamond deposit on the Kokchetav massif in Kazakhstan.

Both impact and metamorphic diamonds sometimes form very large-scale deposits, with large reserves and high concentrations. But in these types of deposits, diamonds are so small that they have no industrial value.

Production and fields

Industrial diamond deposits are associated with kimberlite and lamproite pipes associated with ancient cratons. The main deposits of this type are known in Africa, Russia, Australia and Canada.

According to the materials of the Kimberley Process, the world diamond production in value terms in 2008 amounted to $ 12.732 billion (up 6.7% compared to the previous year).

According to De Beers, in 2004 diamond production (in value terms) in the leading countries was:

The capacities of the existing deposits, the degree of their development, and the expected commissioning of new mines suggest that in the medium and long term, the global market will see a steady excess of demand over supply, which creates preconditions for an increase in diamond prices.

History of diamond mining in Russia

In Russia, the first diamond was found on July 4, 1829 in the Urals in the Perm province at the Krestovozdvizhensky gold mine by the fourteen-year-old serf Pavel Popov, who found a crystal by washing gold in a placer tray. For a half-carat crystal, Pavel received his freedom. Pavel brought scientists, members of the expedition of the German scientist Alexander Humboldt, to the place where he found the first diamond (now this place is called the Diamond Key (according to the source of the same name) and is located approximately 1 km from the village.Promysla not far from the old highway connecting the villages of Promysla and Tyoplaya Gora of the Gornozavodsky district of the Perm Territory), and two more small crystals were found there. For 28 years of further searches, only 131 diamonds with a total weight of 60 carats were found.

The first diamond in Siberia was also recovered from a concentrate near the city of Yeniseisk in November 1897 on the Melnichnaya River. The size of the diamond was 2/3 carats. Due to the small size of the discovered diamond and the lack of funding, no diamond exploration was carried out.The next diamond was discovered in Siberia in 1948.

The search for diamonds in Russia was carried out for almost a century and a half, and only in the mid-1950s the richest primary diamond deposits were discovered in Yakutia. On August 21, 1954, geologist Larisa Popugaeva from the geological team of Natalya Nikolaevna Sarsadskikh discovered the first kimberlite pipe outside South Africa [6] [7] . Its name was symbolic – “Zarnitsa”. The next was the pipe “Mir”, which was also symbolic after the Great Patriotic War.The Udachnaya pipe was opened. Such discoveries served as the beginning of industrial diamond mining on the territory of the USSR. At the moment, the lion’s share of the diamonds mined in Russia falls on the Yakut mining enterprises. In addition, large diamond deposits are located in the Krasnovishersky District of the Perm Territory, and in the Arkhangelsk Region: the Lomonosov on the territory of the Primorsky region and the Verkhotin deposit (named after V. Grib) on the territory of the Mezensky region.

In September 2012, the media reported that scientists had declassified information about the world’s largest deposit of impact diamonds, located on the border of the Krasnoyarsk Territory and Yakutia.According to Nikolai Pokhilenko (director of the Institute of Geology and Mineralogy of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences), this deposit contains trillions of carats [8] .

Synthetic diamonds

Background and early attempts

In 1694, the Italian scientists J. Averani and K.-A. Targioni, while trying to fuse several small diamonds into one large one, found that when heated strongly, the diamond burns like coal. In 1772, Antoine Lavoisier established that when a diamond burns, carbon dioxide [9] is formed.In 1814, Humphrey Davy and Michael Faraday proved conclusively that diamond is a chemical relative of coal and graphite.

The discovery prompted scientists to think about the possibility of artificially creating a diamond. The first attempt to synthesize diamond was made in 1823 by the founder of Kharkov University, Vasily Karazin, who obtained solid crystals of an unknown substance by dry distillation of wood under strong heating. In 1893, Professor KD Khrushchov, upon rapid cooling of molten silver saturated with carbon, also obtained crystals that scratched glass and corundum.His experience was successfully repeated by Henri Moissan, who replaced silver with iron. Later it was found that in these experiments not diamond was synthesized, but silicon carbide (moissanite), which has properties very close to diamond [10] .

In 1879, Scottish chemist James Hanney discovered that when alkali metals react with organic compounds, carbon is liberated in the form of graphite flakes and suggested that when such reactions are carried out under high pressure conditions, carbon can crystallize in the form of diamond.After a series of experiments in which a mixture of paraffin, bone oil and lithium was kept for a long time in a sealed steel pipe heated to red heat, he managed to obtain several crystals, which, after independent research, were recognized as diamonds. In the scientific world, his discovery was not recognized, since it was believed that diamond could not form at such low pressures and temperatures [11] . A re-examination of Hanney’s samples, carried out in 1943 using X-ray analysis, confirmed that the crystals obtained were diamonds, but Professor K.Lonsdale, who conducted the analysis, reiterated that Hanney’s experiments were a hoax [12] .

Synthesis

Valentin Nikolayevich Bakul was the first to synthesize a diamond in Kiev at the Central Design Bureau of Carbide and Diamond Tools and organized the production of the first 2000 carats of artificial diamonds; since 1963 their serial production has been launched.

In 1961, the first publications of the DuPont company appeared on the implementation of the idea of ​​obtaining diamond by means of a direct phase transition from graphite.The synthesis was carried out using the energy of the explosion [13] , or directly from the explosion products of some explosives, with a negative oxygen balance (Shabalin’s work), TNT is especially convenient for producing diamonds. This is the cheapest way to get diamonds, however, “explosive diamonds” are very small and are only suitable for abrasives and spraying.

Currently, there is a large industrial production of synthetic diamonds, which meets the need for abrasive materials.Several methods are used for synthesis. One of them consists in preparing a high-carbon nickel-manganese alloy and cooling it under pressure in hard alloy molds (type VK). Crystallized small diamonds are separated after dissolving the metal matrix in a mixture of acids.

Modern methods of diamond production use [14] gas environment, consisting of 95% hydrogen and 5% carbon-containing gas (propane, acetylene), as well as high-frequency plasma concentrated on the substrate where the diamond itself is formed (CVD).The gas temperature is from 700-850 ° C at a pressure thirty times less than atmospheric. Depending on the synthesis technology, the growth rate of diamonds is from 7 to 180 microns / hour on a substrate. In this case, diamond is deposited on a metal or ceramic substrate under conditions that generally stabilize not the diamond (sp3) but the graphite (sp2) form of carbon. The stabilization of the diamond is primarily due to the kinematic processes on the surface of the substrate. A fundamental condition for diamond deposition is the ability of the substrate to form stable carbides (also at diamond deposition temperatures: between 700 ° C and 900 ° C).For example, diamond deposition is possible on substrates of Si, W, Cr and is not possible (directly, or only with intermediate layers) on substrates of Fe, Co, Ni.

Application

A cut diamond (brilliant) has been the most popular and expensive gemstone for many centuries. While the price of other gemstones is determined by fashion and constantly changing, the diamond remains an island of stability in the tumultuous jewelry market. To a large extent, such a stable position of the diamond is due to the high monopolization of this market.De Beers, which accounts for about 50% of world production, develops fields in Botswana, South Africa, Namibia and Tanzania. The overwhelming majority (in value) of natural diamonds is used for the production of polished diamonds.

The exceptional hardness of diamond finds its application in industry: it is used for the manufacture of knives, drills, cutters and the like. The demand for diamonds for industrial use is forcing the expansion of the production of artificial diamonds. Recently, the problem has been solved by cluster and ion-plasma spraying of diamond films on cutting surfaces.Diamond powder (both waste from the processing of natural diamond, and obtained artificially) is used as an abrasive for the manufacture of cutting and grinding discs, wheels, etc.

Also used in quantum computers, watch and nuclear industries.

The development of microelectronics on diamond substrates is extremely promising. There are already finished products with high thermal and radiation resistance. It is also promising to use diamond as an active element of microelectronics, especially in high-current and high-voltage electronics due to the high breakdown voltage and high thermal conductivity.In the manufacture of diamond-based semiconductor devices, as a rule, doped diamond films are used. So, diamond doped with boron has p-type conductivity, phosphorus – n-type. Due to the large width of the zone, diamond LEDs operate in the ultraviolet region of the spectrum [15] .

In 2004, for the first time, at the Institute of High Physics, the Russian Academy of Sciences synthesized a diamond with a superconducting transition at a temperature of 2-5 K (depending on the degree of doping) [16] . The obtained diamond was a polycrystalline sample heavily doped with boron; later, diamond films were obtained in Japan, passing into a superconducting state at temperatures of 4-12K [17] .So far, diamond superconductivity is of interest only from a scientific point of view.

Diamond cut

A cut diamond is called a brilliant.

The main types of cut are:

  • round (with a standard number of 57 sides)
  • fancy, which includes cuts such as
“oval”,
“pear” (one side of the oval – an acute angle),
“marquise” (an oval with two sharp corners, in plan it looks like a stylized image of an eye),
“princess”,
“radiant”
, etc.

The cut of a diamond depends on the shape of the original crystal of the diamond. To obtain a diamond of the maximum value, cutters try to minimize the loss of the diamond during processing. Depending on the shape of the diamond crystal, 55-70% of its weight is lost during processing.

With regard to processing technology, rough diamonds can be conditionally divided into three large groups:

  1. “Saubles” – as a rule, crystals of the correct octahedral shape, which must first be sawn into two parts, thus obtaining blanks for the production of two diamonds;
  2. “makblez” – crystals of irregular or round shape, cut “one piece”;
  3. “cleavage” – contains a crack and is first split before further processing.

The main centers of diamond cutting are: India, which specializes mainly in small diamonds weighing up to 0.30 carats; Israel, cutting diamonds weighing over 0.30 carats; China, Russia, Ukraine, Thailand, Belgium, USA, while in the USA only large high-quality diamonds are produced, in China and Thailand – small, in Russia and Belgium – medium and large. This specialization has developed as a result of differences in the wages of cutters.

Doctor of Technical Sciences Dronova Nona Dmitrievna in 2001 developed a method for evaluating rough diamonds, in which, when determining the cost of large crystals, the cost of diamonds that can be obtained from them is predicted.

See also

Notes

  1. 1 2 TSB
  2. Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 3764 (1993): Thermal conductivity of isotopically modified single crystal diamond
  3. Dronova Nona Dmitrievna. Changing the color of diamonds during their processing into diamonds (a systematic approach and experimental research), thesis for the degree of candidate of geological and mineralogical sciences.Specialty 04. 00. 20 – mineralogy, crystallography. Moscow, 1991
  4. Yuri Shelementyev, Peter Pisarev World of Diamonds (Russian). Gemological Center of Moscow State University. – A black diamond is called a carbonado. Archived from the original on August 23, 2011. Retrieved on September 8, 2010.
  5. Science and technology, October 14, 2002
  6. Coffee room | Neva, 2003 N9 | Evgeniy Treyvus – Calvary of geologist Popugaeva
  7. Lenin Prize of 1957 was awarded to other geologists.Only in 1970, Popugaeva was awarded an honorary diploma and the sign “Discoverer of the deposit”
  8. Scientists have declassified an impact diamond deposit in Siberia, Lenta.ru (September 16, 2012). Retrieved September 18, 2012.
  9. “Large diamond – from small ones”
  10. B. F. Danilov “DIAMONDS AND PEOPLE”
  11. life strategy of a creative person
  12. [1] Journal “Universities”
  13. Technology for production and purification of detonation diamonds // Solid State Physics, 2004, volume 46, issue.4. – C. 586
  14. lenta.ru: “The new technology will make it possible to create diamonds of any size” based on the materials of “New Scientist”
  15. New n-Type Diamond Semiconductor Synthesized
  16. Ekimov, E. A .; V. A. Sidorov, E. D. Bauer, N. N. Mel’nik, N. J. Curro, J. D. Thompson, S. M. Stishov (2004). Superconductivity in diamond. Nature 428 (6982): 542-545. DOI: 10.1038 / nature02449. ISSN 0028-0836. Retrieved on 2010-02-22.
  17. [cond-mat / 0507476] Superconductivity in Polycrystalline Diamond Thin Films

Literature

  • ND Dronova, IE Kuzmina Characteristics and evaluation of rough diamonds. – M .: MGGU, 2004 .– 74 p.
  • V. I. Epifanov, A. Ya. Pesina, L. V. Zykov Technology of processing diamonds into polished diamonds. – Study guide for environments. Vocational school. – M .: Higher school, 1987.
  • Orlov Yu.L. Mineralogy of diamond.- M .: Nauka, 1984.

References

A diamond that knows no boundaries – Weekend – Kommersant

was opened by Ekaterina Istomina

De Beers is not just a jewelry company, it is a giant diamond mining industry, a diamond monster, a mysterious diamond octopus, a dinosaur of the industry, very old, but nimble, nimble and extremely cunning. The history of De Beers is really old and difficult, like the history of any big business, associated with colossal money and great danger.Perhaps that is why De Beers means not only diamonds, diamond exchanges, diamond mines, cutting factories and the legendary formula of four Cs (carat, color, cut, clearance), proposed by the company in 1939 as a universal equation for valuing a gem (this formula is used all diamond companies today). The history of De Beers is a history of world luxury, but not from its glossy, ceremonial side, but from the side of a much more unsightly – financial and industrial one.

De Beers founder Cecil Rohde, a young Briton, was sent by his parents to South Africa due to illness. Cecil Rohde was terminally ill with tuberculosis. But the hot climate of South Africa in some incredible way influenced the health of the consumptive young man – in 1870 he opened a small cotton farm, where he did almost all the work himself. Soon, the first large South African diamond deposit was found near his farm in Kimberley. The development was named “Big Hole”. Cecil Rohde, who was in the right place at the right time, decided to join the big diamond game, that is, get into the “Big Hole” and hit his jackpot.

Cecil Rode was not one such smart guy. There were many who wanted to profit from the South African Klondike. But Rohde acted smarter than the others. He drew up a business plan and went with the papers not to anyone, but to the Rothschilds themselves. The clever and cunning Rothschilds gave him a loan of £ 1 million in three days. Rode’s further history deserves not this modest note, but the novel by Jack London. There was everything – danger, exoticism, money, and, of course, specific romance. In just a few years, Rohde bought up all the small diamond mines around Kimberley and quickly dispersed the competitors (and for this they used a variety of methods – from dumping diamond prices to banal intimidation of workers).Finally, in 1888, Rode created De Beers Consolidated Mines. Three years later, the company already controlled 90% of the entire diamond market in South Africa. It would seem that with such matters one can only live and rejoice. But, alas, malicious consumption nevertheless overtook our hero – Cecil Rohde died in 1902, leaving no heirs and bequeathed his entire fortune to Oxford.

After the death of the diamond genius, failures rained down on De Beers one after another. In 1907, a crisis broke out in the United States, which entailed a decrease in purchasing power, and in 1912, several large diamond deposits were discovered on the territory of present-day Namibia (then part of this long-suffering country was a German colony).And here in the history of De Beers a new iconic figure appears – a young German boy named Ernst Oppenheimer. Through various mergers, acquisitions and castlings, Ernst Oppenheimer became the head of the company, and by 1929 all De Beers shares were in his hands. Oppenheimer managed to repeat the feat of Cecil Rohde – to stop the uncontrolled flow of diamonds from mines to America and Europe and the activities of single miners. In the late 1920s and early 1930s, formidable small planes with the De Beers inscription on their sides and wings roamed the airspace of South Africa, tracking, looking for those impudent people who dared to dodge the formidable eye and bottomless purse of Ernst Oppenheimer.Not a single diamond should have escaped De Beers, and those who wanted to mine and sell polished diamonds had to turn to Oppenheimer with their problems. Approximately from this moment, De Beers also becomes a family business – Ernst Oppenheimer is inherited by his son Harry, and Harry is inherited by Nicky Oppenheimer, Ernst’s grandson. Today the South African company De Beers controls 40% of all diamonds mined in the world.

Meanwhile, De Beers’ boutique history does not have such a turbulent and long history.The idea to produce jewelry and sell them in boutiques under the De Beers brand appeared recently – in 2001. Then a special company, De Beers Diamond Jewelers Limited, was created, co-founded by De Beers SA and the luxury concern LVMH. The financial strength of both parties and the iconic name of De Beers made it possible to open 22 boutiques in London, Paris, New York, Tokyo, Dubai and other solvent places in the shortest possible time.

Actually, the De Beers jewelry history is rather modest.The first thing worth paying attention to here is wedding jewelry, first of all, of course, rings. At one time, Cecil Rode himself made forecasts for diamond sales, correlating them with statistics on weddings in Europe and America. So wedding rings, so to speak, are the most historic De Beers jewelry. The Bridal line offers a wide range of diamond cuts and designs. The carat weight of diamonds starts from 0.1 carats and reaches 3 carats (of course, large carat diamonds will also be made to order, including the five carats loved by Russian women).Forms of cuts – “emerald” (aka “baguette” cut), “oval”, “pear”. The rings are made in platinum, white and yellow gold.

There are quite a few De Beers designer jewelry collections. These are Secret of Rose (Gothic, Art Nouveau), Talisman (ethnic), Wildflowers, Cocktail Fizz, Corsage (figurative decorations with clear plots). According to the rules, each diamond jewelry or stone has its own passport – De Beers Diamond Passport, which indicates the carat weight, clarity, color, cut, type of metal and identification number.

Horrible Victorian decorations – 3. Pathetic birds .: dombusin – LiveJournal

The Victorian time in our modern opinion is at least strange, if not crazy. Technology versus mysticism, tradition versus science.

The world was shrinking rapidly – but it was still incredibly large. The riches of nature seemed inexhaustible, the horizons of possibilities were inspiring.

Two of the most characteristic features of Victorian man – mysticism and sentimentality – determined all aspects of life of that era, from attitudes towards life and death to views of the world and society.Therefore, in the things of the 19th century, the most graceful techniques of performance with gloomy content, reminiscent of futility and the cult of death, are so bizarrely combined.

In past posts about the wondrous things of the Victorian era (here and here), it was about decorating memory, protection or sorrow.
But even those decorations that were a symbol of the beauty of wildlife for the Victorians, in our opinion, look barbaric and wild. These were decorations from stuffed animals, mostly beautiful rare birds.

And this fashion began, oddly enough, on the wave of interest in science, with the opening of numerous natural science museums on both sides of the Atlantic.It seemed to the townspeople that decorating themselves with stuffed animals, they “get closer to nature”, and the ships did not have time to bring the skins and feathers of exotic birds to satisfy the mad demand.

No Victorian lady could consider herself fashionable enough without a hat adorned with birds or feathers. Most of all, birds of paradise, wild ostriches, egrets, who were beaten by millions for the sake of a bunch of feathers during the nesting period, suffered most from this fashion.

Soon jewelers, who mastered the profession of taxidermists, moved up.Stuffed or bird heads were inserted into earrings, brooches and necklaces. Instead of eyes, precious stones were often attached, beaks were gilded – usually bright hummingbirds appeared on such ornaments. Earrings with real birds became a trend throughout the second half of the 19th century.

It seems to me that the desire to decorate oneself with rare, exotic birds came from the feeling of a huge, but already accessible world, full of inexhaustible riches, and at the same time – hunting excitement, intoxication from the possibilities of mankind to appropriate these benefits of living nature and extraordinary beauty.

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