Devil curry recipe: Devil Curry Recipe | Allrecipes

Kari Debal (Devil Curry) – Roti n Rice

By: 👩‍🦳 Linda · · · 🗨 14 Comments

Kari Debal (Devil Curry) – a Portuguese Eurasian community specialty in Malaysia and Singapore. It is a fiery chicken dish usually served during Christmas.

Kari Debal or Devil Curry is the specialty of the Kristang people, the Portuguese Eurasian community in Malaysia and Singapore dating back to the Portuguese conquest of Malacca in 1511. There are all kinds of theories about the interesting name of this curry and most assumed that it has to do with its very spiciness. That notion is further reinforced by the fiery coloration of the curry coming from the grounded red chilies in the gravy.

Kari Debal (Devil Curry) – a Christmas Mainstay for the Kristang Community

Devil Curry is a mainstay of Christmas. As far as I can tell, it is usually cooked with chicken and potatoes. My dear friend, Denise of Singapore Shiok! who is Kristang shared an interesting insight into family traditions around this dish. Apparently in the old days, this curry was commonly prepared the day after Christmas with leftover meats from the holiday feast. As such, it may defer slightly in composition from family to family. Since it is greatly anticipated by everyone, the modern day practice is to cook it for the Christmas feast itself. Leftovers are simulated by marinating and precooking the meats before adding it to the curry.

Meeting Up with Fellow Bloggers

Fortunately for me, I did not have to wait until Christmas to taste this dish. During my visit back to Malaysia to see my parents last summer, I stopped by Singapore on my homeward journey. Denise had graciously invited me and another blogger friend, Shirley to her house for dinner. I spent a delightful and delicious day with both of them. Two of the dishes Denise made for dinner was this delicious Curry Devil and the renown Sugee Cake, both of which I have not eaten since my childhood. What a treat for me! Denise did kindly reduce the spiciness level for my sake. 🙂

I was anxious to cook this curry for the family when I got home. Since then, I have made it several times since as we thoroughly enjoy it. I did reduce the amount of spices used and substituted the bird’s eye chili with just one habanero pepper. I will tell you that my rendition is still pretty spicy but it is so shiok! Many thanks, Denise for this wonderful recipe!

The recipe below was adapted from Singapore Shiok!.

Similar Products Used in Making This Kari Debal (Devil Curry)

This post contains affiliate links. Please read my disclosure policy here.

KitchenAid 9-Cup Food Processor
Le Creuset Signature Enameled Cast-Iron 4-1/2-Quart Round French (Dutch) Oven, Cherry Red
Pyrex Prepware 1-Cup Measuring Cup
Cuisipro Stainless Steel Measuring Cup and Spoon Set

Kari Debal (Devil Curry)

Kari Debal is a specialty of the Portuguese Eurasian community in Malaysia and Singapore. It is a fiery chicken dish usually served during Christmas.

Cuisine : Malaysian, Singaporean Keyword : devil curry, kari debal

Prep Time 15 mins

Cook Time 1 hr 25 mins

Total Time 1 hr 40 mins

Ingredients  

1x2x3x

  • 4 lbs chicken thighs (fat trimmed) (1.8kg)
  • 1/3 cup vegetable oil (80ml)
  • 1 onion (peeled and thinly sliced)
  • 1 inch ginger (peeled and julienned)
  • 5 medium potatoes (peeled and cut into bite size pieces)
  • 1 tsp Colman’s mustard powder
  • 1 tsp red pepper flakes
  • 1 packet chicken or beef smokies (cocktail sausages) (14 oz/396g)
  • 2 cups water (480ml)
  • ½ tsp sugar
  • 2 tsp salt
  • 2 tbsp white vinegar
Spice Paste
  • 10 red jalapeno chilies
  • 1 habanero pepper (optional)
  • 2 large onions (peeled)
  • 3 inch ginger (peeled) (3oz/90g)

Instructions 

  • Lightly sprinkle some salt and pepper onto chicken pieces. Place on a baking tray and roast in a 375°F (190°C) oven for 50 minutes. Remove and set aside.

  • Blend all spice paste ingredients with as little water as possible into a fine paste.

  • Heat vegetable oil in a large heavy pot over medium heat. Add sliced onions and julienne ginger. Fry until lightly brown and fragrant, about 3 minutes.

  • Add spice paste and continuously stir until fragrant and oil separates, about 8 to 10 minutes.

  • Stir in potatoes. Sprinkle over mustard powder and chili pepper.

  • Add chicken or beef smokies and stir well to ensure they are well coated with spices.

  • Pour in 2 cups (480ml) water, reduce heat, and allow it to simmer for about 10 minutes.

  • Add sugar and salt followed by roast chicken pieces. Stir to get chicken coated with gravy. Allow it to simmer for another 10 minutes until chicken and potatoes are tender.

  • Stir in vinegar and turn off heat.

  • Serve with steamed rice.

Nutrition

Calories: 668kcal

International Hot & Spicy Food Day

So spicy yet so delicious! Give it a try! Incidentally, today January 16th is International Hot & Spicy Food Day. Who knew? 😀

Enjoy…..and have a wonderful day! 😎

National Day Eurasian Recipes: Devil’s Curry

Eurasians in Singapore

The term Eurasian refers to a person of mixed ancestry — born of a union between a European and an Asian.

Many Eurasians in Singapore can trace their roots to the sixteenth century when Portugal established a colony in Malacca.  Catholic missionaries, the most notable being St. Francis Xavier, helped to spread the religious faith in the colony.  Before long, the marriage between Portuguese men and local women of Chinese, Malay and Indian descent led to a thriving Eurasian community.

Later when the Dutch — followed by the British — arrived in Malacca, the Eurasian community expanded further.  Today, Eurasians in Singapore have a multi-ethnic heritage which is reflected in their customs and traditions.

About Devil’s Curry

Curry Debal, more commonly known as Devil’s Curry, is easily one of the most popular dishes in the Eurasian repertoire. Debal means leftovers in Creole-Portugese and refers to the leftovers used after Christmas day to make this curry. However, not many understood what Debal meant and the term Devil’s Curry was soon coined to represent the spiciness and extensive use of chilli in the dish. Devil’s curry is best eaten the day after cooking when the ingredients have soaked well into the potatoes and chicken. It is best paired with rice but French bread works too.

In this story, we have two versions of Devil’s Curry: one shared by chef Quentin Pereira and the other, a heritage recipe from Charlotte Skelchy (our Chief Marketing Mummy Gidania’s mum).

Devil’s Curry (Chef’s Version)
From: Quentin Pereira, Head Chef at Quentin’s The Eurasian Restaurant
This recipe was passed down from Quentin’s grandmother:

Ingredients:

1 Chicken about 1.5kg cut into pieces
4 Tablespoons light soy sauce
5 Tablespoons cooking oil
2 Tablespoons ground white pepper
1 Onion, peeled and halved; ½ thinly sliced and ½ quartered
3cm Ginger, peeled and cut into thin strips
200g Bacon bones
1 Tablespoon mustard seeds, roughly pounded
½ Tablespoon salt
½ Tablespoon crushed chicken stock cube
2 Potatoes, peeled and quartered
10 Chicken cocktail sausages
700ml Water
½ head cabbage
1 Cucumber, peeled and cut into quarters lengthwise, soft centres removed and cut into 5cm lengths
5 Tablespoons white vinegar
6 to 8 red bird’s eye chillies

Ground Paste
15 Peeled shallots
5 Large onions, peeled and sliced
10cm Ginger, peeled and sliced
10 Red chillies
50g Dried chillies, cut into short lengths, soaked for 10 minutes, seeds removed.

Directions:

1.Season chicken with soy sauce and pepper and leave to marinate for 20 minutes.
2.Pound or grind together ingredients for ground paste until fine. Set aside.
3.Heat oil in a pot over medium heat and fry thinly sliced onion and ginger until light brown.
4.Add marinated chicken and bacon bones and continue frying until chicken changes colour.
5.Add ground paste, mustard seeds, salt and chicken stock and fry until oil rises.
6.Add potatoes, cocktail sausages and water. Boil until potatoes are soft and curry is thickened. This will take about 10 minutes on medium heat.
7.Add cabbage, cucumber and vinegar and mix well. Remove from heat
8.Dish out and serve hot, garnished with whole bird’s eye chillies

Note: this curry can be prepared days ahead without the vegetables and kept in an airtight container in the refrigerator. Add the vegetables only when reheating to serve.

Devil’s Curry (Family Version)
From: Charlotte Skelchy
This recipe belongs to Charlotte’s grandmother who passed it down to her.

Ingredients:
1 large chicken (cut into small portions)
20 shallots (peeled)
20 dried chillis (can be increased for added spiciness; stalks removed and washed with hot water)
6 whole candlenuts (buah keras)
2 tbs mustard seeds
2 cloves of garlic (sliced finely)
1 large onion (sliced)
1 piece of ginger (julienned)
1 small piece of turmeric
4 potatoes (peeled and cut in quarters)
A quarter cup of vinegar
3 to 4 cups of water
2 tbs sugar
3 tbs cooking oil
Salt to taste

Directions

1.Put the candlenuts, mustard seeds, shallots, dried chillies and turmeric in a blender with a little water. Blend well.
2.Heat oil in a large pan. Once hot, add in ginger strips, sliced onion and garlic. Fry till slightly brown and fragrant.
3.Add the blended ingredients into the pan and continue to stir-fry till mixture is almost cooked.
4.Put in chicken pieces and stir into curry mixture. Keep stirring till chicken starts to cook.
5.Add water and let the mixture come to a boil, stirring from time to time.
6.Once curry is on a steady boil, add salt, sugar and vinegar. Stir well again and add potato quarters.
7.Once chicken and potato are cooked, curry is completed.

Curry Devil (aka Kari Debal, a Eurasian Christmas Recipe)

Devil Curry Recipe

Let me tell you that there is no authentic Devil Curry. Each family is going to have its own take on this Christmas recipe. Mine, that I’ve been cooking for almost 40 years, is probably one of the more streamlined versions, in terms of the ingredients used. And it also leans more towards its European legacy.

Some families will add cabbage, potatoes, carrots, tomatoes or even cucumber to their curry devil. In terms of spices and aromatics, some will use lemongrass, galangal, candlenuts, mustard seeds and shrimp paste, just to name a few.

I don’t.

In fact, the only Asian spice I use is turmeric. The result is light bodied curry, with a beautiful orange hue from the chillies and the turmeric. There is a delicious tangy sharpness about it that I just love.

Over the years, I’ve dabbled with more spices, but have always come back to this version.

How to cook Kari Debal

It is a very easy recipe to cook, whether with fresh or leftover meat.

In this recipe, all we’ll be doing is:

  1. Soak the dried red chillies.
  2. Make a simple spice paste with the onions, garlic, ginger, chillies and turmeric (use a chopper).
  3. Marinate the meat lightly.
  4. Fry the paste briefly, cook the marinated chicken (or whatever meat).
  5. Add the sausages and optional quartered onions and whole green chillies.

That’s it.

If you’re using leftover meat, and really making Kari Debal (you know, Christmas leftovers curry), as I do on Boxing Day, then, it’s just a case of thoroughly heating through the leftovers. But what you might have to do, is use chicken stock instead of water, as your cooked meat isn’t going to impart as much flavour to the curry as raw meat would.

If you are planning to add potatoes, whether fresh or leftover roast potatoes (no such thing in my house!), bear in mind that the spuds will absorb a lot of the liquid, so you will have to add more water.

Cook your curry devil in any pot you like: large saucepan, large skillet, wok, dutch oven, whatever you fancy, it doesn’t matter.

Devil Curry (Debal) – Fresh Food Recipes

I have cooked this dish on a few occasions and have received very good reviews.  As I understand it, and upon further confirmation with Wikipedia, this is a curry from the Eurasian Kristang community in Malacca.  There are a few versions of this recipe, some using candlenuts and galangal, but the one I cooked do not contain these two ingredients.When I came across this recipe from Amy Beh which appeared in Kuali, I thought that it was quiet interesting and gave it a try.  When I tasted the dish, it was just alright, nothing spectacular and kept some leftovers in the fridge.  The next day after I reheated it, KAPOW!  The Devil Curry took on a new personality.  The flavors were robust and very appealing.  It dawned upon me that this is a dish that requires time to mature for the flavors to develop and enhance.  So if you want to eat a good Devil Curry, cook it one day ahead.

I am reproducing the recipe below from Amy Beh and my modifications are in red.

Devil Curry

Ingredients

– 600g chicken, cut into bite size pieces

– 200g carrot, cut into wedges (I omitted)

– 1 onion, quartered

– 1 tomato, quartered

– 1 green chilli, seeded (I omitted)

Ground Spices (to be combined)

– 5 dried chillies, soaked

– 6 fresh red chillies, seeded

– 5 shallots (I used 15 shallots as I like my curry thick)

– 3 cloves garlic

– 1 thumb-sized ginger

– 2-3 thin slices fresh tumeric (I used 1 inch fresh tumeric)

– 3/4 tsp mustard seeds

– 3 tbsp oil

Seasoning

– 3 tbsp lemon juice

– 3 tbsp tomato ketchup

– 1 tsp prepared mustard

– 1 tsp sugar

– 1 tsp salt (or to taste)

– 1/2 cup water

Method

Heat oil in a saucepot. Fry the ground ingredients until fragrant and the oil rises to the top. Add chicken, carrot and onion and stir fry well.

Mix in green chilli, tomato and seasoning.  Bring to a boil, then lower the heat and simmer covered for 25 to 30 minutes until chicken is cooked and tender,  Leave curry covered and set aside for 30 minutes before serving. (I recommend to keep this dish overnight for flavors to develop).

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Vegan Eurasian Devil’s Curry (Curry Debal)



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Yields:
2 Servings




Difficulty: Easy





Prep Time: 10 Mins




Cook Time:
40 Mins




Total Time:
50 Mins

Devil’s curry is a Boxing Day staple in Eurasian families. Eurasians are descendants of mixed marriages between Asians and the Europeans who settled around ports in the Straits of Malacca between the 16-18th centuries. One of these, is the Kristang, people of mixed Portuguese and Malaccan descent based in Malaysia and Singapore. In the Kristang language, “curry debal” means “leftover curry”. The similarity of the words debal and devil, paired with spiciness of the dish, lead to it being adopted into the English language as “devil’s curry”.

Traditionally, a devil’s curry was a way to make good use of your Christmas Day roast and associated leftovers. These days, many people make devil’s curry from fresh ingredients because it is very tasty. But, to be true to the origin, I made this out of our Christmas dinner leftovers. In this vegan devil’s curry, I use homemade Vegan Okara Spam Luncheon Meat. You can use any vegan hotdog or sausage or meatloaf-like thing. For the vegan protein, I used Meat Magic, a Philippine-made product. You can also use any seitan or tofu.

The white vinegar in this curry is an interesting ingredient. Originally, it would be used to tenderize and cut through the oil of the leftover Christmas dinner meat. Although we are using vegan proteins in this dish, the vinegar is still a good addition as it brightens the flavour. The sourness also helps take the edge off the extreme spiciness of the chillies. This spicy and tangy vegan devil’s curry will help you recover from your heavy Christmas feasting!

At a Eurasian table, there is usually always both rice and a crusty bread, like baguette. For me, this curry is definitely better with bread!


  • Step 1


    Blend or grind all the spice paste ingredients into a paste.


  • Step 2


    Toast the mustard seeds in a pan with a little bit of oil until they make cracking popping sounds.


  • Step 3


    Add the spice paste and fry over low heat until it darkens and becomes sticky, about 10-15 minutes.


  • Step 4


    It will look kind of like this, where the oil starts to appear on top of the paste.


  • Step 5


    Add the potatoes and fry with the spice paste, making sure they are coated well.


  • Step 6


    Pour in enough water or vegetable stock to just cover the potatoes. Put a lid on the pan, turn the heat to simmer, and let the potatoes cook until softened. About 20 minutes.


  • Step 7

    If your leftovers are crumbly, like my vegan luncheon meat, it is better to pan-fry it first.

  • Step 8


    Add vinegar to the curry, and salt and sugar to taste. Add the firmer vegan protein and cook for a further 10 minutes until the curry is reduced.


  • Step 9

    Add the softer vegan proteins into the curry and mix, cook to heat and combine for about 2 minutes.

  • Step 10


    Garnish with freshly cut bird’s eye chillies. Serve with plain rice or a loaf of crusty bread, like baguette.



Vegan Eurasian Devil Curry » Cheryl Miles, Radio DJ & Home Chef

I can imagine my grandmother rolling in her grave at the sheer idea of a VEGAN version of this meat heavy Eurasian dish, Devil Curry! What an abomination, right?

It is sacrilegious to turn this traditional Eurasian turkey-based dish into a tofu-based one. However, with so many of our friends joining the plant-based dietary bandwagon, I just had to create a vegan version of this spicy Eurasian curry so they can enjoy this heritage dish too.

Maybe, we can call this one “Angel’s Curry”, instead. After all, it is practically sinless. It has all the flavourful spices and basic ingredients of the original dish, barring the saturated fats.

DEFINITION OF EURASIAN

Before we start indulging in this scrumptious recipe, let us take a detour for a quick history lesson. What is an Eurasian? Well for South East Asian Eurasians of mixed ancestry, like myself, our history goes way back. In fact, the term “Eurasian” was first coined in mid-nineteenth century British India. 

Due to Singapore and Malaysia’s rich colonial past, there were many marriages between Asians, British, Dutch and Portuguese. Thanks to generations of these inter-racial marriages, a creole ethnic group emerged. These Eurasians were called “Kristang”, Serani and Gragok (a derogatory word that means “shrimp”). Eurasians of this mixed ancestry have their own culture, traditions, language, and best of all, food. You can read more about Eurasians in Singapore here.

The term “Eurasian” can also be used to describe those of mixed parentage, where one parent is Asian and the other is Caucasian. However, the upbringing would be influenced by only two ethnic backgrounds and two separate cultures. With Eurasians of mixed ancestry, it is a generally a complicated bag of tricks. As a hybrid of several parts east and other parts west, it is impossible to identify with just one or two races. And so, over the years, our own culture was formed – one that we heavily identify with and that unifies Eurasians from this region.

Eurasian family traditions often centre around Christian celebrations – namely Christmas and Easter – and FOOD. Devil Curry, or Kari Debal was originally made on Boxing Day, with leftovers from the Christmas Feast. In fact, that is what “debal” means in Kristang (a pidgin version of Portuguese, spoken by the older generation of Eurasians) – “leftovers”!

“Debal” means “leftovers” in Kristang! Over the years, the word “debal” became mistaken for “devil” – which works too because this is a fiery hot curry with lots of red chillies.”

DEVIL CURRY EVOKES NOSTALGIA

The recipe for this mustard-based curry, varies from family to family and is extremely personal. As a heritage dish, Eurasians are extremely protective about their Devil Curry as it far extends beyond the ingredients you put into it. It carries with it memories of childhood, tradition and identity.

For some families, it has to be cocktail sausages and chicken drumsticks, for others cabbage, lemongrass and yellow mustard. It all depends on how your grandmother’s mother made it, and what your mother remembered of the recipe, that determines what is passed on to you. The other reason why it is hard to replicate is because the original recipe lacked precise measurements. That is, until I got a kitchen scale and measuring cups to crack the code!

For me, this dish reminds me of my maternal grandparents, in the kitchen, squabbling over how much ketumbah (coriander seeds) to add and how spicy it should be. In my family, there was an unofficial competition to produce the best Devil’s Curry every Yuletide. This would sometimes result in hurt feelings, as all the aunties attempting this recipe would face comparisons and harsh criticism from my grandmother. She would exclaim how one pot lacked vinegar or the other had not enough chilli or garlic!

I wonder what she would say about this vegan version! Well, at least she’d be happy to know, I have perfected our family’s Devil Curry. It is complete with turkey, chicken and bacon bones. However, you will have to wait for that recipe when my first cookbook, “Smitten in the Kitchen”, is out.

VEGAN EURASIAN DEVIL’S CURRY: THE RECIPE

Now that you have a bit of a background about this precious passed-down recipe and its significance to the Eurasian identity, here is my meatless version of this Eurasian classic. Feel free to adjust the heat level, as the amount of chilli in this is very mild. Also, you may add your favourite meat analogue to the mix, like seitan, vegan sausages or “meat” strips.

Enjoy!

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Description

A popular Christmas dish amongst Eurasians in Singapore and Malaysia, this is my family’s recipe for Devil Curry BUT without the meats. Unlike other curries, which uses curry powder, this dish uses mustard powder with a touch of vinegar. It is meant to be spicy but the flavours should be well balanced. The spice level of this recipe below is very mild. Do add more chilli padis for more kick. 


FOR THE SPICE PASTE:

  • 500g shallots or red onion (I used banana shallots)
  • 15 cloves garlic
  • 40g blue ginger (also known as galangal)
  • 50g old ginger
  • 6 candlenuts
  • 1 teaspoon coriander seeds
  • 25–30 dried chillies, soaked in hot water for 10 minutes
  • 3–5 chilli padis, deseeded (this amount is for mild heat)
  • 1 teaspoon turmeric powder

FOR THE VINEGAR PASTE:

  • 2 teaspoons mustard powder 
  • 3 tablespoons vinegar
  • 2 teaspoons white sugar

FOR THE CURRY:

  • 1/2 cup canola oil
  • the blended spices above + the vinegar paste
  • 1 tablespoon mustard seeds
  • 1–2 big red chillies, sliced
  • small knob of ginger, thinly sliced
  • 2 teaspoons salt
  • 2 vegan stock cubes
  • 4 cups water
  • 400g firm tofu (also known as tau kwa), diced
  • 500g egg plant, sliced
  • about 680g potatoes (or 3 large ones)

FOR SERVING:

  • freshly chopped cilantro leaves
  • hot rice
  • a side of steamed or stir fried vegetables like kailan (Chinese kale) or long beans

  1. Prepare all the ingredients. To avoid crying, skin the shallots/onions leaving the roots on. Cut that off last.
  2. Place all the spice paste ingredients listed above in a food processor. Add a tablespoon of water (or more) if needed to get the blender going. Set aside.
  3. In a cast iron pot or stock pot, heat up the canola oil on medium heat. Once hot, add the mustard seeds, ginger slices and chilli. Fry until the mustard seeds start to pop. Add the blended spice paste and cook for about 20 minutes, on low heat, stirring constantly to ensure it doesn’t burn at the bottom.
  4. Next, add the water and vegan stock cubes. Add only the potatoes. Allow to simmer uncovered for about 30 minutes or until the curry thickens. Stir periodically. 
  5. In a small bowl, make the vinegar paste. Add this a tablespoon at a time to the curry to allow the flavours to mix in. The sugar neutralizes the acidity of the curry and balances the spiciness of the chillies. It shouldn’t make the curry taste sweet. 
  6. Add the tofu and eggplant and cook for about 10 minutes more. Do not overcook or the diced tofu will crumble and disintegrate into the curry.  
  7. Taste test before adding 2 teaspoons of salt, or more if needed. 
  8.  Serve with hot rice, a sprinkle of fresh cilantro and a side of stir-fried vegetables. 

Notes

This curry tastes better when kept overnight. It can be kept refrigerated for up to 5 days. The meat version can be frozen but as this contains vegetables, keep it in the fridge and eat it quickly! 

  • Prep Time: 15 minutes
  • Cook Time: 1 hour
  • Category: Asian
  • Method: Stewed
  • Cuisine: Eurasian

Keywords: Eurasian, Devil’s Curry, Vegan, Vegan Curry, Vegan Devil’s Curry, Singapore food, Malaysian food, Malacca recipe, Holiday Season, Cookbook Singapore

Discover more recipes here.

PH Bakes and Cooks!: Lockdown Day #26 : Curry For The Devil

Devil Curry. It has nothing to do with the devil of course. It is actually Kari Debal, a Portuguese Eurasian dish.The version I cooked is taken from Amy Beh when it was published in Kuali back in 2012. I searched the recipe again and found that it is somewhat different from the recipe that was published earlier. It has more ingredients (including belacan and thick soya sauce!). Anyway, there are many versions of this recipe.
For this version you have to make a spice paste comprising fresh and dried chilies, shallots, garlic, ginger, turmeric and mustard seeds. Then the spice paste has to be sauteed until the oil rises to the top (pecah minyak).

This time, I decided to end my pecah minyak failure once and for all. I closed my eyes and poured lots of oil into my pot. A heart attack inducing amount. Hah!

The oil disappears very quickly and I simply sauteed away.
And pecah minyak I did. Finally madam! Finally!
Then it was only a matter of adding chicken, tomato and onion wedges and a seasoning of lemon juice, tomato ketchup, mustard, sugar, salt and some water. Let the pot simmer away!
This Devil Curry, do not eat on the day that it is cooked. Why? Not nice. Really. It has to sit overnight for the flavors to develop. If you eat the curry immediately, you will not be happy. It tastes ordinary. Meh. But tomorrow, ah, it becomes a different dish all together. I am talking from experience.

I was so hungry I had the last packet of Maggi Mee for breakfast. 

I don’t usually eat such a heavy breakfast. And I won’t be buying anymore Maggi Mee

Because I was so full, I only had a big ass grilled cheese sandwich for dinner. Did it in the air fryer.

Now on to the Devil Curry recipe.

Devil Curry

Recipe source : Adapted from Amy Beh (old version here)

Note : I recommend this curry to be cooked one day prior to serving to allow the flavors to develop for a tastier experience.

Ingredients :

– 4 chicken legs, each cut into 4 pieces

– 1 big onion, quartered

– 1 tomato, quartered

Spice paste (blended)

– 6 dried chilies, soaked to soften

– 6 fresh red chilies (remove seeds for less hot)

– 4 big onions

– 3 cloves garlic

– thumb sized ginger

– 1/2 inch fresh turmeric

– 3/4 tsp mustard seeds

Seasoning (mix together)

– 3 tbsp lemon juice

– 3 tbsp tomato ketchup

– 1 tsp yellow mustard

– 1 tsp sugar

– 1 tsp salt (or to taste)

– 1/2 cup water

Method :

1. Heat oil in a saucepot [oil must be more to enable oil to rise to the top (pecah minyak) upon sauteing] and saute the spice paste until aromatic and oil rises to the top.

2. Add chicken and onion. Stir fry to coat with spice paste.

3. Add tomato and seasoning.

4. Bring to a boil and lower the heat to simmer for 30-40 minutes or until chicken is cooked through and tender.

5. Taste and adjust seasoning.

6. Let cool and store in the fridge to be reheated and served the next day (or cook it earlier in the day and serve several hours later so that flavors develop. Overnight is still better).

Devil curry, step by step recipe with photo

STEP-BY-STEP COOKING RECIPE

Step 1

Dry the chicken, cut into small portions. Fold
in a bowl, pour over soy sauce, season with white pepper, stir, cover and leave for 30-50 minutes.

Step 2

Peel 1 large onion and chop as small as possible. Peel and grate the ginger.

Step 3

Place the dry chili peppers in a large mortar and crush into a powder.Add chopped onion and ginger to the mortar, add mustard powder and mix together.

Step 4

Peel the remaining onion and cut into thin half rings. Cut the ribs into pieces by 1 rib. Rub with salt and pepper.

Step 5

Pour vegetable oil in a wok, heat over medium heat, put chopped onion in half rings, fry until golden brown, 7-8 minutes. Add the onion, ginger and chili paste and stir-fry for 3 minutes.

Step 6

Place the ribs in the wok, mix well, pour in hot water (about 1.5 cups) and simmer, covered, until the meat on the ribs is tender, about 40 minutes.

Step 7

Meanwhile, fry the chicken pieces in a skillet in vegetable oil.
until golden brown on all sides and remove from heat.

Step 8

Peel and cut the potatoes into small slices. Remove the stalk from the cabbage, chop the leaves very coarsely. Peel the cucumber, cut it lengthwise into 4 parts, remove the seeds, cut across into pieces 7–8 cm long.Cut each sausage into 3 pieces.

Step 9

Place the potatoes over the ribs, add a little more water. Simmer until potatoes are almost done, 10 minutes. Add chicken, stir, cook covered for 10 minutes.

Step 10

Add sausages and cucumber, cook for 5 minutes. Add the cabbage, pour in the vinegar, salt, increase the heat and cook, stirring, for 1 minute.

By the way

Of course, the amount of chili in this dish depends only on your love for spicy.It is better to prepare mustard powder yourself from whole mustard seeds, previously fried in a dry skillet.

Yellow curry step by step recipe with video and photos – Thai cuisine: Main dishes

Yellow curry recipe step by step with video and photos – Thai cuisine: Main dishes

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Add to recipe book 313

recipes the name for both spicy stews with vegetables and meat, and for a mixture of seasonings with which these stews are prepared.Nowadays, curry dishes are cooked in Thailand, England, and Japan, but it’s still an Indian dish. The yellow curry isn’t the hottest, but it’s still a warming variation of this dish. Traditionally, curry is served with rice, but dipping bread in curry is also nice.

Energy value per serving

Caloric value

Proteins

Fats

Carbohydrates

kcal

grams

grams

grams

* Caloric value 3097 ml Vegetable oil

1 head

Chicken fillet

450 g

Yellow curry paste

125 g

Mini potatoes

10 pieces

Coconut cream

400 ml

Fish sauce

2 teaspoons

Brown sugar

1 teaspoon

Cilantro rice

Jasmine to taste

Cooking instructions

45 minutes

Print

1 In a large thick-walled saucepan, heat the oil over medium heat, fry the onion, chopped into strips, fry for a few minutes, until the onion becomes aromatic and soft.

2Add curry paste and chicken, chopped for one bite, and sauté for 3-5 minutes.

3Then add the potatoes, cut in the same way as the chicken, pour in the coconut cream and half a glass of water. Cook for 20-30 minutes, until potatoes and chicken are cooked through. You can add more water if the curry feels too thick.

4 Finally add the fish sauce and sugar and season with salt to taste. Serve with rice and chopped cilantro.

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Comments (3):

0

Thanks to you, I began to travel a hundred times more often than before the pandemic)) Today, for example, I visited Thailand and tasted a funky yellow curry! The dish is sooo tasty !!! I’m thinking where to go tomorrow)))

ReplyReport Complaint

1

Irina, next time you go to Thailand, we recommend trying Tom kha gai 🙂

ReplyComplain

0

Removed brown sugar, i.e.because I don’t eat sugar. It turned out delicious! Thank you for a simple, but so beautiful and nutritious recipe;)

ReplyComplain

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“Devil food” and the invasion of cheese in recipes are the hottest cooking trends in Japan. | Japanese Express

Still from TV Asahi report of September 29, 2019

Still from TV Asahi report of September 29, 2019

It is widely believed that Japanese cuisine is balanced and therefore healthy. In general, this opinion is correct. And the desire for healthy eating among the Japanese is now developing more and more.

However, we must not forget about the Japanese penchant for culinary experiments and hobbies.

Over the centuries, the Japanese have not only honed their original culinary techniques, but also actively borrowed them from other countries, often together with new products for themselves, adapting and developing them in every possible way. As a result, their own Japanese culinary versions appeared, which firmly entered the world of food, denoted by the concept of “Japanese cuisine”, and even get good marks in those countries from which the Japanese borrowed one or another culinary genre (ramen and curry can be cited as examples) …

But such a stormy creative process cannot go only in one direction, aimed at preserving and developing the Japanese food culture “WASYOKU”, included in 2013 in the UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage List. Everyone sometimes wants to pamper themselves. Something extraordinarily tasty, interesting and taking you into an unknown gastronomic distance, albeit sometimes causing some questions from the point of view of nutrition. The Japanese are no exception in this. Especially in our time of the developed Internet, when any information is scattered in the blink of an eye, and food is already beginning to live its digital life.This process is fueled by advertising activity. As a result, newfangled trends periodically appear in Japan, causing another boom. One of the newest gastronomic trends in Japan is “devil food”.

“DEVIL’S FOOD”

Recently, fans of interesting food in Japan have heard the expression “AKUMA MESI” and its derivatives. The word “AKUMA” in Japanese means the devil, Satan and other personifications of absolute evil and temptation in the world of religions. The word “MESI” in the narrow sense means boiled rice, which is a traditional source of carbohydrates in Japanese cuisine, and in a broad sense – food in general.As the concept of “AKUMA MESI” develops, when it comes to a specific type of food or drink, the word “MESI” is replaced by the name of the corresponding dish or drink. Rational and simple.

In the Japanese blogosphere, there is an opinion that the concept of “AKUMA MESI” was revealed by a company that is part of the Kirin group of companies, known for its beer and other alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages. This is a Mercian company. Its main business is the production and sale of wines. Mercian is considered the leading wine producer in Japan and is also an active wine importer.

The opinion that it is the Mercian who is the “culprit” of the appearance of “devil food” in Japan has good reason. The Kirin group’s website has a special section dedicated to Chilean wines Casillero del Diablo (when entering this colorful page in Japanese with recipes , the site may require you to enter your year of birth in a special field to confirm that your age matches its alcoholic content ).

According to legend, the winery where these wines are produced was once guarded by the devil himself.The link to food here is that, according to the legend on the site, the devil inscribed on the walls inside this winery several unimaginable recipes for cooking. And supposedly these dishes were so tasty and so immoral that they captured the person who tasted them and carried them into the world of enchanting delight.

The legend is a legend, but, as is usually the case with the Japanese, the basic criteria are clearly formulated here.

These criteria explain what AKUMA MESI is.

There are three of them.

DEVIL’S FOOD is:

1) Something that can be easily prepared from familiar and familiar products.

2) That which gives the person who has tasted them, along with pleasure, pangs of conscience.

3) That which awakens the devil in the human soul and makes the wine even tastier.

Leaving wine alone, with its potential remorse, can focus on the following points:

“devil food” is easy to prepare;

“Devil food” is a delight in taste, quite far from the concept of “healthy food”, because immorality and remorse are associated here with neglecting the prospect of gaining extra calories.

A few examples of 2017 videos (each about 1 minute) of simple devil food recipes on the Mercian website, made in a Halloween style, will help you get an idea of ​​what this is about.

Fire Sardin : a combination of canned sardines, garlic, chili sauce and cheese slice, baked twice in the oven with a tin can and then sprinkled with parsley.

Drowned beef (Oboreta Beef) : “perverse addiction” to sliced ​​beef, seasoned with salt, black pepper and garlic and fried in a pan, then drowned and stewed a little in the same skillet in the same skillet blue cheese, white wine, garlic and black pepper.

Devil’s ship (Akuma no Gunkan) : shaped like a gunkan sushi (gunkan in Japanese means “warship”) an appetizer of cheese risotto wrapped in fried bacon with “fallen with fallen” »Egg yolk, seasoned with salt.

In fact, the phrase “AKUMA MESI” denotes the taste that prompts a person to involuntary overeating. Over time, “devil food” began to appear on home cooking sites.One colorful example is the recipe for making “Devil’s Rice and Cheese” 2018. This dish of fried bacon, boiled rice, curry with egg and camembert is featured on on a site featuring recipes and other culinary information for a male audience.

Representatives of the Japanese food business gradually saw the dormant need in people, which is exactly the opposite of the iron rule of today’s hit food products – a healthy lifestyle, and began to bring new products to the market marked “AKUMA” as a “killer argument “.Particularly distinguished in this regard is LAWSON – a chain of convenience stores in the Convenience Store format (briefly referred to as “kombini” in Japan). These events have their own background.

In June 2018, a dish invented by the Japanese Antarctic Expedition as a “snack for the night” was presented on television in Japan. This is the invention of Junko WATANUKI, a woman who worked as a cook on an Antarctic expedition, where there are two big problems with regard to food:

food delivery occurs only once a year, and you have to somehow manage to cook food that does not bother, from the fact that available;

food waste is exported to Japan for disposal, and there are restrictions on the amount of wastewater so as not to pollute the environment.

In other words, Junko WATANUKI, a brave woman who changed her life drastically and subsequently wrote a book about it, was faced with the need to develop Antarctic versions of culinary technologies that would allow cooking varied and tasty, while at the same time would allow less food to be thrown away and once again do not wash the dishes (along the way, the problem of “food losses”, which is becoming more and more urgent in Japan, was also solved, when, for a number of reasons, food that could have been eaten was thrown away).

In particular, she invented the “Antarctic version” of the onigiri.

Initially, onigiri is quite a healthy dish, which is prepared by squeezing boiled rice into a kind of kolobok (the verb nigiru means to squeeze by hand in Japanese) with the addition of various fillings and often wrapped in a sheet of dried nori seaweed. An “Antarctic remake” of this balanced nutrient mix includes what is created as a by-product of tempura, a dish made from deep-fried batter-fried batter.These are tenkasu – pieces of batter that fell off during frying. Doubtful in terms of a balanced diet, but makes the onigiri much more appetizing.

The story of this unusual version of this popular Japanese snack has sparked a lot of discussion on social media. LAWSON quickly caught on to this trend and commercialized it with extraordinary speed, releasing onigiri in October 2018 that turned out to be the epitome of tasty, but not entirely healthy food.Within 13 days of the start of sales, 2.65 million units were sold. The hearts of consumers were won not only by the addictive taste (the composition used tempura sauce), but, of course, by the impressive name reflecting the trend – “ AKUMA NO ONIGIRI “, or “Devil’s Onigiri”. In terms of sales, they surpassed even the tuna and mayonnaise-filled onigiri that dominated the onigiri variety for 20 years. And since April 2019, LAWSON has launched one-by-one limited-time sales of devilish onigiri with a variety of enticing flavors, including tan tan men noodles, okonomiyaki and unagi sauce.By the end of September 2019, the total number of onigiri sold in the entire Devil’s Onigiri line since the start of sales reached 56 million.

“Classic” version of “Devil’s Onigiri” made from rice cooked in broth with sirodashi seasoning, with the addition of deep-fried batter pieces – tenkasu, aonori and aos algae.

Photo courtesy of LAWSON

The commercial success of LAWSON’s fiendish onigiri series is marked by the fact that Akuma no Onigiri is ranked 18th in the Japanese Consumer Market Hit Rankings of 2019 ( is published at the end of each year by the monthly magazine NIKKEI TRENDY, which tells about the latest trends in the Japanese consumer market, consists of 30 items and includes what was most popular with Japanese consumers – it can be individual products, product groups, show business phenomena, tourist attractions and many other things that have had a commercial success, have had a significant economic effect, or had a high degree of publicity ).

Image courtesy of LAWSON

Obviously, a strong factor in this success was the easily recognizable “face” of this series – the character depicted on the packaging by the name of Akumade Tanuki-kun. This name can be traced a clever play on words, where “akumade”, although it evokes an association with “akuma”, or with the devil, but in this case it means something like “entirely”, and the word “tanuki” in Japan is called a raccoon either, in some regions, those very deep-fried pieces of tempura batter – tenkasu.”Kun” instead of respectful “san” here indicates that this is a young boy (although in the profile of this character on the LAWSON website, his gender is “classified”, and the indicated age is one hundred thousand and five years).

And, of course, tenkasu are indicated as a favorite dish in the character’s profile, which are the main distinguishing ingredient of the “devil” series, which has already gone beyond the onigiri, which can also be called one of the factors of its success. In January 2019, the LAWSON network, in addition to the updated version of “Devil’s Onigiri,” released several more products marked “AKUMA” on sale.

Photo from the LAWSON website

Here is a list of new products released in January almost simultaneously ( all images posted in the announcement on the LAWSON website dated January 15, 2019 ).

Now a “classic” version of “Akuma no Onigiri” with the addition of sesame oil and onions to “increase the addiction”.

“Akuma no Yakiudon” (Devil’s Yakiudon) – Yakiudon noodles with tenkasu added.

Akuma no Pan (Devil’s Bun) with mayonnaise topping with tempura sauce, aos seaweed and, of course, tenkasu.

Akuma no Toast (Devil’s Toast) is a fluffy toast fried with cheese topping with added sugar. Tenkasu is not mentioned here, but cheese is present.

And this is already remarkable, since here the gastronomic “devilry” intersects with another fashionable culinary boom in Japan. This is cheesy cooking.

CHEESE COOKERY

It cannot be said that in Japan they were not familiar with cheese before – for the Japanese it is a well-known product.But lately, the passion for cheese has been gaining such scope in Japan that cheese gourmet (cheese gourmet – dishes and desserts using cheese) became a 2019 nominee in a rather remarkable Japanese competition – Dish of the Year (in Japanese – Kotoshi no Hitosara , conventionally – “Dish of the Year”), which is annually held by the Gurunavi Research Institute.

In short, the portal Gurunavi (Gourmet Navigator), operated by the company of the same name, is a navigator in the world of food in Japan with information about what and where to eat, which has versions in several languages, including English.

Gurunavi Research Institute (Gurunavi Research Institute) has been conducting research on gastronomic phenomena in Japan for a year since 2014, identifying those that have become a reflection of new trends in society. As a result of the analysis of user activity on the Gurunavi portal, user surveys and discussion by the expert community, the nominees for the Dish of the Year competition and its winner are determined.

Tapioca was announced the 2019 winner of the year, which caused something more than just a boom in Japan and deserves a separate story, but the inclusion of cheese cooking among the nominees of the competition speaks of a serious increase in the Japanese craving for cheese.

Photo from website Gurunavi Research Institute

Cheese cooking was selected for the competition nominees for three reasons.

1. The volume of cheese consumption in Japan has been continuously growing for several years in a row, breaking records every year. The volume of cheese imports to Japan also increases annually. Moreover, as a result of a decrease in import duties on cheese after the entry into an economic partnership agreement between Japan and the European Union in February 2019, an even greater increase in its imports is predicted.

2. The number of small producers of natural cheese in Japan is also steadily growing. From 2006 to 2018, their number tripled, from 106 to 319.

3. Cheese goes well with a huge variety of foods and culinary genres, and is expected to expand even further in restaurants and café menus in the future.

The third reason is interesting in that the “invasion” of cheese is already actively taking place in Japan in rather unexpected, at first glance, directions – these are dishes of Japanese cuisine, as well as drinks.

Here are a couple of examples.

First example

Izakaya Wacheese TENSAI in Tokyo , where hot melted cheese is put on tempura

Link to Instagram account:

This is a “collaboration of the TV company” Asahi’s cheese dish and TV dishes (hereinafter – a link to Instagram, and below – a small transcript of what is being said).

Cheese in tempura, cheese in tea, cheese in onigiri – it’s time to put cheese in everything!

Presenter: “This is tempura?”

“Yes, tempura.”

“Will you put this on the tempura?”

“Yes, let’s put some on the tempura.”

“How the cheese stretches!”

Cheese from Tokachi ( area on the island of Hokkaido, where, due to the relief and climate, dairy farming is widely developed ), is stacked on the shrimp tempura.

“The crust is crispy, but juicy when combined with cheese. Also, the combination of thick cheese and tempura sauce is a good one. ”

This cheese specialty in Tokyo not only adds cheese to tempura, but also to other Japanese dishes such as Nikujaga *.As they say here, the combination of Japanese cuisine and cheese is a success.

* Nikujaga is a meat stew with potatoes, a Japanese dish, invented, according to one version, in the Japanese navy as an alternative to the beef stew of the British Navy.

An example of the second

Machi machi cafe in Tokyo , which specializes in offering visitors Taiwanese tea with a thick cheese cream “cheese lid” that “seals” its taste and aroma (the idea is taken from Taiwan, where, as According to the cafe’s website, this widely discussed tea service was dubbed by the media as “divine cheese tea”).

Links to Instagram account:

Cheese also invaded such a genre of Japanese cuisine as nabe, merging in it with the gastronomic “diabolism”, which led to the emergence of such a variety as “diabolical nabe”.

“DEVIL’S NABE”

Nabe (or nabemono) is a dish with broth prepared in a relatively large container, where various ingredients are cooked, right on the table where they are eaten. Sometimes this dish, when served ready-made, is kept hot on the table using a portable hotplate.Initially, nabe was intended to be eaten by several eaters at once together, in a warm company.

Nabe is traditionally considered one of the attributes of winter, a dish that helps to keep warm. There are many varieties of nabe, differing in the richness of the broth and the ingredients used. Many regions have their own special versions of the nabe. Typically, nabe is prepared in broth with dashi ( the base of many Japanese dishes, obtained by digesting the ingredients that give the umami flavor ), can be prepared with soy sauce or miso paste added to the broth.The ingredients are usually vegetables, mushrooms, herbs, meat, bean curd, tofu, fish and seafood, and starch noodles. Until recently, almost all versions of nabe were considered to be a “healthy balanced diet”.

But for about 15 years now, nabe have been “evolving” from year to year, following the preferences of the Japanese, hungry for variety and novelty. We can confidently say that this thirst is fueled by the advent of the era of smartphones with the rapid development of social networks. Nabe trends are explored with Japanese attention to detail.

In the fall of 2019, an interesting report was published on the Trend Lab website of the Japanese marketing company Trenders ( this website publishes the results of research on the latest trends in society, mainly in the lifestyle, preferences and consumer behavior of people who, according to the editors of the site, can help companies in the development of new products and services, as well as in the intensification of their marketing activities – that is, lead to some new ideas ).

The topic of this report is “Nabe Trends 2019-2020”.

The essence of the report can be formulated as follows : “The boom at“ AKUMA MESI ”(devilish food) has finally reached the nabe. This winter, attention will be paid to the nabe, which will enjoy both pleasure and a sense of immorality, with the inclusion of foods that were not originally used in nabe – a lot of cheese, melted butter, deep-fried meat and even steaks. Catering establishments, one after another, are introduced into the menu “AKUMA NABE” (diabolical nabe) “.

Trend Lab research is carried out with the involvement of specialists in the relevant field. This time, Miyako KUDO, known as a trend watcher and life producer for adults, was invited to participate in the study ( in particular, she is known for her project “madane” for women who have not yet acquired children 90,097).

Miyako KUDO has identified several periods of evolutionary changes in nabe in Japan over the past years.

Since 2006, a period of “diversity” began in Nabe , when broths and ingredients were used in it, which are a deviation from nabe in its traditional sense. This is how curry nabe (with a generous inclusion of curry seasoning in the broth), collagen nabe (with an emphasis on chicken skins, pork cartilage and other foods designed to enrich the body with collagen), and nabe with gyoza (including gyoza – the Japanese version of the Chinese jiaozi dumplings, which has evolved greatly over several centuries).

Since 2012, the boom of “individual” nabe has begun : being originally a dish eaten “from a common pot,” nabe massively acquires the features of a portioned dish that can be enjoyed alone. Bouillon bases in packages and other products that make it easy to prepare nabe for one person are gaining wide popularity.

C 2014 began the period of “arrangement” of nabe , when attention is paid not only to the taste, but also to the appearance of nabe, and a certain novelty is introduced into the cooking process itself.Becoming popular “decorated nabe”, where various characters act as decorations, as well as “nabe on skewers” (nabe, in which vegetables and meat are cooked, being strung on skewers, like kebabs).

These and other examples of “decorated nabe” (dekonabe) can be seen on one of the Twitter accounts dedicated to this trend in the nabe genre:

And this is an example of “nabe on skewers” (kushinabe) on the AJINOMOTO FROZEN FOODS website page:

Since 2015, the period of “photogenic” nabe began, when not only photogenic, but even “videogenic” nabe became fashionable.At this time, the word “instabae” (brilliance on Instagram), which in Russian can be called “instagram”, is firmly included in the modern Japanese lexicon. Food came to be seen as content for posting on social media. Including nabe – people began to like nabe with some “zest” in its appearance. These can be simple options, and those that can raise questions from the point of view of ease of use.

Examples of “photogenic” nabe from one of the sites of the marketing company Ai-LAND (at the bottom of the page – many examples with photos and recipes of “photogenic” nabe):

Above – lemon aqua pizza, bottom left – nabe with a slide of cilantro , bottom right – with a slide of vegetable spaghetti.

On the left – nabe with a tower of greenery, which in Japan is called nira (Allium tuberosum, a kind of garlic), on the top right – with cabbage rolls, on the bottom right – with soba noodles and a “snow slide” (such slides and other figures are often made from grated daikon).

Further, as examples – two short videos with the preparation of “photogenic” nabe, posted on culinary YouTube accounts.

Flower garden nabe

In a broth of 500 ml of water, 50 ml of sirodashi seasoning (one of the types of dashi seasoning) and a small amount of salt, “flowers” are boiled from slices of ribs of pork, carrots and daikon, laid on a pillow from the leaves of Chinese cabbage and decorated with mizuna greens (Brassica rapa var.Laciniifolia, known as Japanese collard greens) and enoki mushrooms.

Panda nabe

Pork rib slice and Chinese cabbage leaves, cut to the height of a deep frying pan, are boiled in broth from one tablespoon of chicken bone soup base, one tablespoon of sake and 300 ml of water. A panda is molded from grated daikon, which is decorated with dried nori seaweed and placed in a ready-made dish.

In fact, “photogenic” nabe can be considered an advanced form of “arranged” nabe, which has not strayed too far from the content of traditional versions of nabe – a dish considered to be a typical representative of “healthy eating”.But over time, the “instagram” and “photogenicity” of nabe began to be taken for granted, and another demand arose – that nabe would make an impression not only with its appearance, but also with its taste. So that “shock impression”, shock, a kind of “WOW-effect”, denoted by the Japanese by the English word impact, arose not only when contemplating, but also when eating.

In the winter season 2018-2019, sibire nabe (nabe nabe, or burning nabe) gained popularity in Japan, with the generous use of Sichuan pepper and other spices, designed not only and not so much to make the dish spicy in appearance, as in reality amaze with the impression of enjoying the burning taste and aroma.

Photo from the Gurunavi portal

An example of a “hot nabe”, which became a laureate in the “Sichuan pepper” nomination in the “NABE TRENDS – 2019” competition of the Gurunavi portal dedicated to “sibire nabe” ( , on this page published on the portal in February-March 2019, photos of the winner and prize-winners are posted, with brief information about these dishes and institutions that have included them in their menus).

According to Miyako KUDO, now we can talk about entering the period of “impressive nabe”, or impact nabe, which make a shock impression at once both in appearance and taste of .And the fashion for “AKUMA MESI” (devilish food) came in handy here. If earlier the personification of “devilish food”, allowing you to enjoy both pleasure and immorality, was bread and toast generously covered with cheese and sugar, as well as onigiri with tenkasu – pieces of deep-fried batter, now AKUMA NABE is confidently entering the arena ( devilish nabe) . The pursuit of healthy eating as a food trend continues, but perhaps that is why, according to Miyako KUDO, a new trend is emerging in Japan, which is that consumers who are fed up with “healthy food” begin to strive for devilishly attractive taste sensations, regardless of the number of calories.

Nabe, originally the embodiment of healthy food, in this sense can cause a feeling that “something” is missing “, a feeling of some kind of monotony. But, as it turned out, in the “devilish” version of nabe, you can generously use pieces of fried karaage chicken, sausages, cheese and other previously “unthinkable” products in nabe. Moreover, the “devil’s nabe” can be easily reproduced at home, letting your imagination run wild and buying what comes to mind in a regular store. Especially cheese, which has become a key figure in the latest culinary trends and a typical ingredient for the devil’s nabe.After all, he, among other things, also has an amazing “instagram”, especially if you pour it from above in the nabe with a melted viscous mass. There is no doubt that the desire to declare oneself on social networks will spur “cheese” and other endeavors in nabe – a dish that gives room for creativity.

In the course of the Trend Lab study, carried out in September 2019, 565 men and women aged 18 to 34 were surveyed on the topic of their awareness and interest in relation to AKUMA MESI and AKUMA NABE.Its results indicate a high degree of penetration of these concepts into the consumer environment. 76% of the respondents knew what “devil’s food” was, and 42% had already tasted it at that time. Examples of “devil food” that have already been tasted include those sold in kombinis, convenience stores, onigiri with slices of fried batter tenkasu, and pizza generously topped with cheese and then generously with mayonnaise.

70% of the respondents stated that they have an interest in the “devil’s nabe”.The interest was explained by such reasons as the large volume and appetizing appearance, the opportunity to have good fun with friends, as well as the desire to eat something unusual, “otherwise nabe is always the same.” When asked whether, in the opinion of the respondents, the “devil’s nabe” will be the trend of this winter season, 64% answered in the affirmative.

Restaurants seem to be coming up with an affirmative answer too. This is evidenced by two examples of the original “devil’s nabe” cited in the study (at the bottom of the Japanese-language page of the Trend Lab’s website dedicated to this study, there is information about the restaurants in which they are served).

Photos from of the website TREND SOKEN (Trend Lab)

Nabe in tomato soup with a slide of karaage from the most tender chicken and melted cheese, which is poured into a ready-made nabe by an employee of the establishment immediately before use. The black and white balls are not here by chance. These are “devil ball” and “angel ball”. If you add a black cocoa-flavored ball to the broth, the nabe will take on a black hue. And if it is white, with the taste of butter, then it is white.In this way, you can give the dish the desired “character”, as well as enhance its photo “instagram”.

Photos from the website TREND SOKEN (Trend Lab)

A Mexican-style nabe inspired by New York’s culinary tastes that mixes cuisines from different countries. The dish combines thickly sliced ​​beef steaks and bacon, chicken spiced Jamaican jerk, thick sausages. The topping consists of two types of cheese – rich in cheddar and viscous mozzarella flavors, as well as tortilla and butter chips, which are intended to further increase the remorse.An element of the show is also present here – an employee of the establishment sets fire to the dish, and the fire, combined with boiling broth, creates the illusion of magma. Really “devilish nabe”. At the end of the meal, you can add rice and cheese there – you get a cheese risotto.

———————————————– ——

ANN video from 09/27/2019 (just under 3 minutes) on the popularity of cheese cooking and the growing attention to “devil’s nabe” this season (one of the examples above is shown)

Popularity of the goo and the hot cheese never stops.This year, attention is focused on “AKUMA NABE” ( devil’s nabe ).

0:09

Tokyo, Shinjuku

“Oh! Melts, melts! ”

Temptation from melted stretching cheese …

“Delicate”.

0:19

Footage from the Garlic & Cheese Paradise gastronomic festival held on the 20th of September in Tokyo.

It is fired, melted, smeared … And much more is done with it …

At this festival, where popular restaurants serving dishes with cheese gathered, people smiled happily with their mouths full.

“This is happiness.”

Whether these cheese lovers know about this fact or not, but the volume of cheese consumption is growing and breaking records for 4 years in a row – it is so popular now.

1:00

“Yes! Yes … An excellent combination. The salty aftertaste of the cheese further emphasizes the sweetness of the gyoza filling. ”

“If it is with cheese, then it’s delicious” – this expectation of taste is inspired by cheese cooking.

1:22

The name of this dish is Aburi Cheese Cheese Cheese Omurice *.Probably, this word was inserted here three times because this is a very important point …

* Omuraisu – fried rice wrapped in a thin omelet. Aburi – From the Japanese verb “aburu”, or “burn”, “scorch”.

1:33

Tobu Department Store in Tokyo, Ikebukuro.

Counter of the network Cheese on the table , specializing in the sale of original cheeses directly imported from Europe.The chain is remarkable in that it helps to choose the combination of the type of cheese with wine or product.

And a specialty cheese shop in a major department store is observing a change in which types of cheese sell best.

Representative of the Cheese on the table chain: “Previously, these were mostly yellow hard cheeses, but now there is an increasing number of people who love and buy different types – white cheese or blue cheese.”

A growing number of savvy consumers are no longer content with the usual yellow cheeses and prefer blue and other types of cheeses.

2:02

And as an unusual type of nabe highly recommended this year, this is proposed … It is called that – “AKUMA NABE” (diabolical nabe) . In full force, the meat stars gathered in it. And in combination with abundantly poured cheese …

“What a flavor! Combination of tomato soup and cheese. The sourness and this cheese are excellent taste! ”

Manager of the Hijiribashi Torifuku restaurant, one of the Torifuku restaurants of the Diamond Dining company: “Instabae is popular now ( Instagram ), guests are taking photos and videos.I believe that cheese, mainly among women, will gain in popularity by leaps and bounds. ”

—————————-

Three subjective conclusions suggest themselves.

1. It’s okay. If the Japanese call “devilish” versions of food that can be considered quite common in other cuisines of the world, then the food culture in Japan can be considered generally healthy, despite various newfangled trends. It is difficult to imagine that the Japanese in their bulk indulge themselves in culinary “devilry” and other excesses, often and in large quantities.That is, there is no need to worry in this regard.

2. You have to be careful. Even in Japan itself, not everything that has the name of a Japanese cuisine dish can refer to the concept of “WASYOKU” – Japanese food culture, inscribed in 2013 in the UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage List. Therefore, if during your stay in Japan you want to join WASYOKU, to truly Japanese food, you should beware of all sorts of newfangled trends, including those with the “devilish” mark “AKUMA”.And if, on the contrary, you want to join just such a novelty, then here are templates for searching on the Internet (and not only) in Japanese: 悪 魔 メ シ (AKUMA MESI, devilish food), 悪 魔 の お に ぎ り (AKUMA NO ONIGIRI, devil’s onigiri) and悪 魔 鍋 (AKUMA NABE, devilish nabe).

3. Russia is also capable of contributing to the development of interesting cuisine in Japan. And without the “devilry”. The propensity of the Japanese to various culinary experiments and hobbies, even in the field of their native Japanese cuisine, against the background of the development of international communication in social networks, can continue to generate in Japan a boom in unexpected bright combinations of Japanese cuisine and other cuisines of the world, as well as not quite familiar while in Japanese food products.Moreover, the initiative here may not necessarily be set in Japan. Russian cuisine is known for its tradition of first courses and soups. Take borsch, for example. The Japanese who visit Russia (in particular, Vladivostok – “Europe’s closest to Japan”) eat it with pleasure. For many of them, tasting borscht is one of the “must dos” when visiting Russia. The Japanese are especially curious about beets, which give the broth an original color and taste, and for the Japanese it is still exotic. On the other hand, now in Russia, as well as in the world in general, ramen noodles, performed as close as possible to Japanese, are gaining more and more popularity.

For example, restaurants KU: Japanese cuisine in Moscow serve impeccably authentic Japanese ramen in an assortment that is very popular with the Japanese and the Russians alike. And recently, what in Japan would be called a “collaboration” of Japanese and Russian cuisines has appeared on the menu here. This is borsch-ramen .

Photos of the restaurant KU:

Link to Instagram:

Isn’t it an idea for a dish like nabe? Will Japan ever have an Instagram boom in borsch-nabe, especially with a focus on beets? Or even the “Russian nabe”? It is desirable without marking “AKUMA” …

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Eggplant: a fresh look at the vegetable

Fresh eggplant as signal flag.Should the vegetable debris turn purple-lilac from the eggplant invasion, it means that autumn is just around the corner. It’s time to bake and marinate. No matter how many eggplant recipes there are, we are ready to try them all, because our love for these glossy southern beauties is genetic, since childhood.

Surprisingly, in the Middle Ages, fresh eggplants were considered poisonous, therefore they were grown not for the sake of fruit, but as a hedge – pretty bindweed flowers.Eggplant censure began with the Arab House Building, the Tacuum Sanitatis family charter, translated into Latin and popular in Italy. Eggplant was credited with the ability to induce melancholy and spoil the blood. In northern Italy, this distrust even intensified: if the husband found a piece of eggplant in his plate, this was considered a serious reason for divorce. And only the Italian south, which was always poorer than the north, gradually tasted the dangerous fruit, and then fell in love – especially with tomatoes and pasta.To this day, Italy is the world’s main producer of fresh eggplants and a supplier of recipes with them: take at least the classic lasagna made from eggplant petals, sandwiched with thin leaves of parmesan, tomatoes and herbs and sent to the oven in this form. But in China, since ancient times, eggplants have not only been eaten, but also used as a cosmetic product: court women of fashion rubbed their teeth with a skin of fresh eggplant to give them a silvery-black color. The eggplant was finally rehabilitated only in the 19th century: the papal court issued a special decree in 1810, where it debunked the reputation of the eggplant as a “devil’s apple”.Just imagine: Europe is plunging deeper and deeper into the abyss of the Napoleonic wars, and here is a whole papal decree of purely culinary significance. Time puts everything in its place. Those wars have become history long ago, and eggplants still feed the population of almost the entire planet.

And it is not surprising that almost all the useful part of the periodic table (from calcium to zinc) is concentrated in this strange vegetable-berry (from a botanical point of view, eggplant is a berry, such as watermelon), fresh eggplant has bactericidal properties.The only trouble is the substance “solanine M”, in high concentration it is really poisonous. But you should not be afraid of this: in quantities fraught with indigestion, solanine M was found only in hopelessly overripe, tough fruits – no one will covet them. In addition, it is easy to remove it by simply ridding the eggplant of the bitterness.

You can endlessly talk about the culinary fate of fresh eggplant. There are a lot of national hits with him, recipes for pickles and salting are legion.We will mention only the best ones. For example, “imambayaldi” – an eggplant stuffed with onions, tomatoes, rice and raisins, which has been considered the main achievement of Turkish cuisine for two hundred years. The name translates as “the imam fainted”, of course – from admiration. What about Indian Flame Eggplant Curry Tortillas? Mari babaganush, smoky eggplant pulp combined with tart sesame paste tahini and lemon juice? Bulgarian eggplants stuffed with sweet carrots and salted cheese? Having tried them, the sensitive imam would probably have completely lost his mind.

RECIPE for eggplant in Tbilisi style

We have a special tenderness for eggplant. Having fallen from the same Ottomans to Moldova, Ukraine and the southern regions of Russia, eggplant took root in the warm Black Sea climate and, becoming a popular blue one, turned into a raw material for delicious caviar and spicy homemade pickles. And Caucasian eggplant rolls – with cheese, pomegranate, nuts and certainly herbs – have become classics of home celebrations throughout the post-Soviet space.

RECIPE for Odessa eggplant salad

Today, shops and markets sell fresh eggplants in a variety of shades. For example, white pear-shaped African eggplants are the freshest and most watery, but they do not taste bitter. Or yellow, egg-like, originally from South China – they have a lot of carotene, in the raw form it tastes somewhat carrot, but in the baked one it is completely familiar to us. But the delicate lilac eggplants with a pinstripe, natives of the Mediterranean, despite their decorative appearance, cannot be distinguished from our blue ones in cooking.

RECIPE of Don eggplants

However, it is enough to know a few simple secrets to competently cook fresh eggplants, regardless of their color and variety.

7 Secrets of Fresh Eggplant

1. Conduct a thorough inspection: good quality fruits – weighty, firm, with a glossy, smooth skin. If dark spots are found on the skin or it looks like parchment, it is a product of “second freshness”.

2. Also, when buying, it is better to choose males, not females. The latter contain a lot of seeds, they are looser. One can be distinguished from others by the deepening at the base of the fruit: a shallow and round fossa in females, a large and oval fossa in males. If you are unlucky with “men”, you should take “ladies”, but smaller ones.

3. Summer, ground eggplants usually bitter stronger than winter, greenhouse ones. But they are more aromatic and spicy. And it is easy to get rid of excess bitterness – you need to cut fresh eggplants as required for the dish (in cubes, rings, just in half, etc.).put in a bowl and sprinkle generously with salt. After half an hour, wash off the salt, and the bitterness will go with it. You can also cope with bitterness if you boil the sliced ​​eggplant for a couple of minutes in boiling water, and then drain the water. And do not forget to dry the slices thoroughly: wet ones do not fry well.

4. Eggplant usually absorbs too much oil when frying. But if you cook them over medium heat, covering the pan with a lid, a ruddy crust will immediately form, which will block the path of the oil.

5.Pickled eggplants are a well-known snack. But if you bake the whole eggplant in the oven before chopping and pouring it with marinade, you will get an outstanding homemade delicacy.

6. Outdoors, fresh eggplants quickly lose their gloss and dry out. They need to be stored in open plastic bags, in the dark and cool (the bottom shelf of the refrigerator will do just fine). But no longer than 10 days.

7. When frozen, eggplants almost do not lose their taste and vitamins.You can store them for up to a year. And in order to compactly arrange them for the winter, you need to cut fresh eggplants lengthwise into thin tongues, and lay them with wax paper. Then wrap in cellophane and put in the freezer.

90,000 Medieval cuisine

Much has been written and said more about medieval cuisine. This question is very popular among researchers.

But it is necessary to clarify one point once again, namely: the dishes served on the tables of gentlemen – aristocrats, landowners, people exposed to power, both spiritual and secular – were very different from what ordinary people who worked on their lands ate and dependent on them, including financially.

However, when in the XIII century, the boundaries between the estates began to blur, the powers that be took care of how to keep the workers, and decided to play on the love of the “home”, allowing the peasants to feast on food from their table.

Bread

In the Middle Ages, white bread, which is made from wheat flour of the highest grinding, was intended exclusively for the lord’s and prince’s tables. The peasants ate black, primarily rye, bread.
In this regard, it is necessary to mention the “fire of St. Anthony” – a disease that in a “strange” way struck mainly poor people and peasants. “The Fire of St. Anthony” is poisoning with ergot, a parasitic fungus that forms in spikelets of rye.

In the Middle Ages, this often fatal disease grew to the size of an epidemic, especially in lean, hungry, etc. years when everything that more or less fell under the definition of cereal was gathered from the fields, often ahead of schedule, that is, just at the very time when ergot is most poisonous.
Ergot poisoning affected the nervous system and was fatal in most cases.

It was only in the early Baroque era that a Dutch physician discovered the relationship between ergot and the “fire of St. Anthony.” Chlorine was used as a means of spreading the disease, although in spite of it, if not thanks to it, the epidemic raged even more.

But the use of chlorine was not widespread and was more likely determined by the type of bread: some cunning bakers bleached their rye and oat bread with chlorine, and then sold it profitably, passing it off as white (for the same purposes, chalk and crushed bone were willingly used).And since, in addition to these very unhealthy bleaching agents, dried flies were often baked into bread as raisins, the extremely cruel punishments with which fraudulent bakers were punished appear in a new light.

Those who wanted to make easy money on bread often had to break the law. And almost everywhere this was punishable by significant monetary fines.

In Switzerland, rogue bakers were hung in a crate above a manure pit. Accordingly, those who wanted to get out of it had to jump straight into the fetid mess.
To stop bullying, to prevent the spread of ill fame about their profession, as well as in order to control themselves, the bakers united in the first industrial association – the guild. Thanks to her, that is, thanks to the fact that the representatives of this profession took care of their membership in the guild, real masters of bakery appeared.

Pasta

There are many legends about cuisine and recipes. The most beautiful of them was described by Marco Polo, who in 1295 brought from his trip to Asia with her a recipe for making dumplings and “threads” from dough.
This story is believed to have been heard by a Venetian chef who tirelessly began mixing water, flour, eggs, sunflower oil and salt until he achieved the best consistency for the noodle dough.

It is not known whether this is true or whether the noodles came to Europe from the Arab countries thanks to the crusaders and merchants, but the fact that European cuisine soon became unthinkable without it is a fact.

However, in the 15th century, there were still bans on the preparation of pasta, since in the event of a particularly unsuccessful harvest, flour was necessary for baking bread.But since the Renaissance, the triumphant march of pasta across Europe could no longer be stopped.

Porridge and thick soup.

Until the era of the Roman Empire, porridge was present in the diet of all strata of society, and only then it turned into food for the poor. However, with them it was very popular, they ate it three or even four times a day, and in some houses they ate exclusively on it alone. This state of affairs continued until the 18th century, when potatoes replaced porridge.
It should be noted that the porridge of that time differs significantly from our present ideas about this product: medieval porridge cannot be called “mushy”, in the sense that we today attach to this word, it was hard, so hard that it could be cut. Another feature of that porridge was that it was unimportant what it consisted of.

In one Irish law of the 8th century it is clearly stated which strata of the population should have eaten what kind of porridge: “For the lower class, oatmeal cooked in buttermilk and old butter are enough for it; representatives of the middle class are supposed to eat porridge made from pearl barley and fresh milk, and put fresh butter in it; and the royal offspring should be served honey-sweetened wheat flour and fresh milk porridge. “
Along with porridge, since ancient times, mankind has known a “one-course lunch” – a thick soup that replaces the first and second.

It is in the cuisines of a wide variety of cultures (the Arabs and Chinese use a double pot for cooking it – meat and various vegetables are boiled in the lower compartment, and rice “comes out” on the rising steam) and, like porridge, it was food for the poor, while for its preparation did not use expensive ingredients.

There is also a practical explanation for the special love for this dish: in medieval cuisine (both princely and peasant), food was cooked in a cauldron suspended from rotating mechanisms over an open fire (later in a fireplace).And what could be easier than throwing all the ingredients that you can get into such a cauldron and making a rich broth out of them. That being said, the taste of the soup is very easy to change by simply changing the ingredients.

Although archaeological finds show that far more often the peasants ate pearl barley and vegetables, they also ate meat.

Meat, lard, oil

Having read books about the life of aristocrats, impressed by the colorful descriptions of feasts, modern man firmly believed that representatives of this class ate exclusively game.In fact, this dish was only 5% in their diet.

Pheasants, swans, wild ducks, wood grouses, deer … Sounds magical. But in fact, chickens, geese, sheep and goats were usually served at the table.

Roast had a special place in medieval cuisine.

When discussing or reading about meat cooked on a spit or wire rack, we forget about the more than insignificant development of dentistry at that time. But what about chewing tough meat with a toothless jaw? Savvy came to the rescue: the meat was kneaded in a mortar until mushy, thickened by adding eggs and flour, and the resulting mass was fried on a spit in the shape of an ox or sheep.
They sometimes did the same with fish, the peculiarity of this variation of the dish was that the “porridge” was pushed into the skin skillfully pulled from the fish, and then boiled or fried.

The corresponding state of dentistry also influenced the fact that vegetables were usually served in the form of mashed potatoes (chopped vegetables were mixed with flour and eggs). The first who began to serve cut vegetables to the table was Martino’s meter.

It seems strange to us now that fried meat in the Middle Ages was often also cooked in broth, and cooked chicken, rolled in flour, was added to the soup.With this double processing, the meat lost not only its crispness, but also its taste.

As for the fat content of food and ways to make it such, the aristocrats used sunflower and later butter for these purposes, and the peasants were content with lard.

Canning

Drying, smoking and salting as methods of food preservation were already known in the Middle Ages.

1. Dried fruits – pears, apples, cherries – and vegetables.Dried or dried in the oven, they were preserved for a long time and were often used in cooking: they were especially loved to be added to wine. Fruit was also used to prepare compote (fruit, ginger). However, the resulting liquid was not consumed immediately, but thickened and then cut: it turned out something like candy – great candy.

2. They smoked meat, fish and sausage – this was primarily due to the seasonality of the slaughter of livestock, which took place in October-November, since, firstly, in early November it was necessary to pay a tax in kind, and secondly, this allowed not to spend money on animal feed in winter.

3. Saltwater fish, imported for consumption during the fast, preferred to be salted. Many types of vegetables were also salted, for example, beans and peas. As for the cabbage, it was fermented, that is, it was placed in brine.

Spices

Spices were an integral part of medieval cuisine.

Moreover, it makes no sense to distinguish between seasonings for the poor and seasonings for the rich, because only the rich could afford to have spices.
The easiest and cheapest way to buy pepper was. The import of pepper made a lot of people rich, but also many, namely those who cheated and mixed dried berries into peppers, brought them to the gallows. Along with pepper, the favorite seasonings in the Middle Ages were cinnamon, cardamom, ginger, and nutmeg. Saffron deserves a special mention: it cost even several times more than a rather expensive nutmeg (in the 20s of the 15th century, when nutmeg was sold for 48 kreuzers, saffron cost about one hundred and eighty, which corresponded to the price of a horse).
Most cookbooks of that period do not indicate the proportions of spices, but based on books of a later period, we can conclude that these proportions did not correspond to our today’s tastes, and dishes seasoned, as it was done in the Middle Ages, might seem very sharp and even burn the palate.

Spices were not only used to show off wealth, they also overpowered the smell of meat and other foods. Meat and fish stocks in the Middle Ages were often salted so that they would not deteriorate as long as possible and would not cause illness.And, consequently, the spices were designed to drown out not only smells but also taste – the taste of salt. Or sour. Sour wine was sweetened with spices, honey and rose water so that it could be served on the table for gentlemen.

Some modern authors, referring to the length of the journey from Asia to Europe, believe that during transportation the spices lost their taste and smell and essential oils were added to them to return them.

Zelenyushka

Herbs were prized for their healing power; healing without herbs was unthinkable.But they also held a special place in cooking.

Southern herbs, namely: marjoram, basil and thyme – familiar to modern people, were not in the Middle Ages in the northern countries.

But such herbs were used that we will not even remember today.

We, as before, know and appreciate the magical properties of parsley (a favorite greenery in the Middle Ages), mint, dill, caraway seeds, sage, lovage, savory, fennel; nettles and calendula are still battling for space in the sun and in the pot.But who will remember today, for example, about lily flowers or beet tops?

Almond milk and marzipan

In every medieval cuisine of the powerful of this world, in addition to spices, almonds were necessarily present. They especially liked to make almond milk from it (crushed almonds, wine, water), which was then used as a basis for preparing various dishes and sauces, and during the fast they were replaced with real milk.

Also made from almonds (grated almonds with sugar syrup), marzipan was a luxury in the Middle Ages.In fact, this dish is considered a Greco-Roman invention. Researchers conclude that the small almond cakes that the Romans sacrificed to their gods were the predecessors of the sweet almond dough (pane Martius (spring bread) – Marzipan).

Honey and sugar

In the Middle Ages, food was sweetened exclusively with honey.

Although cane sugar was already known in southern Italy as early as the 8th century, the rest of Europe learned the secret of its production only during the Crusades.But even then sugar continued to be a luxury: at the beginning of the 15th century, six kilograms of sugar cost the same as a horse.

Only in 1747, Andreas Sigismund Margrave discovered the secret of producing sugar from sugar beets, but this did not particularly affect the state of affairs. Industrial and, accordingly, mass production of sugar began only in the 19th century, and only then did sugar become a product “for everyone.”

These facts allow us to look with new eyes at medieval feasts: only those who possessed excessive wealth could afford to arrange them, because most of the dishes consisted of sugar, and many dishes were intended only to be admired and admired, but did not eat in any way.

Feasts

We are amazed to read about the carcasses of hazel dormouse, storks, eagles, bears and beaver tails, which were served at the table in those days.

We are thinking about how tough the meat of storks and beavers should taste, about how rare animals such as the push dormouse and the hazel dormouse are.

At the same time, we forget that the numerous changes in dishes were intended, first of all, not to satisfy hunger, but to demonstrate wealth.Who could be left indifferent by the sight of such a dish as a peacock “spewing out” a flame? And fried bear paws flaunted on the table definitely not in order to glorify the hunting abilities of the owner of the house, belonging to the upper circles of society and hardly earning his food by hunting.

Sweet baked works of art were served alongside the astonishing hot dishes at the feasts; dishes made of sugar, gypsum, salt as tall as a human being and even more.

All this was intended mainly for visual perception.
Especially for these purposes, festivals were organized, at which the prince and princess, in public on a dais, tasted dishes of meat, poultry, cakes, and pastries. There was an incredible amount of food and, it should be noted, to the honor of the princes, that the remnants of food, not eaten by the servants and maids, were shared among the poor.

Colorful food

Multicolored food in the Middle Ages was extremely popular and at the same time easy to prepare.

Coats of arms, family colors and even whole pictures were depicted on pies and cakes; Many sweet foods, such as almond milk jelly, were given a wide variety of colors (in medieval cookbooks, you can find a recipe for this tricolor jelly).
Meat, fish, chicken were also painted.

Most common dyes:

Green: parsley or spinach

Black: grated black bread or gingerbread; clove powder, black cherry juice.

Red: vegetable or berry juice, (red) beets.

Yellow: saffron or egg yolk with flour

Brown: onion skins

They also liked to gilding and silvering dishes, but, of course, this could only be done by the chefs of the gentlemen who were able to provide them with the appropriate means.And although the addition of coloring agents changed the taste of the dish, they turned a blind eye to this in order to obtain a beautiful color.

However, with colored food, sometimes funny and not so incidents happened. So at one holiday in Florence, guests were almost poisoned by the colorful creation of an inventor-cook who used chlorine to obtain white color and yar-copperhead to obtain green.

Post

Medieval chefs also showed their resourcefulness and skill during fasting: when preparing fish dishes, they seasoned them in a special way so that they tasted like meat ones, invented pseudo-eggs and tried in every way to circumvent the strict rules of fasting.
The clergy and their cooks did their best. So, for example, they expanded the concept of “aquatic animals”, including the beaver (its tail passed under the category “fish scales”).

After all, the fast then lasted a third of a year. Today it seems wild to us, however, it was so, and even more: there were still fast days – Wednesday and Friday – in which it was forbidden to eat meat.

As a matter of fact, fasting is not limited to giving up meat. It also means avoiding eggs, milk, dairy products such as cheese and cottage cheese.Only in 1491 was it allowed to eat milk and eggs during the fast.

This is about rules for ordinary people . In addition to them, there were rules for certain groups of the population, especially for members of spiritual orders. So the Benedictines (respectively, monks, and not the higher clergy) could not eat four-legged animals.

With the issue of chicken consumption, problems existed until the 9th century, when Bishop von Mainz found a loophole in the law: birds and fish were created by God on the same day, and therefore must be attributed to the same species of animals.And as you can eat fish caught from the depths of the sea, you can also eat a bird fished out of a bowl of soup.

Four meals a day

The day began with the first breakfast, limited to a glass of wine.

At about 9 o’clock in the morning there was a second breakfast, which consisted of several changes of dishes.

It should be clarified that these are not modern “first, second and compote”. Each change of dishes consisted of a large number of dishes, which the servants served at the table.This led to the fact that everyone who threw a banquet – whether on the occasion of christenings, weddings or funerals – tried not to lose face and serve as many goodies as possible to the table, not paying attention to their capabilities, and therefore often going into debt.

To put an end to this state of affairs, numerous regulations were introduced that regulated the number of dishes and even the number of guests. So, for example, in 1279 the French king Philip III issued a decree stating that “not a single duke, count, baron, prelate, knight, cleric, etc.the item is not allowed to eat more than three modest meal changes (cheeses and vegetables, as opposed to cakes and pastries, were not taken into account)

The modern tradition of serving one dish at a time comes to Europe from Russia only in the 18th century.

At lunchtime, it was again allowed to drink only a glass of wine, snacking on it with a piece of bread soaked in wine.

And only for dinner, which took place from 3 to 6 pm, an incredible amount of food was again served.
Naturally, this is a “timetable” for the upper strata of society.

The peasants and workers were busy and could not devote as much time to eating as the aristocrats (they often only managed to have a modest snack once during the day), and their incomes did not allow them: instead of a morning glass of wine – beer, instead of fried meat and sweets – barley porridge and vegetable “soup”.

Cutlery and crockery

Two tableware was difficult to gain acceptance in the Middle Ages: a fork and a plate for individual use.
Yes, there were wooden plates for the lower strata and silver or even gold plates for the higher ones, but they ate mainly from common dishes. Moreover, instead of a plate, stale bread was sometimes used for these purposes, which slowly absorbed and did not allow the table to be stained.

A few words about sauces should be said here. Medieval sauces were different from today’s ones: they were very thick, to the point that they could be cut. Therefore, the thought of expensive sauce bowls on princely tables should be abandoned… But it is quite possible to imagine the sauce lying on stale bread, which acts as a stand.

Fork, on the other hand, “suffered” from the prejudices that existed in society: for its form, it earned a reputation as a devilish creation, and for its Byzantine origin – a suspicious attitude. Therefore, she was able to “break through” to the table only as a device for meat. It was only in the Baroque era that controversy over the merits and demerits of the fork became fierce.

On the contrary, everyone had their own knife, even women wore it on their belts.

Spoons, salt shakers, rock crystal glasses and drinking vessels – often richly decorated, gilded, or even silver – could be seen on the tables. However, the latter were not individual, even in rich houses they were shared with neighbors. Utensils and cutlery for ordinary people were made of wood and clay. Many peasants in the house had only one spoon for the whole family, and if someone did not want to wait until it reaches him in a circle, he could use a piece of bread instead of this cutlery.

Table behavior

They threw chicken legs and meatballs in all directions, wiped their dirty hands on a shirt and trousers, belched and farted as much as they wanted, tore food to pieces, and then swallowed without chewing …

One way or the other, after reading the notes of the cunning innkeepers or their adventurous visitors, we imagine the behavior of the knights at the table today. In reality, everything was not so extravagant, although there were some curious moments that amazed us.Many satyrs, table rules and descriptions of eating habits reflect that morality did not always take a place at the table with its owner. For example, the prohibition on blowing your nose into the tablecloth would not occur so often, if this bad habit would not be very common.

Tables in their modern form (that is, when the table top is attached to the legs) did not exist in the Middle Ages. The table was erected when it was necessary: ​​wooden stands were installed, and a wooden board was placed on them.

Therefore, in the Middle Ages, they did not clean the table – they removed the table …

Powerful medieval Europe highly valued its chefs.

In Germany, since 1291, the chef was one of the four most important figures at court. In France, only noble people became chefs of the highest ranks. The position of chief winemaker in France was the third most important after the positions of chamberlain and chief equestrian. Then came the bread manager, the chief butler, the chef, the restaurant managers closest to the courtyard, and only then the marshals and admirals.

As for the kitchen hierarchy – and there were employed a huge number (up to 800 people) of interdependent workers – the first place was given to the main one in meat. A position characterized by the honor and trust of the king, for no one was immune from the poison. He had six people at his disposal who selected and prepared meat for the royal family every day. Teilevant, the famous chef of King Charles the Sixth, had 150 people under his command.

And in England, for example, at the court of Richard II there were 1000 cooks, 300 lackeys, who served 10,000 people at court every day.A dizzying figure demonstrating that it was important not so much to feed as to demonstrate wealth.

In the Middle Ages, along with spiritual literature, cookbooks were the most frequently and willingly copied.

The earliest cookbook of this time, Buoch von guoter spise (The Book of Good Food), was written between about 1345 and 1352. The author is considered to be the notary of the Bishop of Würzburg, Michael de Leon, who, along with his duties to note budget expenditures, was engaged in collecting recipes.
Fifty years later, the “Alemannische Buchlein von guter Speise” (Alemanni book on good food), by the master Hansen, the Württemberg chef, appears. This was the first cookbook in the Middle Ages to include the name of the author. A collection of recipes by Meter Eberhard, chef of Duke Heinrich III von Bayern Landshut, appeared around 1495.

Around 1350, the French cookbook “Le Grand Cuisinier de toute Cuisine” was written, and in 1381, the English “Ancient Cookery”.
1390 – “The Forme of Cury” by King Richard II’s chef. As far as Danish collections of 13th century recipes are concerned, Henrik Harpenstreng’s “Libellus de Arte Coquinaria” is worth mentioning.

1354 – Catalan “Libre de Sent Sovi” by an unknown author.

The most famous cookbook of the Middle Ages was created by the master Guillaume Tyrell, better known by his creative pseudonym Teilivent. He was the cook of King Charles the Sixth, and later even received the title.The book was written between 1373 and 1392, and was published only a century later and included, along with famous dishes, very original recipes, which today a rare gourmet dares to cook. Today, it is believed that the real author of the book was not Teylivent at all, however, he did not just copy the recipes, but improved them and brought them in line with his era.

Stephen King on DVD. Second review

So, since July 29, Olesya and I have continued a retrospective DVD-viewing of films based on the works of the unsurpassed master of action-packed mysticism Stephen King .

The content of the first part of the global overview can be refreshed by visiting this link, and today – the continuation! The next ten:

11) “NECESSARY THINGS”

Another version of the name – “MOST NECESSARY”

Original name – “Needful Things”
Year of issue – 1993
Viewing – July 29, 2007
Director – Fraser Clark Heston
Screenplay – Stephen King, W. D. Richter, based on the novel of the same name by Stephen King
Genre – mystic, psychological thriller
Duration – 120 minutes
Cast: Max von Sydow, Ed Harris, Bonnie Bedelia, Amanda Plummer, Jay Tee Walsh, Ray McKinnon, Duncan Fraser, Valry Bromfield, Shane Meyer, William Morgan Sheppard.

Tag – Gifts that bring evil .
Original Literature: Stephen King – Necessary Things.
Summary of the movie “Needful Things”: in the quiet town of Castle Rock, a shop opens with the tempting name “Needful Things”. People find things there that they would like to acquire more than anything else. The tempting master named Lilant Gont (Max von Sydow) graciously gives them away for half the price; the second half is made up of a “small service” – a dirty trick to the one whom the buyer dislikes.The result is a burst of hatred and madness, which can only be stopped by one person – the one for whom love is the most necessary …

Rating: 4+ points on a five-point scale.

12) “LAWNMOWER MAN”

Another version of the name – “THE LAWHEADER”

Original name – “The Lawnmower Man”
Year of issue – 1992
Preview – August 1, 2007
Director
57 Bret Screenplay – Stephen King, Brett Leonard
Genre – Fantasy
Duration – 108 minutes
Cast: Jeff Fahey, Pierce Brosnan, Jenny Wright, Mark Bringleson, Jeffrey Lewis, Jeremy Slate, Dean Norris, Colin Coffey, Jim Landis, Troy Evvans Rosalie Mayex.

Tag – Creation of a cyber monster that controls virtual reality .
Primary Literature: Stephen King – The Lawnmower Man story.
A summary of the movie “The Lawnmower” (official source):
Young talented scientist Lawrence Angelo experiments with the use of high computer technology in combination with drugs on the mentally disabled lawnmower Joubom. Angelo introduces Jobe into virtual reality – a three-dimensional computer world.The scientist manages to develop the mental abilities of yesterday’s idiot to super genius. But the military secretly intervenes in the course of the experiments, and the subject turns into a superintelligent monster – a psychopath in human form, who has claims to world domination …

Score: 3 points on a five-point scale.

13) “LAWN MOWER-2: ON THAT SIDE OF CYBERSPACE”

Original title – “The Lawnmower Man 2: Beyond Cyberspace”
Year of issue – 1996
View – August 2, 2007
Director 8 M Screenplay – Farhad Mann, Michael Miner
Genre – fiction
Duration – 92 minutes
Cast: Patrick Burgin, Matt Frewer, Austin O’Brien, Eli Pouget, Camilla Cooper, Patrick La Breck

Summary of the film “Lawnmower-2” (official source):
Lawnmower Jobe did not die in the flames, but was restored and worked for many years in the secret complex of a certain business man, building a microchip for his “creator”, a scientist from the first film named Trace.The boy Peter, who sympathized with the lawn worker, grew up and, together with his friends, became seriously interested in virtual reality, where he meets Jobe, who asks him to find a scientist. When the boys told Trace about everything and he found out that the crazy genius Jobe yearned for world domination over the whole world, which became real with the help of a new virtual reality microchip, an intense struggle began to save humanity.

Tag – Cybermonster is out of control .

Score: 2 points on a five-point scale.

14) “LANGOLIERS”

Original title – “The Langoliers”
Year of issue – 1995
Viewing – August 4, 2007
Director – Tom Holland
Screenplay – Stephen King, Tom Holland
Duration – Fantasy
– 180 minutes
Cast: David Morse, Dean Stockwell, Patricia Wetting, Mark Lindsay, Frankie Faison, Baxter Harris, Kimber Riedl, Christopher Collett, Kate Maberly, Bronson Pinshaw, Tom Holland, Julia Lisnet, Stephen King as director Tom Holby …

Tag – The passengers of the plane find themselves in a parallel reality, where the time eaters – Langoliers rule.
Original Literary Source: Stephen King – The Langoliers.
A summary of the film “Langoliers”: passengers and crew of a regular plane completely unexpectedly find themselves in another dimension, which is located between the past and the present. Nightmare creatures live in it – langoliers, eaters of space and time …

Score: 4 points on a five-point scale.

15) DOLORES CLAYBORN

Original title – Dolores Claiborne
Year of issue – 1995
Viewing – August 5, 2007
Director – Taylor Hackford
Script – Tony Gilroy
Crime drama
Genre – crime Duration – 132 minutes
Cast: Katie Bates, Jennifer Jason Leigh, Judy Parfitt, Christopher Plummer, David Strathairn, Eric Bogosian, John C. Reilly, Ellen Moot, Bob Gunton, Roy Cooper, Wayne Robson, Ruth Marshall, Weldon Allen Tom Galant, Kelly Barnett.

Tag – Family secrets .
Original Literary Source: Stephen King – Novel “Dolores Claiborne”.
Summary of the film “Dolores Claiborne” (official source):
Dolores Claiborne, who was accused several years ago in the murder of her husband, is suspected of involvement in the death of a lonely aristocrat Vera Donovan.
Dolores’ daughter, the famous journalist Selena St. George, worried about what happened, comes home and learns terrible details from her mother’s past, which she had no idea about.

Rating: 5 points, quality mark

16) “NIGHT SHIFT”

Another version of the name – “CEMETERY SHIFT”

Original name – “Graveyard Shift”
Year of issue – 1990
View – August 6, 2007
Director – Ralph S. Singleton
Written by Stephen King, John Esposito
Genre – Thrash, horror
Duration – 105 minutes
Cast: David Andrews, Kelly Wolf, Stephen Mast, Andrew Divoff, Vic Polizos, Brad Dourif, Robert Alan Bute, Ilona Margolis.

Tag – Rat-like monster in the basements of the factory .
Original Literary Source: Stephen King – The Night Shift.
A summary of the film “Night shift”: a guy comes to a provincial town and gets a job at a local spinning mill, located next to the cemetery. After a conflict with the owner of the factory, he, along with other fines, receives overtime work, which consists in clearing abandoned factory basements inhabited by rats.Nobody even suspects what a bloody nightmare the next night shift will turn into …

Score: 2 points on a five-point scale.

17) “IT”

Original title – “It”
Year of issue – 1990
Viewing – 12 August 2007
Director – Tommy Lee Valley
Script – Stephen King, Lawrence D. Cohen
Genre – mystic , horror
Duration – 192 minutes
Cast: Harry Anderson, Dennis Christopher, Richard Mazur, Annette O’Tull, Tim Reid, John Ritter, Richard Thomas, Tim Curry, Jonathan Brandis, Brandon Crane, Adam Faraisl, Seth Green, Ben Heller, Emily Perkins, Marlon Taylor, Olivia Hassey, Michael Cole, Sheila Moore.

Tag – Embodied childhood fears and the fight against them .
Original Literary Source:
Stephen King’s It. Part 1
Stephen King – the novel “It”. Part 2
A summary of the film “It”: in the distant summer of 1957, after a series of mysterious child disappearances, seven teenagers unite against something that has no form or name; It appears first in the form of a devilish clown, then in the guise of the most terrible nightmare. Each of the students will have to face their own nightmare, and victory for them is only in unity.But after 30 years in the life of each of them a phone call is heard, and a hoarse voice in the receiver says: “You will not believe: IT IS BACK! Do you remember our vow? .. Come back. The time has come … “

Rating: 5 points, quality mark

18) ” TRUCKS “

Another version of the name -” ZONE 51 “

Original name -” Trucks “
Year of manufacture – 1997
Viewing – August 12, 2007
Director – Chris Thompson
Written by Stephen King, Brian Taggart
Fiction Genre
Duration – 95 minutes
Cast: Timothy Busfield, Brenda Bakk, Aidan Devine, Roman Podorandan Breseau, Brezo , Emmy Stewart, Victor Cowie.

Tag – The living trucks attack people .
Original Literature: Stephen King – “Trucks” short story
Summary of the movie “Trucks”: In a place called “Area 51”, not far from a classified military base, a young entrepreneurial woman opens a Lunar Motel, hoping to lure tourists with bikes about flying saucers … The very first guests of the motel do not encounter aliens at all: in the whole district, for some unknown reason, trucks have gone berserk – from a chemical carrier to a toy dump truck.They brutally get rid of their masters and take the surviving people by storm.

Score: 3 points on a five-point scale

19) “SHOWSHENK RUNNING”

Original title – “The Shawshank Redemption”
Year of issue – 1994
Preview – 15 August 2007
Director –
Frank
Daras – Stephen King, Frank Darabont
Genre – thriller, drama, adventure
Duration – 142 minutes
Cast: Tim Robbins, Morgan Freeman, Bob Gunton, William Sadler, Clancy Brown, Jill Bellows, Mark Rolston, James WhitMorne, Jeffrey De Larry Brandenburg, Neil Juintoli, Brian Libby, David Proval.

Tag – Life of prisoners and the chronicle of the escape from Shawshank prison .
Original Literature: Stephen King – Rita Hayworth, or The Shawshank Redemption
Summary of The Shawshank Redemption: Young banker Andy Dufrein (Tim Robbins), unjustly accused of murdering his wife and her lover, receives a life sentence in prison Shawshank. There, having made acquaintance with a local old-timer and “merchant” nicknamed Red (Morgan Freeman), as well as becoming his own man for the guards and the warden (all thanks to his double-entry bookkeeping skills), Andy begins to methodically prepare to escape from the prison.

Rating: 5 points, quality mark

20) “INSIGHT WITH A LOOK”

Another version of the name – “GENERAL FIRE” Year

Original name – “Firestarter -”
-17 August 2007, first viewed by me 09/28/1989
Director – Mark L. Lester
Written by Stanley Mann
Genre – thriller, fantasy, action
Duration – 114 minutes
Cast: David Keith, Drew Barrymore, Heather Locklear, Freddie Jones, Martin Sheen, George C. Scott, Art Carney, Louise Fletcher, Moses Gunn, Curtis Kredel, Jeff Ramsey, Leon Rippi, Robert Milano, Antonio Fargas.

Tag – A girl endowed with the ability to ignite objects with her eyes .
Original Literary Source: Stephen King – The Fire Carrier Novel.
A summary of the movie “Ignite with a look”: as a result of an inhuman experiment conducted by the secret government organization “Shop” on the basis of an unexplored drug, only two experimental subjects, Andy McGee and Vicki Tomlison, survive. They acquire psychic and hypnotic abilities (Andy is especially strong in this).Soon, their daughter Charlie is born, endowed with a terrible gift – to ignite objects with the power of thought and a directed gaze. It turns out that all these years the family was under the hood of the “Shop”, whose agents kill Vicki and capture the father and daughter. To save her father, the girl Charlie has to demonstrate her formidable strength …

Rating: 4 points on a five-point scale

The best films of the second review were recognized :

1) THE NECESSARY THINGS (1993)
2) LANGOLIERS (1995)
3) DOLORES KLEIBORN (1995)
4) IT (1990)
5) THE SHOWSHENK Escape (1994)

The ugliest flowers.The most creepy plants on planet Earth (11 photos)

: gave examples of the most unusual trees, talked about the largest flower and much more. This time I’ll tell you about of the most disgusting plant species.

1. BLOOD TOOTH / HYDNELLUM PECKII

This cute fungus looks like chewing gum, oozing blood and smelling like strawberries. But do not try to eat it, for it will be the last “delicacy” that you will taste in your life.The fungus has been known to mankind since 1812 and is considered inedible, i.e. Once upon a time, in dark, pre-dark times, there lived a genius who sacrificed his life for the glory of science in order to warn descendants from eating this “delicacy”. In addition to its outstanding external qualities, this abomination has antibacterial properties and contains blood thinning chemicals. But what can I say, soon this mushroom may become a substitute for penicillin (which, by the way, was derived from a fungus of the species Penicillium notatum).If you do not have enough thrills, and you intend to perpetuate your name in the annals of history by all means (the Darwin Prize and the title of the dumbest suicide on planet Earth are already in your pocket), then just lick this miracle of nature …

2 . PUPPET EYES / DOLL’S EYE

At best, this “beauty” looks like an alien weed, and at worst, like a totem dug into the ground with human eyes planted on it, with which the serial killer marked the burial place of all his 666 victims.This unusual plant is called “doll eyes”. There is also a less telling name for this creep – white raven
. This plant does not have any features, except for its appearance, you can even taste it, then tell about your feelings.

3. SEA ANEMONE MUSHROOM

Sometimes, contemplating such creations, you begin to think about the sanity of the creator. Of course, there are times when disgusting things turn out to be quite pleasant to the taste, smell … but this is not the case: the mushroom, called the “stinking octopus horn”, not only looks disgusting, but also stinks, so that it is impossible to describe words.

4. DEVIL’S CLAW

The “Devil’s Claw” is something like the thorns of our burdock, which, being launched by the mark of your best friend’s hand, more than once entangled in your hair. The main difference between these two sticks lies in their appearance: if the thorns of the burdock are small cute lumps that just ask for hands, then the devil’s claw looks more like an evil man-eating spider, which is just waiting to cling to your throat.Once these demonic gizmos were “found” only in Arizona, where the native Americans (Indians) wove horrible-looking baskets from them and laid out whole “minefields” with them, which the enemies preferred to bypass. Today, “demonic claws” have already completely occupied the entire Northwest. I feel that soon this abomination will reach Mother Russia, so if you don’t want to fall victim to the “devil’s claw”, then start stocking up on Roundup and build barricades right now.

5.CHINESE BLACK BATFLOWERS

All the same, Batman did not accidentally choose the bat as a symbol of intimidation of the criminal population of Gotham. For these creatures of darkness are terrible: small evil eyes, thin legs with huge hooked nails, sharp teeth, a plump body, unevenly covered with hair, and huge wings – what is not a description of a terrible monster from another low-budget, but from this no less terrible, horror film? And if you are one of those who consider them cute little animals that eat fruit, then you will surely change your mind when one of these creatures grabs your face and sucks up all your blood … but, unfortunately, it will be too late for you …Mother Nature has done a great job trying to create the most creepy and at the same time disgusting plant, endowing it with all the hallmarks of a bat and adding a bunch of cord-like tentacles for fidelity. This creature of children’s nightmares is called the Chinese mouse flower.

6. BUDDHA’S HAND

I don’t know what crazy genius thought that this thing looked like a Buddha’s hand, for me it looks more like hentai tentacles that are about to embrace another busty beauty.In fact, the nasty tentacles turn out to be quite an edible, one might even say delicious, citrus fruit that is incredibly popular in China and Japan. If you recall the chain of sorting-like restaurants, then it is not difficult to understand why the Chinese are crazy about eating this curiosity, but I did not expect this from the prim Japanese. In fact, the hand of the Buddha is a strange kind of lemon, which often contains nothing but the peel. Fructin attracts Eastern peoples not only with its unusual appearance, but also with its aromatic properties: in Japan, tea is made from it, and in China it is kept at home as a talisman that brings good luck, happiness in the house, drives away all evil spirits and bestows longevity.These lemon tentacles are also used to make jam, marmalade and perfume that smells of violets. And a little about the serious: it is traditionally believed that Buddha can cunningly wrap, twist and turn his fingers during prayer, and at such moments his hands are very similar to these monster-shaped lemon. As you wish, but if this is really so, then if I had the opportunity to meet Buddha or good-natured Freddy Krueger in a dark alleyway, I would most likely choose the latter.

7. VENERINA FLYET / DIONAEA MUSCIPULA

I dare to assume that even a couple of million years ago, these monsters devoured dinosaurs and were the rightful masters of the planet.But evolution is the enemy of maximalism, and all giants have either died out or, in order to survive, acquired more earthly dimensions, so today the flycatcher is a small plant that feeds exclusively on insects, caterpillars, slugs and frogs. How it works: There are many tiny, sensitive hairs inside the leafy mouth. A victim crawling onto a leaf irritates these hairs, which, in turn, signal the contraction of the cells in the inner part of the leaf and the “mouth” begins to close.After a while, the inner part of the leaf begins to secrete digestive fluid and, exhausted from unsuccessful attempts to get out, the victim begins to slowly digest (this process takes a long time. For example, it takes about a week for a flycatcher to digest a slug).

8. CEDAR-APPLE RUST FUNGUS

What turns a juicy healthy apple into a rotting lump of vile horror that harbors a whole brood of worms? If your answer is cedar-apple rotting mushroom (abbr.KYAGG), then, most likely, you showed ingenuity and just read this cunning interweaving of letters that adorns the beginning of this story! KYAGG is a fungal infection that transforms apple and cedar fruits beyond recognition. At least right now, you can make horror films about this abomination: the infected fruits literally turn into disgusting monsters in just a few months. Here’s how it happens: from a tiny spore of the fungus, a spherical body of impressive size develops – from 3.5 to 5 centimeters in diameter, when wet, this abomination stratifies, forming a disgusting antennae.As a result, pine nuts and apples turn into little evil Cthulhu.

9. / RAFFLESIA

10. CHINESE FLEECEFLOWER

Runeflower fruits have frightening shapes that make them look like little potato people. The Chinese are uprooting these tiny underground inhabitants from the earth in order to use their naked, defenseless bodies as a panacea for all diseases, including impotence, cancer, AIDS, dementia, etc.etc., etc … Before turning into life-giving powder, little men are subjected to all kinds of torture, including: boiling, skinning, soaking in moonshine and dismemberment. Mark my words, soon the potatoes will get tired of the Chinese oppression and rebel against all of humanity. So think a few times before deciding to restore your “mojo” with the “rune flower”.

11. PORCUPINE TOMATO

Porcupino tomato is a one and a half meter monster growing in Madagascar, the leaves of which are covered with frightening orange thorns.This thorny miracle Yuda has incredibly beautiful purple flowers gathered in bunches, with which it lures its victims to itself: and now you bend over to pluck one of them and find yourself impaled on “deadly” thorns. In addition to the fact that the Porcupine tomato is prickly and poisonous, it is still almost impossible to kill it: most chemicals are nothing to it and it can survive severe cold and even severe drought. As you already understood, this creation of nature is a monster-like weed that has set itself the goal of its existence to seize your personal plot.In a short time, one plant can spawn a whole army of Porcupine tomatoes, which in a few weeks will turn into 1.5 meter giants, each of which will fight to the last and shed more than one liter of your blood before being uprooted from the ground.

Among the approximately 500,000 species of flowers that grow on Earth, you can find both fragrant and beautiful, and truly eerie specimens. Some have a disgusting appearance, others exude an unpleasant odor, and still others combine both together! So what do the scariest flowers in the world look like?

Puppet eyes

The botanical name of this flower is White Raven (from lat.Actaea Alba). It represents the Buttercup family and is found at the foot of the cliffs of North America east of the Mississippi River. The white raven has a developed root system and large leaves of a dark green color with a serrated border, pronounced veins and cusps at the ends. The plant is also a direct relative of the Wolfberry, which grows in Russia.

However, this flower would not have acquired the title of one of the most terrible on the entire planet, if not for its fruits, which appear at the end of summer from beautiful, lush, white tassel flowers.In place of each corolla, from 10 to 20 peas develop with burgundy-red legs, reminiscent of blood. The plant seems to turn into a fantastic creature, and the protruding white “eyes” with black dots – “pupils” in the middle seem to stare around.

In the old days, the white raven was actively used by the natives to treat back pain and to normalize the menstrual cycle in women. However, it is strictly forbidden for a modern person to eat the fruits of the White Voronets. In Indian tinctures, it had a calming effect on the body and was useful because it was mixed with other ingredients in the right proportions.If you eat a handful of “doll eyes”, the muscles of the heart will experience such a strong relaxation that the organ can simply stop. Today, the White Voronet is sometimes used as a decorative element for decorating flower beds, borders and gardens created in a “semi-wild” style.

Bloody Tooth

In reality, the Bloody Tooth, or, in Latin, Hydnellum peckii, is not a plant at all, but a fungus. However, nothing prevents Gidnellum Peke from standing on a par with the most terrible flowers in the world, because he is able to bring horror to a person both in appearance and in his properties.

Hydnellum peckii has many other names – “strawberry with cream”, “devil’s tears”, “devil’s tooth”, which is associated with the structure and palette of the fruiting body of the fungus. So, it has a white color, an irregular bizarre shape and small depressions that are filled with juice of a rich dark red hue. These drops, which stand out clearly against a light background, resemble blood. In addition, over time, the edges of Gidnellum Peki begin to grow overgrown with bulges that look like teeth. The size of the cap varies between 5-7 cm, but science knows cases when it reached 10 cm in diameter.

The bloody tooth is common in North America, Australia and central Europe, and is also sometimes found in China and Iran. The time of active growth falls in the fall, from September to November. Gidnellum Peka prefers coniferous forests and sandy areas, because from this type of soil it is easier for him to absorb moisture. Usually, you can stumble upon separately growing specimens or small groups, but not large clusters.

In addition to obtaining the necessary substances from the soil, Hydnellum peckii also hunts insects.Its striking appearance is designed just to lure flies and moths. If they sit on a colored hat even for a second, they will stick, will not be able to take off and die.

Despite the fact that the Bloody Tooth was first described back in 1913, and found even earlier, in 1812, today botanists still continue to study and research it. For example, it is known that a mushroom is deadly for humans, because the whitish-pinkish cap contains deadly toxins and poisons.However, the scientific community cannot yet say the same about the secreted juice. Some believe that even a drop of red liquid can lead to death, while others are not so categorical. Still, it’s better not to risk it, but to find another use for the mushroom instead of eating it – for example, using it as an ingredient to create a dye.

Anturus Archeri

Clathrus archeri also belongs to the kingdom of the Mushrooms, and is one of its most terrible representatives.It belongs to the genus Lattice of the Veselkovye family and is found in Australia, where it is easy to mistake it for a flower due to its unusual shape and bright color. Local residents have other, unofficial names for Anturus Archer – “Devil’s Fingers” or “Stinking Octopus Horn”.

This is due to the terrible and repulsive species of mushroom. The pear-shaped or ovoid fruiting body bursts in just a few months and divides into 4-5 parts (lobes resembling petals).Over time, they begin to open, and then the “octopus” demonstrates all the horror of its divided and spread “tentacles”. It is at this moment that it most of all becomes like a flower due to its star-shaped shape and the absence of a pronounced leg. The whole process of germination and transformation stretches over the period from June to September. It is during these months that Anturus Archer can be found in the fields and forests.

In terms of their internal structure, wrinkled blades dotted with pores can be compared to underwater sponges.The “petals” cannot boast of the beauty of the palette: the main color is a frightening red, on which you can see blotches of dark olive mucus. Despite the fact that the mushroom does not belong to the poisonous group, hardly any brave man would dare to taste it, because it is this mucus (gleba) that emits a disgusting stinking smell. If this aroma repels a person, then insects, on the contrary, only attracts, and this is what Anturus Archer needs.

This plant of the Martini family is also called “Devil’s Claw”, “Devil’s Claw” or “Fragrant Martinia”.Harpagophytum prostrate (from the Latin Harpagophytum procumbens) grows in the territory of South and South-West Africa. It is a weedy flower that spreads along the ground and sometimes reaches several meters in length.

However, it is not so much the herbaceous shoots of the Devil’s Claw that are remarkable, but the branches that bear its fruits. These long shoots of black color are something like burdock spines, but the difference between them is still colossal.If you can play pleasantly and cheerfully with small soft lumps growing on burdock bushes, then even an adult will hardly want to approach the pointed and curved hooks of Harpagophytum, resembling the paws of a spider.

Despite this, the plant is not dangerous for people, but, on the contrary, is even very useful. The natives actively used it to create baskets, as well as for the production of medicines. It is known that dried roots can help with joint diseases (arthrosis, arthritis, rheumatism, gout, back pain and muscles), with weakened immunity, with problems with the gall and bladder, liver and kidneys.Harpagophytum has a lightening and anti-inflammatory effect. The main active ingredient is the glycoside harpagoside.

The next scary flower got its name in honor of bats – one of the most frightening creatures in the whole world. Surprisingly, nature decided not to be limited only to them, and in addition invented the type of plants Tacca Chantrieri (from the Latin Tacca chantrieri, aka “Chinese mouse flower” or “Black lily”).

The Chinese mouse flower, common in the lands of Southeast Asia, is painted in a black-violet palette and has bracts (covering leaves) spreading in different directions, which resemble the wings of a small flying “bloodsucker”.When the plant blooms, the resemblance is lost, however, new associations emerge: the mouse flower demonstrates filamentary processes up to 40 cm long, which make it more related to alien monsters, but not to terrestrial creatures. At the same time, the actual flowers of a terrible look do not form, but, on the contrary, are distinguished by their beauty. Their original white color only gradually changes to red-black or dark purple.

In the natural environment, the flowering period occurs in mid-February – mid-August, while in artificial conditions (for example, in botanical gardens) the plant is able to bloom all year round.On the territory of Russia, Chinese mice in apartments dare to cultivate a few, because not everyone can withstand daily interaction with this “demonic” flower. Despite this, it is able to be useful in practical life: dried shoots and leaves can be used to make curry, because it is thanks to the Mouseflower that it acquires unique taste and aroma properties.

Another name for this flower sounds extremely poetic – Dionea (from the Latin Dionaea muscipula).However, in reality, the predatory plant does not have a sublime and far from fabulous appearance. It grows in the swamps and swamps of the east coast of the United States, where day by day “hunts” for its prey – arachnids and insects.

There is a special, curiously arranged mechanism for catching future food in the Venus flytrap. Its main constituents are parts of the leaves that end in pointed, albeit soft, thorns. Dionea is one of the few representatives of the flora capable of abrupt movements (for example, bashful Mimosa, Rosyanka, Pemphigus and some others).

After the insect or spider lands on the leaf, the sensitive hairs of the Flycatcher are sequentially stimulated. This allows the plant to separate the “irritant” suitable for consumption from an accidental drop of water or debris – in these cases, Dionea will not perform unnecessary actions and will not slam. Then the cells of the inner part of the leaves receive the corresponding signal and the trap is closed. Inside, enzymes begin to be produced, which are necessary for the digestion of prey. This process takes about 10 days, after which one chitinous membrane remains from the victim.The trap is revealed again, ready for the next hunt. Over the entire life cycle, the Venus flytrap manages to eat on average only 3 insects.

This is interesting! If a person sticks his finger in the “mouth” of Dionea, nothing terrible will happen – the plant will not be able to hurt or harm him. The trap can be easily released, although the pressure exerted by the walls can still be felt.

This plant, found in Madagascar, is a direct relative of tomatoes and potatoes, however, unlike the latter, it is harmful and weed.Porcupinsky tomato looks like a shrub, reaching up to 2 m in height. Both the stems and the leaves are dotted with terrifying bright orange thorns, which, moreover, are fraught with a deadly threat – poison.

Solanum pyracanthon (lat.) Was added to this list because a person should be especially careful with its beautiful purple flowers, which also hide dangerous thorns. If we talk about animals, then they are often deceived by the brightness of the fruits of the bush and die from toxins.

Interesting fact! Porcupine tomato got its name in honor of porcupine – the North American porcupine.

Porcupine tomatoes are a real headache for Madagascar farmers. They know that it is strictly forbidden to touch the bushes, but, meanwhile, it is necessary to get rid of them somehow. The situation is aggravated by the fact that the tenacious and unpretentious Porcupine tomatoes are almost not amenable to chemical processing, and also survive in severe cold and stifling heat.

We are all accustomed to seeing flowers as something beautiful, fragrant and pleasing to the eyes. But nature has tried to ensure that in its depths there is a place not only for sweets, but also for bitterness. In what delirium she came up with her rogue freaks, no one knows, but the fact remains – you just can’t look at some plants without tears – they are so ugly. And many of them are really scary and bad smelling aliens.

This giant grows mainly in the forests of the Philippines and Indonesia, preferring a humid climate and eternal summer.On average, a flower weighs 7-8 kilograms, and its circumference reaches more than one meter. At first glance it may seem that the huge red “chamomile” is harmless and exudes a delicate pleasant aroma. In fact, the opposite is true. This is a real predator that smells like a sharp fetid trail. Standing next to him is another challenge. Although some tourists courageously take pictures next to a tropical stinker and even squeeze a smile out of themselves.

Chinese runic

An irreplaceable attribute of Chinese medicine.Akin to the Russian plantain or St. John’s wort. In China, it is called somewhat differently – the pointed mountaineer or simply the mountaineer. The plant has a wide range of medicinal properties and is actively used to treat a wide variety of diseases: from pressure and insomnia to infertility and epilepsy. Outwardly, it does not look any special – tall fluffy bushes, which, as they grow, change their height, shape and color. All the unusualness is hidden underground. If you look at the roots of the mountaineer, then out of surprise you can cross yourself.

An absurd “potato” resembling human bodies appears to the general review. And with all the outlines of the limbs and sexual characteristics. A kind of alien humanoids who came to visit “on the light”. This strange structure of the root system is due to the growing environment of the plant. Rather, rocky soil, through which it is very difficult for the roots to get through. As a result, the roots are sinuous and oblong. After digging them up, they are cut, dried, insisted on alcohol, washed into powder and “tortured” in dozens of ways to make all kinds of medicines.

Opinions about this strange flower were divided among naturalists. Some consider him a fiend of hell and an evil joke of nature, others, on the contrary, a work of art. But, whatever one may say, both those and others do not deny that this “beautiful” freak is outrageously similar to a bat. It is not surprising why such a name stuck to it. Black petals, being in a bud, are practically indistinguishable from winged monsters, who strive to cling to the throat of their victim and drink all of its blood.

When a mouse flower fully opens, the metamorphoses occurring with it cause already other associations. Long antennae grow from the calyx, resembling the tentacles of some alien monster. The length of these threads can be up to 40 centimeters. They are distributed on different sides of the flower, and striving to grab onto something alive or inanimate. The plant grows in the Chinese province of Yunnan, and also thrives in greenhouse conditions.

Stinking octopus horn

Another mysterious plant of the planet, it is not clear for what purpose “settled” on the earth.To be more precise, this is a mushroom that tends to bloom like a flower and stink violently throughout the area. At a young age, this fetid monster pretends to be an inconspicuous toadstool or a common tuber towering above the soil. And only after a couple of months the octopus shows its true “face”. The outer rind begins to burst and the surface of the cap splits into 4-5 pieces. The so-called petals are formed, turning outward and turning into improvised octopus tentacles.

The disgusting odor, from which watery eyes and stomach cramps, attract flies, which are the main carriers of fungal spores.The flower reaches 10-15 cm in diameter, and the pulp itself can acquire different shades: from coral and salmon to olive and bright red. It grows in Australia, but is sometimes found in the forests of Europe. It is believed that the mushroom was brought to the European continent together with sheep’s wool, which was actively imported from Australia in the early 20th century.

A unique plant-dinosaur that existed on the planet in prehistoric times. It grows in the Namib Desert in the territory of modern Angola.Unlike most desert plants, which are characterized by scanty size and deciduous cover, this “ship” has, to put it mildly, very impressive dimensions. The flower consists of two wide and long petals spread out on opposite sides and a round rosette with inflorescences sticking up.

The total length of the velvichia can reach 16 meters, and the width is 2 meters. Additional leaves appear in the process of growth, and the existing ones are subsequently divided into ribbon-like strips and curled into wavy “curls”.In this way, the plant creates shade and helps itself not to lose precious moisture. Despite the constant drought in the desert, Welwitschia has adapted to extract water by condensing the moisture of morning and evening fogs brought from the Atlantic on the surface of its leaves. This ability was discovered only in the middle of the 20th century, and before that it was believed that the flower takes moisture from the roots.

Nature often surprises us with the beauty of the flora. But there are such instances that it even becomes scary.Of course, Mother Nature thought of everything to the smallest detail, and there was no initial goal to create something beautiful or something ugly. It’s just that each (in this case) plant has its own functions that it performs. There is a logical explanation for everything. Another question is whether we understand this.

Taking into account the traditional views of the world and understanding of the usual beauty, we offer you to get acquainted with some truly terrible representatives of the plant world.

This mushroom is the most poisonous on earth. With minimal ingestion, it instantly thins the blood. Even in appearance, the devil’s tooth resembles a hero from a horror movie: on its surface are huge drops of dark red liquid. Found in Australia and America.

Looks quite interesting and not scary at all, if you do not know that it is eating caterpillars, various insects and even frogs. Dionea opens her flower, which looks more like a shell of mollusks, and lures a naive victim with a fragrant smell, and then closes the valves and digests soy food.

4. Porcupine tomato
or woody porcupine
. This is a really scary plant. On its leaves are thousands of orange needles with deadly poison. Porcupine tomato grows up to 1.5 m tall. It is almost impossible to destroy it: not a single chemical agent acts on it. You can meet him in Madagascar, but better not.

5. Sea anemone and stinking octopus horn
– two representatives of mushrooms native to Australia.These mushrooms are not poisonous or dangerous, but they give off such a smell that it is simply impossible to tolerate it. With this stench, they attract flies to carry their spores everywhere. They both look terrible too.

The diversity of the plant world knows no boundaries. What we have described in this article is small compared to the number of interesting and not very, beautiful and not very, scary and not very plants that have the right to exist.

Ecology

Sometimes you just wonder what else our Mother Nature is hiding in her pantry.We are talking about the most exotic and sometimes even frightening plants that you have probably never heard of. Some of these natural wonders grow quietly on the ground, and you do not need to descend into the depths of the ocean or climb to the top of the mountains to follow them.

1) Puppet eye

Native to eastern North America, this plant gets its name from the white berries that look like a doll’s eye. The plant could be called “wolfberry”
, as it is extremely poisonous.

2) Mushroom Hydnellum Peck

This mushroom is distributed almost all over the world, and at a young age drops of red juice, similar to blood, appear on its surface, therefore the mushroom received the nickname “bleeding tooth”
. Some do not see such a terrible association and call the mushroom “strawberry jam puff”
. Although, unfortunately, this miracle of nature is not useful in cooking because of its very bitter taste.

3) Voodoo Lily

This plant is native to the Balkans, and its unpleasant smell serves to attract flies.This smell is very specific and resembles the smell of rotten meat.

4) Chinese rune flower

When you look at the stems of this plant, it does not seem to be any special at all. The strange thing is how the Chinese craftsmen manage to get the roots of this plant, amazing in shape. The Chinese use the plant in folk medicine for kidney health, bone strengthening, hair restoration, and as a mild laxative.

5) Amorphophallus titanic or cadaverous flower

This is another flower that has a smell disgusting to humans, but very attractive to flies.The flower itself can be up to 3 meters long! A very rare species found on the island of Sumatra.

6) Devil’s Claw

Seed pods proboscidea
have an interesting shape and are often called “devil’s claws”. The plant is native to Arizona. The oddly shaped pods with long “spider legs” help the plant to spread seeds by clinging to animal fur.

7) Chinese black bat plant

It turns out that the plant world also has its own bats.The plant has strangely shaped black flowers that are somewhat reminiscent of a hanging bat. This plant will be a “decoration” for the collection of gardeners who love exotic species. The most interesting thing is that the fruits also resemble a bat sleeping upside down.

8) Mushroom “starfish”

Some types of mushrooms look good, very tasty, but not this type. “Starfish” is not the most attractive representative of the mushroom world, moreover, it also stinks terribly.One thing calms down: the mushroom is found only in Australia. At first, young mushrooms look very similar to other common mushrooms, but upon reaching maturity, they “explode” in the form of a bright red star and exude an unpleasant odor that attracts flies that pollinate it.

9) Porcupine tomato

This unusual tomato with thorny leaves grows in Madagascar and some other islands in the Indian Ocean. In addition to having sharp thorns and poisonous leaves, the exotic tomato can also be potentially invasive, difficult to eradicate, and can withstand severe periods of drought.

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