Curve range: Plus size | Dresses, Jeans & Jackets

Using Range Through Charts: Constructing a Diversity Curve

Katherine Bulinski


Bellarmine University

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  1. This activity was selected for the On the Cutting Edge Reviewed Teaching Collection

    This activity has received positive reviews in a peer review process involving five review categories. The five categories included in the process are

    • Scientific Accuracy
    • Alignment of Learning Goals, Activities, and Assessments
    • Pedagogic Effectiveness
    • Robustness (usability and dependability of all components)
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  2. This activity has benefited from input from faculty educators beyond the author through a review and suggestion process.
    This review took place as a part of a faculty professional development workshop where groups of faculty reviewed each others’ activities and offered feedback and ideas for improvements. To learn more about the process On the Cutting Edge uses for activity review, see

This page first made public: Jun 4, 2009


This is a hands-on jigsaw-style assignment for a non-majors geology class that illustrates when different groups of organisms originate, persist and go extinct in geological time. Students will be able to construct and interpret a diversity curve for a designated group of organisms and compare their results to other groups of students in the class. Student groups will unite and combine data to create a synoptic diversity curve which will be compared to the Sepkoski curve.

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This assignment is used in both a non-majors geology class and an earth science class for education majors. The class meets twice a week for two hours each session, with one hour devoted to lecture, one hour devoted to a lab exercise.

Skills and concepts that students must have mastered

Students must be able to relate the range of an organism to geologic time, be able to identify major groups of organisms, and know when originations and mass extinctions occur within the Phanerozoic rock record (e.g., the Cambrian Explosion, the Permian Extinction).

How the activity is situated in the course

This activity is one of many short (1 to 2 hour lab exercises) that are paired with a complementary lecture. The lab period immediately preceding focuses on taxonomic identification of major classes and orders of organisms.


Content/concepts goals for this activity

Construct and interpret range-through chart

Plot and interpret diversity curve based on range-through data

Groups of students will compare the diversity curves of different groups of organisms.

Higher order thinking skills goals for this activity

Students will be able to:

  • evaluate data in the context of major events and trends throughout the history of life
  • construct a diversity curve and generate hypotheses that explain their trajectories
  • estimate the approximate age of an assemblage of fossils using a range through chart

Other skills goals for this activity

Students will be able to navigate the Paleobiology Database to obtain age ranges for organisms.

Students will be able to use Microsoft Excel to generate a diversity curve.

Description of the activity/assignment

In advance of this assignment, students will hear a lecture discussing the major events throughout the history of life, including but not limited to: the Cambrian Explosion, the Ordovician Radiation, the “Big Five” mass extinctions and they will be shown the Sepkoski Curve. Additionally students will be introduced to major groups of organisms, mostly at the class and order level.

Students will be divided into groups of 4-5 students and each are assigned a major group of marine organisms with an extensive fossil record (e.g., Bivalves, Brachiopods, Arthropods, Cnidarians). Students will compile a list of 30-40 age ranges for genera within that group by conducting searches on the Paleobiology Database.

Using these ranges, students will construct a range-through chart by hand on paper scaled to a geologic time scale, generating a visual representation of the originations, persistence and extinction of these groups.

Upon construction of the range through chart, students will tally up the number of organisms present in each time period (either originating or persisting or going extinct during that time period). Using these counts, students will make a diversity curve in Microsoft Excel that should depict a rough approximation of the paleontological record of the group.

Students will answer a series of questions related to the interpretation of the range through chart and diversity curve, and devise hypotheses that explain the shape of the trajectory of the curve.

After generating the diversity curve in separate groups, the class will reassemble and combine data for the construction of a synoptic diversity curve.

Students will examine this curve and compare it to that of the Sepkoski curve for the purposes of analysis and hypothesis formation.

Determining whether students have met the goals

Students will be evaluated based on the completion of the assignment and the sophistication of submitted answers. The development of hypotheses for explaining the shape of the diversity curves is central to this assignment.

More information about assessment tools and techniques.

Teaching materials and tips

Other Materials

25 Best Plus Size Clothing Brands And Websites 2020 | London Evening Standard


he joy of online shopping is you can find pretty much anything at the click of a button – if you know where to look.

While many bricks-and-mortar high street stores are slowly cottoning on to the value of the plus size pound (hey, better late than never), they have still yet to stock full collections for clothing larger than a size 16 on the shop floor.

And while some brands tacked on perfunctory plus sections to collections made for slimmer shoppers, the #BodyPositive movement (which has over 11.9m Instagram posts to date) and presence of more plus size celebrities (think Lizzo, Ashley Graham and Rebel Wilson to name just a few) means that retailers are starting to wake up to the fact plus size women want to be fashionable too.

Banish all thoughts of boring tent-like smock dresses, ageing florals and ill-fitting trousers. Plus size fashion is bigger and better than ever, and online is the best place to find your next sartorial haul.

Below you’ll find a directory of stores who offer fashion to women who wear a UK dress size 16 or larger. We’ve also included some established brands whose superb selection of extended sizes earns them a place in our list.

There’s everything from elegant formalwear, polished office attire, glam date night ensembles and casual off-duty apparel from brands you may know, and hopefully a few you don’t.


The best plus size clothing shops

Price: ££ Sizes: up to 34

Considered by many the mothership of fashionable plus size, ASOS Curve’s main draw is that it stocks so many great plus size designers in addition to its own brand range.

Browse more than 2,000 fashion and lingerie pieces in extended sizes from brands like New Look, Pink Clove, Boohoo and Club L all under one digital roof.

If you get ASOS’s Premier Delivery, your spree will be at your door in around 24 hours, and sometimes less – exactly the white horse you need when in the midst of a sartorial crisis.

ASOS also offer a fantastic men’s plus size range, check it out here.


Price: £ Sizes: 4 to 36


Good tights are hard to find, especially when you wear a plus size. That’s why we’re so delighted with Snag, where hosiery and leggings are specifically made and sized to fit curves up to a UK dress size 36.

The generous collection includes tights for all occasions, from thick wooly designs and rainbow-bright fishnets to barely-there sheers and skintones that are perfect for adding under summer frocks. The inclusive brand also offers clothing basics like leggings, tees, skirts and swimwear, giving women of all sizes more comfortable and flattering options than ever. Love.


Price: ££ Sizes: up to XL

Although the sizes go up to an XL, Monki’s generous fit means most of the label is perfect for women with curves; some of their designs are the equivalent of a UK 24. The Swedish brand has the sort of signature style you can spot a mile off, louche and kooky: think whimsical motifs, punchy prints and colourways so cheerful they’ll burn your retinas with their brightness (in a good way, of course).

Monki are also big cheerleaders on body positivity, feminism and LGBTQ+ rights, which is mirrored across their ad and social media campaigns as well as some collections. Their online offering can often be more diverse than what you’ll find in stores, so point your digital compass there and don’t miss their web exclusives; they sell out lightningfast.

New Look Curves

Price: £ Sizes: 18 – 28

Neutrals and wardrobe essentials are the backbone of New Look’s current plus size offering, which you’ll find in its dedicated online Curves section. Prices are modest (around the £20 mark for a day dress), so you should have no trouble picking up the latest trends or updating your wardrobe on a budget.

Don’t forget to check out their shoes too – they have a decent wide fit shoe range to go with the fashion on the site.

Junarose by Vera Moda

Price: ££ Sizes: up to XXL or a UK 28

Clothes that fit curvy women properly, Junarose is one of those brands you’d be happy to spend your entire vacation in. Designed for sizes 16+, the site is dedicated to plus size style and the spring collection is filled with transitional pieces that have us reaching for our credit cards.

The main collection is a bit more reserved – think flattering midi dresses and ¾ length sleeve tops – that would suit older shoppers who care about quality rather than jumping aboard passing fashion bandwagons.

Simply Be

Price: ££ Sizes: 10 – 32

With everything from occasion to beachwear making a play for your next fashion buy, Simply Be has been designing for curves for years. Celebrating curves is central to the brand’s ethos, and they offer cool and stylish fashion-forward pieces in sizes 10-32. As well as their own brand, the online department store stocks an impressive selection of brands including AX Paris, Figleaves, Monsoon and Levi’s. There’s even a beauty selection so you can shop your look from head to toe in one place.

Violeta by Mango​

Price: ££ Sizes: up to 22

From one of Spain’s best-known high street brands, Violeta by Mango is an absolute treasure trove of classic shapes and silhouettes, with the occasional punchy print. This season there’s a decent selection of prints: floral and polka and the suit trousers will smarten up your office wardrobe if needed. Oh, and don’t miss the Online Exclusives for kit you can’t get anywhere else.

In all, the collection stays true to the Mango aesthetic, it’s just bigger. We’re obsessed.

Oasis Curve

Price: ££ Sizes: 18 – 26

This brand was a bit late to the plus size party, but they’re here now and that’s all that matters. Oasis only launched Curve in September 2018 after it saw the success its one-off plus size collab with Simply Be. Once they saw for themselves that the demand was there, the label rolled out a capsule collection featuring designs in extended sizes.

Prim, proper and preppy, find cute staples across the whole range, all perfect for work and play.

Chi Chi London Curve

Price: £££​ Sizes: 18 – 26

If you’ve got a wedding to attend or need a special outfit for a birthday or big party – and you’re plus size – head to Chi Chi London. The brand has a well-earned rep of offering seriously pretty frocks that flatter and enhance curvy woman.

In fact, their Curve range offers a spectrum of pretty, elegant styles: think demure tea dresses, florals and dreamy puffs. Think Tahani’s wardrobe from The Good Place and you’re on the right track.

Formal wear is hard enough to shop for but to find high quality pieces in plus sizes can be practically impossible. Thankfully Chi Chi London is here to save the day with sizes up to a 26.

Yours Clothing

Price: ££ Sizes: 16 – 36

Find a massive selection of trends and seasonal pieces at Yours Clothing, another e-retailer putting curves firmly at the centre of their business. They stock multiple brands such as Hell Bunny, Izabel Curve and Chi Chi London.

Pink Clove

Price: £ Sizes: 16 – 28

Dedicated to designing plus size fashion to style-conscious women, Pink Clove sells styles in sizes 16 to 28. There are so many want-it-now pieces, you’ll be glad your heaving online basket is a virtual one, but thanks to the plentiful discounts on already-low prices, your finances won’t suffer the consequences of your impulse haul. Dresses from as low as £3.


Price: £ Sizes: up to 26

Selling trend-led fashion to an exclusively plus size audience, Lovedrobe has more than 40 years’ experience designing clothes for women. If it’s new day frocks you’re after you’ll find plenty to inspire your next #ootd in its dedicated Dresses section.

Inspired by the catwalk and current trends, garments are available up to size 26.

Veronica Beard

Price: £££

Timeless, made-to-last fashion at a higher price point, Victoria Beard is all about investment pieces that will serve as a faithful foundation for all future outfits. We’ve got our eyes on the Gaya Dickey Jacket, a staple in any well-curated wardrobe. Based in New Jersey, USA, they offer worldwide shipping.

In the Style Curve

Price: £ Sizes: 14-28​

With collab collections with reality TV stars like Dani Dyer, this is fast fashion for a young audience at hard-to-resist prices. You’ll find dresses, swimwear and coats with an urban, clubby edge.


Price: £ Sizes: 18 – 28

Another US import, Penningtons caters to sizes 14 – 32, the equivalent of a UK 18 – 28. With a good mix of everyday staples and special occasion designs it’s a great base to build your wardrobe.

The plus-size lingerie selection is impressive – just check the measurements carefully before you buy as American sizes differ slightly to the UK’s.

Tutti Rouge lingerie

Price: ££ Sizes: Bras to 38HH

Underwear can make such a difference to your whole outfit, so finding the best bra is crucial.

Tutti Rouge stock hundreds of romantic, edgy and dramatic pieces in styles that fit and support where you need it the most. A UK-based design team creates bras from cup size DD and upwards.

River Island Plus

Price: ££ Sizes: 18 – 28

River Island has been on the British high street for 60-odd years, bringing inexpensive, trend-led fashion to everyone from your mates to your work BFF. The Plus range is available exclusively online and comprises casual and clubwear: think cut-out dresses, slouchy joggers and statement prints (usually leopard-print) to update your SS20 wardrobe.

Torrid fashion

Price: ££ Sizes: up to a US 30

Based in the US, but with international delivery from 10-20 business days, Torrid is popular on Instagram with plus size bloggers.

And browsing the site, it’s really no wonder. The site sells everything from occasionwear like wedding dresses and bridesmaid fashion to athleisure for the larger lady; sizes run from a US 10 – 30. Check out the shoes, accessories and lingerie options while you’re there – you’ll find some pretty options you won’t see anywhere else.


Price: ££ Sizes: 14 – 32

Launched in 2011, Curvissa is one of the biggest online fashion shops for a plus size audience. There are over 3,000 fashion pieces in sizes 14 – 32 spanning everything from trousers and tops, to jackets, jeans, occassionwear, lingerie and swimwear.

Laura Sutherland, Brand Manager at Curvissa, says: “We wanted to create a brand that would ensure that all plus size women could visit our site for clothing they trust to feel comfortable and confident wearing. Most importantly, we wanted to provide women with plenty of choice.” Mission accomplished.


Price: ££ Sizes: 16 – 26​

Alongside wardrobe staples and holiday-ready bargains, Quiz also offers an occasionwear collection that works for everyone from bridesmaids to wedding guests. The Curve collection offers pieces for work as well as play, and if you sign up to their newsletter you’ll get 15 per cent off your first order.

Blue Vanilla Curve

Price: £ Sizes: 18- 28

Based in London, you may have spotted Blue Vanilla concessions in New Look and House of Fraser. Find the full collection online with international shipping to 150 countries. Their Curve section runs from sizes 18 – 28 and features pretty maxi dresses and printed tops which you can filter according to colour.


Price: ££ Sizes: 14 – 32

Finding designer plus-sized clothing can be tricky, but there are a host of amazing options at Navabi – 214 to be exact. The e-retailer’s eponymous collection is perfect for updating your work wardrobe with plenty of blouses, trousers and shift dresses to choose from. The brand also regularly features influencer collabs, as well as styling advice.

Pretty Little Thing Curve

Price: £ Sizes: 4 – 28

Plus size everything is the primary agenda when you’re on Pretty Little Thing’s Curve section; think bodysuits and bottoms as well as dresses, bralets and jackets, plus plenty more besides. The 1,425 piece range echoes the style of the main PLT collection – festival-friendly, glam and slick – ensuring you can keep up to date with the latest trends, whatever your size. Prices max out at £40.

Boohoo Plus

Price: £ Sizes: 16 – 24

There’s no need to wait until payday to nab the latest styles when shopping at Boohoo – the site features new pieces daily at budget-friendly prices.

There are sections for Maternity as well as Petite, Tall and of course, Plus Size. Whether you’re looking for a new date night outfit or just want a quick wardrobe update, Boohoo’s your best bet for trend-let pieces that won’t break the bank.

Prices rarely breach the £60 barrier, averaging £30 or less and there’s always something cute on sale.

Find the men’s Big + Tall collection here.

H&M+ Plus Sizes

Price: £ Sizes: up to size 24

For jeans, pretty day dresses and wardrobe staples, H&M has a good selection of plus size womenswear that go up to a size 24 in the sort of prices that have made it one of the kings of the UK high street. You can get even more money off if you sign up for a shopping membership, which offers a variety of exclusive perks and special offers, including 10 per cent off your first purchase and free standard delivery.


Plus Size Clothing – 15 Best Shops for Curvy Girls

Plus-size clothing is often quite hit and miss. The sizing is either totally out of whack or the designs just, well, leave a little to be desired… Oh, and to top things off, they’re normally way more expensive. Greeeattt.

As @sarabrowndesigns explains of her usual shopping experience, “One of my biggest annoyances is the fact that the high street has options, but they’re not the options I want.” Yep, what is it with brands offering just the same smock tops, kaftans, and other shapeless garms that so often seem to be associated with curve sections? Who said that everyone size 16 and above automatically wants to hide their shape? Where are the options in different fabrics and finishes, different hem lengths and trends?

So when we find a label that consistently nails the curvy fashion brief, we find it particularly worthy of sharing.

Best plus size clothing:

  • ASOS Curve
  • PrettyLittleThing
  • Boohoo
  • Mango
  • Elvi
  • River Island
  • New Look
  • Simply Be
  • Junarose
  • Never Fully Dressed
  • Chi Chi London
  • H&M
  • Neon Rose Store
  • Kai Collective
  • Studio 8

    After years of looking, we’ve found shops that do a good blazer (and workwear in general), great formal dresses (including plus-size wedding dresses) cute midi skirts, and even excellent jeans, so you don’t need to compromise on fit or style.

    Scroll down for the best mainstay brand and shops for curvy and plus-size clothing in the UK. While you’re at it, make you also check out our Contributing Curve Editor’s pick of seven under-the-radar plus-size brands to know.

    Best for: Versatile pieces

    ASOS Curve is always going to be our number one curvy girl shop. It’s our first destination whenever we’re in need of a new outfit because we know they will always come through with the classics and more trend-lead pieces. With sizes ranging from 16-30, we wish more retailers would follow suit. On top of that, they also have so much choice. There is a slew of different options updated each week, and glorious flash sales, meaning this should always be one of your first port of calls for online shopping.

    We currently have our eye on: colourful checked cardigans, sexy patterned minidresses, and pastel green denim shorts. Come on, summer.

    Dad suit blazer with contrast lapel in check

    Asos Curve
    asos. com


    Lounge maxi cable knit cardigan in cream

    Asos Curve


    V neck top with shirred waist and puff frill sleeve in mono gingham

    Asos Curve


    Linen look culotte trouser in khaki

    Asos Curve


        Best for: Affordable prices

        PrettyLittleThing’s plus-size range came onto our radar after curve blogger, Chloe Elliott, sang its praises. Not only has the brand extended their sizing to a 26, but as Chloe points out, they are offering something we have never seen in plus-size ranges before. While we like trying things on to make sure the fit is right, the good thing about PLT is that you can make a generous order (without going broke), try them on at home and return anything you don’t love. The thing is, you will probs love it all.

        From stretchy, comfy basics like sweatpants and cycling shorts, to sexy going-out clothes like sheer organza tops and vinyl trousers, PLT has you covered.

        Orange Colour Block Stitch Detail Cropped Top



        Black ribbed cycling shorts



        Stone Peach Skin Oversized Ruched Sleeve Bomber Jacket



        Peach Puff Sleeve Bardot Crop Top



        Best for: Trend pieces

        In times of crisis, we turn to the Boohoo plus range. Not only is the entire line incredibly affordable, but we just love that they offer the exact same clothes in bigger sizes. Just because we are a bigger size, doesn’t mean we want to spend our life in kaftans, am I right? I mean, it’s boggling that other stores don’t do this to be honest, but thankfully some brands are opting for more inclusive offerings.

        They’ve got everything you need to stock your whole wardrobe, from denim and knitwear (try their oversize baggy cardis), to sundresses and date-night tops.

        Tie Dye Draped Midi Skirt



        Seamed Cargo Denim Jogger

        Boohoo Plus


        Floral Off Shoulder Maxi Dress



        Tie Dye Ruched Midi Skirt



        Best for: Classic style

        Not many people know that Mango has a plus-size range but it’s really worth a look. While the other famous Spanish retailer, Zara, only goes up to a size 18, Mango offers its high-quality designs up to a size 26. And, in our experience, quality also goes the distance. While the pieces might be trend-inspired, their winter coats last us for years on end, meaning it’s easier to justify spending a little more on a piece you love.

        If you’re looking for something slightly different to your usual plus-size offering, check out Violeta by Mango. They’re great at cool fashion-forward pieces like puff-sleeve minidresses, sequin skirts, and leather shackets, which you won’t find at most other high-street retailers.

        Puffed sleeves dress



        Check suit blazer



        High waist straight jeans



        Printed message T-shirt



        Best for: High quality

        Elvi is a brand that we first discovered through ASOS Curve and it’s quickly become one of our favourites. It’s a mix of high-quality wardrobe staples and high fashion pieces that you wouldn’t expect from a plus-size brand. Our favourite thing are their skirts, from pleated and metallic to faux leather, they have everything. Plus they have some pretty cool collaborations, like Hayley Hasselhoff.

        Why not pair one of their breezy kimono dresses with beautiful leather sandals and a straw bag? Or, match their sequinned microdress with sky-high disco platforms.

        Note: Elvi has stated that its online operations are curretly limited due to the pandemic, so this might be one to bookmark for now. However, we’ve found some of the brands pieces on ASOS and Navabi to shop.

        Linen a-line skirt in pink

        Checked jumpsuit



        Semi-sheer chiffon maxi dress



        Hayley Hasselhoff premium trousers in white

        Best for: Seasonal buys

        When the River Island Plus range finally launched, it didn’t disappoint. Although the selection isn’t as large as ASOS, the well-curated line goes up to a size 28. This should be your go-to shop for each season’s key trend pieces. Our favourite River Island finds right now? Their dresses. Whether you’re after a cute party dress, or a versatile midi to wear to the office, they’ve got something for every occasion.

        RI Plus has become our go-to for embellished denim, bright tailoring, and fun night-out dresses. Why not pull out all the stops in head-to-toe denim, topped off with heels and a pearl bag?

        Plus pink ruffle long sleeve blouse top

        River Island, £35

        Beige leopard print frill mini dress

        River Island, £55

        Plus purple intimates hoodie

        River Island, £42

        Plus blue v neck shoulder pad bodysuit

        River Island, £22

        Best for: Affordable prices

        Props to New Look for being one of the first shops to carry a plus-size range. Their ‘Inspire’ line, has been relaunched as their ‘Curves Range’ and we can tell you, it’s giving ASOS Curve a run for its money. The best part? Its affordable pricing. New Look is a high street favourite because you can fill your basket with on-trend pieces without breaking the bank.

        They also stock a host of other cool curve brands, like Wednesday’s Girl, which is perfect for silky slip skirts and floral jumpsuits.

        White Scoop Neck Vest Top

        £6.99, New Look

        BUY NOW

        Brown Leopard Print Denim Mini Skirt

        £25.99, New Look

        BUY NOW

        Dark Grey Acid Wash Eagle Logo T-Shirt

        £12.99, New Look

        BUY NOW

        Red Leopard Print Smock Dress

        £22.99, New Look

        BUY NOW

        Best for: Variety

        Simply Be is a plus-size treasure trove. You want a supportive sports bra for big boobs, they got it. Swimsuit, they got it. Wide-fit boots, you’ve come to the right place. In short, they have everything. Plus, their sizes are just as fab, which is a huge win. Ranging from a size 12-34, this is one of the most inclusive fashion sites you will find.

        Right now, we’re stocking up on denim and florals, which they’re great at. Skirts, minidresses, and summery jackets – it’s all putting us in the mood for a pina colada on a rooftop somewhere.

        Sage Relaxed Suedette Shacket

        Simply Be


        Gingham Collared Button Front Top

        Simply Be


        Blue Acid Wash Square Neck Denim Jumpsuit

        Simply Be


        Boxy Drop Shoulder Jumper

        Simply Be


        Best for: Timeless pieces

        Like all good plus-size brands, this is another one we discovered through ASOS Curve. Their focus? Quality, without compromise. Owned by Vero Moda, it goes without saying that this label offers the latest trends but what you might not know is just how flatting and tailored their cuts are. You will be sure to find some classic pieces to update your wardrobe from here.

        Junarose is great for elegant, timeless classics that you’ll wear for years to come. This is a great first stop when you’re on the hunt for grownup, work-appropriate clothes that you can also wear on the weekends.

        Short sleeved mini dress



        Denim jacket



        Long sleeved knitted jumper



        Long sleeved tunic



        Best for: Stylish prints

        Beginning as a one-woman business selling at Portobello and Spitalfields market, Never Fully Dressed is a UK fashion success story and a brand that’ll become your go-to destination for the perfect summer dress. It’s curve range, which goes up to a size 26, is filled with modern designs that have a cool edge. Their unique prints make each dress such a stand out item, it’s a challenge not to add them all to cart. You can never have too many statement dresses right?

        Blue Zebra Midi Dress

        Never Fully Dressed, £89

        Multi Clover Viscose Midi Dress

        Never Fully Dressed, £89

        Blossom Mini Jaspre

        Never Fully Dressed, £49

        Pink Stripe Andi Shirt

        Never Fully Dressed, £69

        Best for: Evening and formal dresses

        If you’ve been looking high and low for a full-on, no apologies party dress, you have come to the right place. From embellished to lace, to metallic, to rockabilly, these dresses are definitely not for wallflowers. And, honestly, finally! It’s about time curvy gals can shop equally fierce dresses suitable for clubbing, sipping cocktails at the bar, or even for cute date night dinns.

        We’re loving their flowy maxi dresses for formal occasions, plus their flirty and smart sundresses that are perfect to wear to a summer wedding.

        Plus Size Floral Satin Contrast Midi Dress in Mono

        Chi Chi London, £43.50

        Long Sleeve Polka Midi Dress in Green

        Chi Chi London Plus Size, £43.50

        Wrap Style Pleat Midi Dress in Brown

        Chi Chi London, £55

        Wide Leg Print Jumpsuit in Black

        Chi Chi London Plus Size, £50

        Best for: Cool, everyday staples

        H&M is a failsafe destination for ultra-fashionable pieces that are still very affordable, as well as their sought-after designer collaborations, and just generally being a high street go-to. Lately, it feels their plus size range (H&M+) has definitely seen more love and attention pumped into it, offering timeless and cool wardrobe staples, with relaxed shirts, printed midi dresses and a tonne of modern denim and stylish basics. Hallelujah!

        Best for: Trend-led styles

        This small independent UK brand is another hidden gem we were happy to discover after being stocked by the saviours at ASOS. Filled with vintage-inspired, trend-led pieces that include pastel leather shackets, patchwork denim and frill blouses with oversized collars. Their designs are so far away from the dowdy plus-size ranges of yesteryear, focusing on contemporary styles and silhouettes, and we couldn’t be more stoked.

        PU Wide Leg Trousers with Pocket Detailing

        Neon Rose Store, £31.50

        Dreya Animal Full Drop Waist Shirt Dress

        Neon Rose Store, £26.25

        Denim Smock Dress with Contrast Collar

        Neon Rose Store, £28.50

        PU Oversized Shacket with Patch Pockets

        Neon Rose Store, £30

        Best for: Fashion-forward designs

        With a major cult following, we’d be surprised if London based brand Kai Collective hasn’t already popped up on your radar. Founded by fashion blogger Fisayo Longe, with cool co-ords and printed dresses, their vibrant designs have been spotted all over Instagram, with sizes ranging from XS to XXXL (UK20). The brand focuses on enabling confidence and creating a community through their clothing, and their fanbase even includes Beyoncé, so you know you’re in good company.

        Bea Dress Ginger

        Kai Collective


        Gaia Shirt

        Kai Collective


        Gaia Red Velvet Dress

        Kai Collective


        Amanda Top Orange

        Kai Collective


        Best for: Smart basics and occasion dresses

        Studio 8 is the sister brand of Phase Eight, offering the brands signature grown-up styling with classic silhouettes and smart separates, it’s a haven for office/Zoom call dressing. Ranging from a size 18 to 26, they also do great occasion wear for a host of different events, filled with delicate floral print summer dresses and embellished jewel-tone gowns.

        Jarah Demin Jumpsuit

        Studio 8


        Fae Gingham Culotte

        Studio 8


        Wendy Floral Dress

        Studio 8


        Rose Soft Biker Coat

        Studio 8


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        Laura Capon
        Senior Fashion & Beauty Writer
        Laura writes about everything beauty and fashion related for Cosmopolitan UK and specialises in makeup, plus-size fashion and the world of YouTube.

        Maddy Alford
        Acting Shopping Editor
        Maddy is the Acting Shopping Editor at Cosmopolitan UK, where she styles photoshoots, creates shopping content, and covers celebrity fashion online.

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        “Harney Range.” Horseshoe Curve on the B[urlington] and M[issouri River] Ry. near Custer City, S.D.

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        For information about reproducing, publishing, and citing material from this collection, as well as access to the original items, see: John C. Grabill Collection – Rights and Restrictions Information

        • Rights Advisory:
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        • Call Number:

          LOT 3076-3, no. 3822

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        ELISA data: calculating and evaluating

        You can use the curve to determine the corresponding concentration (b).

        We have drawn lines a and b for demonstrative purposes; most microplate reader software can perform these calculations for you. 

        Samples that have an absorbance value falling out of the range of the standard curve

        To obtain an accurate result, these samples should be diluted or concentrated before proceeding with the ELISA staining. For these samples, the concentration obtained from the standard curve when analyzing the results must be multiplied by the dilution factor.

        Calculating the coefficient of variation

        The coefficient variation (CV) is the ratio of the standard deviation σ to the mean µ:

        Cv=  σ

        This is expressed as a percentage of variance to the mean and indicates any inconsistencies and inaccuracies in the results. Larger variance indicates greater inconsistency and error. Some computer programs can calculate the CV values from ELISA results.

        High CV can be caused by:

        • Inaccurate pipetting; ensure pipette tips are sealed to the pipette before use so they draw up to correct volume of liquid
        • Splashing of reagents between wells
        • Bacterial of fungal contamination of either screen samples or reagents
        • Cross contamination between reagents
        • Temperature variations across the plate; ensure the plates are incubated in a stable temperature environment away from drafts
        • Some of the wells drying out; ensure the plates are always covered at incubation steps

        Spike recovery

        Spike recovery determines the effect sample constituents have on detection of the antigen by the antibody. For example, the many proteins contained in tissue culture supernatant may hinder antibody binding and increase the signal to noise ratio, resulting in underestimation of the target concentration.

        Known concentrations of protein are spiked into both the sample matrix and a standard diluent. The spiked protein is quantified using the assay and results from the sample matrix and the standard diluent are compared.

        If the results are identical, then the sample matrix is considered to be valid for the assay procedure. If the recovery is different, then components in the sample matrix are interfering with the analyte detection.

        What if a spike recovery experiment indicated that the sample matrix is affecting the results?

        We recommend producing the standard curve using standard diluted in the sample matrix. Any effects on the results from the sample matrix will also be present in the standard, and therefore comparison between the standard curve and the samples is more accurate. Many of our ELISA kits contain a standard serum diluent for this purpose.

        Another solution is to alter the sample matrix. For example, if neat biological sample is used, try diluting this in standard diluent. However, with this option, you will need to ensure that the dilution factor is taken into account when analyzing the results and that the concentration stays within the linear section of the standard curve.

        View more of our ELISA kits, reagents and protocols or review our membrane antibody arrays, such as  cytokine array ab133997, which can be used to measure many proteins simultaneously.

        ELISA guide

        >> Next page: ELISA troubleshooting tips

        << Previous page: ELISA analysis

        Download the full guide

        General Curve Display Functionality

        General Curve Display Functionality

        General Curve Display Functionality

        The same curve display object is used in all PMOD tools. It consists of curve area and a controls area.

        Curve Area

        The curve area shows the curves which are enabled for display. There is always an active curve, which is shown in bold. A curve can be made active by holding down the CTRL key and clicking at one of its points, or by pushing its button in the controls area as illustrated with the Model Curve above.

        The definition of active curve is relevant for the tools which interrogate the curve values:

        • There are two small handles at the top of the curve area: a little rectangle to the left, and a line to the right. These are handles which can be moved left/right using the mouse, and the blue vertical line moves with them. The values at the top center of the curve area represent the interpolated (x/y) values of the active curve at the location of the handles. To get the measurements of a different curve just CTRL+Click at that curve to get the values updated.
        • When the cursor is brought close to a point of the active curve, its x/y value pair is shown at the upper left of the curve area.

        To zoom into an area of the curve just click the left mouse button to the corner of the area of interest and drag a rectangle. After releasing the mouse button the display is zoomed into the defined rectangle. An alternative is to define the axis ranges in the context menu. A single mouse click into the curve area is sufficient to reset the zoom.

        Context Menu

        By clicking the right mouse button into the curve are, a context menu with some additional options can be opened.

        The functions are:

        Range (Zoom)

        Set the range of the x- and y-axis by entering a numeric value.

        If the box is checked, the range is maintained during all manipulations. Otherwise, a single click resets the range to the default.

        Reset Zoom

        To reset the curve range to the default full range. It is grayed if the display is not zoomed or the range is fixed.

        Mouse operation: single click into curve area.

        Select Active Curve

        Selects the curve nearest to the point clicked with the right mouse button to open the context menu.

        Mouse operation: CTRL+Click at a curve.

        Toggle point

        Disable a measurement of the active curve. This is reflected by setting the symbol to gray.

        In the context of model fitting measurements marked in grey are regarded as outliers and not considered when evaluating the cost function.

        Mouse operation: select the relevant curve to active, then SHIFT+Click at measurement.

        Switch ON/OFF all points in visible area

        In combination with zooming this option allows to quickly disable/enable contiguous points of the active curve.

        Hide/Show Controls

        Allows hiding the controls if the viewing area is small, and to show them again.

        Hide/Show Grid

        Controls the display of the grid lines.

        Hide/Show Density

        Reflects the density (coded distance) of points in the graph as a colored map. More points close together produce a “higher” color.

        Hide/Show Markers

        Controls whether the measurement markers are shown.

        View in Separate Window

        With this option, the curve display can be opened in a separate, large window to closely examine the plot.


        With this entry a configuration dialog is opened for setting the annotation Font size, and for enabling curve Antialiasing (smooth curve appearance).

        Save All Curves

        Allows saving the numeric data of all curves in a single or separate text files.

        View values
        (visible curves)

        Opens a dialog window which shows the numeric values of all visible curves in a dialog window. The window contents can be copied to the clipboard and pasted to a different application.

        Save All Curves ON/OFF

        To quickly change the visibility of all curves. When switching all off, the active curve is still shown.

        Curve Control Area

        The control area lists the curves which are available for display. There are several elements to modify the curve appearance:


        Check/uncheck the visible box.

        Active curve

        Enable the active button, or directly CTRL+Click on the curve itself. The line/symbols get bold.


        Use the list selection to change the style of a curve:

        Further useful interface elements:


        Change the shape of the lines defined by the measurements:

        Note that calculations are not based on the display representation of a curve.

        Save the numeric data of a curve as a text file with two columns. These files obtain a .crv suffix and can easily be opened in Excel or a text editor.

        When working with a database the curve can be attached to a particular image using the Attach to Patient (Serie) in the appearing dialog.

        If this button is enabled, each curve is normalized to its own maximum and shown as percent values. This mode is helpful for comparing shapes when the dynamic range of the curves is very different.

        Create a capture of the curve area. The captured image can be saved as a JPEG, TIFF or DICOM file. It can also be copied to the clipboard to paste it into some office application.

        Logistic regression and ROC analysis – mathematical apparatus


        Logistic regression is a useful classical tool for solving the problem of regression and classification. ROC analysis is an apparatus for analyzing the quality of models. Both algorithms are actively used to build models in medicine and conduct clinical research.

        Logistic regression has become widespread in scoring for calculating borrower ratings and managing credit risks.Therefore, despite its “origin” from statistics, logistic regression and ROC analysis can almost always be seen in a set of Data Mining algorithms.

        Logistic regression

        Logistic regression is a form of multiple regression whose general purpose is to analyze the relationship between multiple independent variables (also called regressors or predictors) and a dependent variable. Binary Logistic Regression is applied when the dependent variable is binary (i.e.that is, it can only take two values). Using logistic regression, you can estimate the probability that an event will occur for a particular subject (sick / healthy, loan repayment / default, etc.).

        All regression models can be written as:

        y = F (x_1, \, x_2, \, \ dots, \, x_n)

        In multiple linear regression, it is assumed that the dependent variable is a linear function of the independent variables, i.e .:

        y = a \, + \, b_1 \, x_1 \, + \, b_2 \, x_2 \, + \, \ dots \, + \, b_n \, x_n

        Can I use it for the problem of assessing the probability of the outcome of an event? Yes, you can by calculating the standard regression coefficients.For example, if the outcome of a loan is considered, the variable y is set with the values ​​1 and 0, where 1 means that the respective borrower paid off the loan, and 0 means that there was a default.

        However, a problem arises here: multiple regression does not “know” that the response variable is binary in nature. This will inevitably lead to a model with predicted values ​​greater than 1 and less than 0. But such values ​​are generally not valid for the original problem. Thus, multiple regression simply ignores the range constraints for y.{-y}}

        where P is the probability that the event of interest will occur e is the base of natural logarithms 2.71 …; y is the standard regression equation.

        The relationship between the probability of an event and the value of y is shown in the following graph (Fig. 1):

        Fig. 1 – Logistic curve

        Let us explain the need for transformation. Suppose we are thinking about our dependent variable in terms of a basic probability P between 0 and 1. Then we transform this probability P:

        P ‘= \ log_e \ Bigl (\ frac {P} {1-P} \ Bigr)

        This transformation is commonly referred to as a logistic or logit transformation.In theory, P ‘can be any value. Since the logistic transformation solves the problem of limiting the 0-1 bounds on the original dependent variable (probability), these transformed values ​​can be used in a normal linear regression equation. Namely, if we perform a logistic transformation of both sides of the above equation, we get a standard linear regression model.

        There are several ways to find the logistic regression coefficients.In practice, the maximum likelihood method is often used. It is used in statistics to obtain estimates of the parameters of the general population based on sample data. The method is based on the likelihood function, which expresses the probability density (probability) of the joint occurrence of the sample results

        L \, (Y_1, \, Y_2, \, \ dots, \, Y_k; \, \ theta) = p \, (Y_1; \, \ theta) \ cdot \ dots \ cdotp \, p \, (Y_k; \, \ theta)

        According to the maximum likelihood method, the following value \ theta = \ theta (Y_1, . {k} [Y_i \ ln {P_i (W)} + (1-Y_i) \ ln {(1 – P_i (W))}]

        where I_0, I_1 — sets of observations for which Y_i = 0 and Y_i = 1, respectively.{-1} \, g_t (W_t) \, = \, W_t \, – \, \ Delta W_t

        Logistic regression can be represented as a single-layer neural network with a sigmoidal activation function, the weights of which are the logistic regression coefficients, and the polarization weight – constant of the regression equation (Fig. 2).

        Fig. 2 – Representation of logistic regression as a neural network

        A single-layer neural network can successfully solve only the linear separation problem. Therefore, the possibilities for modeling nonlinear dependencies in logistic regression are absent.However, for assessing the quality of a logistic regression model, there is an effective ROC analysis tool, which is its undoubted advantage.

        Any gradient methods can be used to calculate the logistic regression coefficients: the conjugate gradient method, variable metric methods, and others.

        ROC Analysis

        Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) Curve that is most often used to represent the results of binary classification in machine learning.The name comes from signal processing systems. Since there are two classes, one of them is called a class with positive outcomes, the other with negative outcomes. The ROC curve shows the dependence of the number of correctly classified positive examples on the number of incorrectly classified negative examples.

        In the terminology of ROC analysis, the former are called true positive, and the latter, false negative. In this case, it is assumed that the classifier has a certain parameter, varying which, we will obtain one or another division into two classes.This parameter is often called the cut-off value. Depending on it, different values ​​of type I and II errors will be obtained.

        In logistic regression, the cut-off threshold ranges from 0 to 1 – this is the calculated value of the regression equation. Let’s call it a rating.

        To understand the essence of type I and II errors, let us consider a four-field confusion matrix, which is built on the basis of the results of classification by the model and the actual (objective) belonging of examples to classes.

        • TP ( True Positives ) – correctly classified positive examples (the so-called true positive cases).
        • TN ( True Negatives ) – correctly classified negative examples (true negative cases).
        • FN ( False Negatives ) – positive examples classified as negative (type I error). This is the so-called “false pass” – when the event of interest to us is mistakenly not detected (false negative examples).
        • FP ( False Positives ) – negative examples classified as positive (type II error). This is a false detection because in the absence of an event, a decision is mistakenly made about its presence (false positive cases).

        What is positive and what is negative depends on the specific task. For example, if we predict the likelihood of having a disease, then the class “Sick patient” will be a positive outcome, and the class “Healthy patient” will be negative.Conversely, if we want to determine the likelihood that a person is healthy, then the class “Healthy patient” will be a positive outcome, and so on.

        When analyzing, they often operate not with absolute indicators, but with relative shares (rates), expressed as a percentage:

        • The share of true positives (True Positives Rate): TPR = \ frac {TP} {TP \, + \, FN } \, \ cdot \, 100 \, \%
        • False Positives Rate: FPR = \ frac {FP} {TN \, + \, FP} \, \ cdot \, 100 \, \ %

        Let’s introduce two more definitions: the sensitivity and specificity of the model.They determine the objective value of any binary classifier.

        Sensitivity is the proportion of truly positive cases:

        S_e = TPR = \ frac {TP} {TP \, + \, FN} \, \ cdot \, 100 \, \%

        Specificity ( Specificity) – the proportion of truly negative cases that were correctly identified by the model:

        S_p = \ frac {TN} {TN \, + \, FP} \, \ cdot \, 100 \, \%

        Note that FPR = 100-Sp

        Let’s try to understand these definitions.

        The high sensitivity model often gives a true result if there is a positive outcome (finds positive examples). Conversely, a model with high specificity is more likely to give a true result when there is a negative outcome (it detects negative examples). If we talk in terms of medicine – the problem of diagnosing a disease, where the model for classifying patients into sick and healthy is called a diagnostic test, then we get the following:

        • A sensitive diagnostic test manifests itself in overdiagnosis – the maximum prevention of missing patients.
        • A specific diagnostic test only diagnoses patients with certainty. This is important when, for example, the treatment of a patient is associated with serious side effects and overdiagnosis of patients is not desirable.

        The ROC curve is obtained as follows:

        • For each cut-off value that changes from 0 to 1 with a d_x step (for example, 0.01), the values ​​of the sensitivity Se and the specificity Sp are calculated. Alternatively, the threshold may be each successive sample value in the sample.

        • A dependence is plotted: the Y-axis is the sensitivity of Se, the X-axis is FPR = 100-Sp – the proportion of false positives.

        Canonical algorithm for constructing ROC-curve

        Inputs: L – set of examples f [i] – rating received by the model, or the probability that the i-th example has a positive outcome; min and max are the minimum and maximum values ​​returned by f; d_x – step; P and N are the number of positive and negative examples, respectively.

        1. t = min
        2. repeat
        3. FP = TP = 0
        4. for all examples i belongs to L {
        5. if f [i]> = t then // this example is outside the threshold
        6. if i is a positive example then
        7. {TP = TP + 1}
        8. otherwise // this is a negative example
        9. {FP = FP + 1}
        10. }
        11. Se = TP / P * 100
        12. point = FP / N // calculation (100 minus Sp)
        13. Add a point (Se) to the ROC-curve
        14. t = t + d_x
        15. while (t> max)

        As a result, a certain curve appears (Fig.2): for each threshold it is necessary to “run through” the records and calculate TP and FP each time. If we move down the dataset sorted in descending order of the output field of the classifier (rating), then we can calculate the values ​​of all points of the ROC curve in one pass, successively updating the TP and FP values.

        For an ideal classifier, the ROC curve graph passes through the upper left corner, where the proportion of true positives is 100% or 1.0 (ideal sensitivity), and the proportion of false positives is zero.Therefore, the closer the curve is to the upper left corner, the higher the predictive power of the model. Conversely, the less the bend of the curve and the closer it is to the diagonal line, the less effective the model is. The diagonal line corresponds to the “useless” classifier, i.e. complete indistinguishability of the two classes.

        When visually evaluating the ROC curves, their position relative to each other indicates their relative effectiveness. The curve located above and to the left indicates a greater predictive power of the model.So, in fig. 4, two ROC curves are superimposed on one graph. It can be seen that model “A” is better.

        Fig. 4 – Comparison of ROC curves

        Visual comparison of ROC curves does not always reveal the most efficient model. A peculiar method of comparing ROC curves is to estimate the area under the curves. Theoretically, it changes from 0 to 1.0, but since the model is always characterized by a curve located above the positive diagonal, it is usually said about changes from 0.5 (“useless” classifier) ​​to 1.0 (“ideal” model).

        This estimate can be obtained directly by calculating the area under the polyhedron bounded on the right and bottom by the coordinate axes and on the top left by the experimentally obtained points (Fig. 5). The numerical measure of the area under the curve is called AUC (Area Under Curve). It can be calculated, for example, using the numerical trapezoidal method:

        AUC = \ int f (x) \, dx = \ sum_i \ Bigl [\ frac {X_ {i + 1} \, + \, X_i} {2} \ Bigr] \, \ cdot \, (Y_ {i + 1} \, – \, Y_i)

        Fig. 5 – Area under the ROC curve

        With large assumptions, it can be assumed that the higher the AUC, the better predictive power the model has.However, you should be aware that:

        • AUC is intended rather for a comparative analysis of several models;
        • AUC does not contain any information about the sensitivity and specificity of the model.

        The following expert scale for AUC values ​​is sometimes given in the literature, by which the quality of the model can be judged:

        The ideal model has 100% sensitivity and specificity. However, in practice, this cannot be achieved; moreover, it is impossible to simultaneously increase both the sensitivity and the specificity of the model.The trade-off is found with a cutoff threshold, since the threshold value affects the ratio of Se and Sp. We can talk about the task of finding the optimal cut-off value .

        The cut-off threshold is needed in order to apply the model in practice: assign new examples to one of two classes. To determine the optimal threshold, you need to set the criterion for its determination, since different tasks have their own optimal strategy. The criteria for choosing the cut-off threshold can be:

        1. Requirement of the minimum value of the sensitivity (specificity) of the model.For example, you need to ensure the test sensitivity is at least 80%. In this case, the optimal threshold will be the maximum specificity (sensitivity), which is achieved at 80% (or a value close to it “on the right” due to the discreteness of the series) of sensitivity (specificity).
        2. Requirement for the maximum total sensitivity and specificity of the model, i.e. Cutt \ underline {\, \, \,} off_o = \ max_k (Se_k \, + \, Sp_k)
        3. Requiring a balance between sensitivity and specificity, i.e.when Se \ approx Sp: Cutt \ underline {\, \, \,} off_o = \ min_k \, \ bigl | Se_k \, – \, Sp_k \ bigr |

        The second threshold value is usually the default for the user. In the third case, the threshold is the point of intersection of two curves, when the cutoff threshold is plotted along the X-axis, and the sensitivity or specificity of the model is plotted along the Y-axis (Fig. 6).

        Fig. 6 – “Balance point” between sensitivity and specificity

        There are other approaches when a weight is assigned to errors of the I and II types, which is interpreted as the cost of errors.But here the problem of determining these weights arises, which in itself is a difficult and often not solvable problem.


        1. Tsyplakov A. A. Some econometric methods. Maximum likelihood method in econometrics. Tutorial.
        2. Fawcett T. ROC Graphs: Notes and Practical Considerations for Researchers // 2004 Kluwer Academic Publishers.
        3. Zweig M.H., Campbell G. ROC Plots: A Fundamental Evaluation Tool in Clinical Medicine // Clinical Chemistry, Vol.39, No. 4, 1993.
        4. Davis J., Goadrich M. The Relationship Between Precision-Recall and ROC Curves // Proc. Of 23 International Conference on Machine Learning, Pittsburgh, PA, 2006.

        Other materials on the topic:

        Application of logistic regression in medicine and scoring

        Machine learning in Loginom using the example of a problem with Kaggle

        Scoring schemes | Blackboard


        Scoring scheme

        After an item is graded in a course, the grade is displayed as a numeric grade by default.Grades appear in the gradebook on the Grades page and on a course with graded items such as assignments and tests.

        For each graded item and calculation, you can choose to display points, letters (A, B, C), or percent using a grading scheme. The schema compares the scores calculated for a job to the maximum possible total score for that job to obtain a percentage. The resulting percentage is matched against a range of points and the score is displayed, for example, as a letter.

        Each Ultra course has one default grading schema. It is not possible to create other schemes at this time.


        Let’s say a student scored 88 points out of 100 on the overall grade. On a grading scheme where a percentage of 87 to 90 is equivalent to a B + grade, 88 points correspond to a B + score.

        Currently, regardless of the range of values ​​used in the scheme, the colors of the rating cells and the corresponding percentages do not differ from the Ultra color scheme.That is, when the rating is displayed, its color matches the Ultra color scheme. However, your institution may turn off the color scheme for all courses. For more information, see the section on grading.

        Opening the grading schema

        The gradebook page allows you to make changes to the default grade schema. Click the Settings icon to access the Gradebook Settings panel. Open a grade schema, such as a letter grade. The default schema name and values ​​are defined by the administrator.It is not possible to create other schemes at this time.

        Changes you make apply only to the current rate.

        If an institution makes changes to the default grading schema, they will not be reflected in your course. The modified scheme will only be used in new courses.

        You can rename a chart in your course. The name change applies only to the current course. Hover over a name and click the Edit icon. The schema name must not exceed 64 characters.The changed name is displayed on the Grade menu using new and existing graded items.

        You can also change, delete, or add rating ranges. Click a value to change it. Change the rating values ​​sequentially, starting with the last lower rating. The upper value can be made larger than 100%. For example, if a student scored 100% or more, they could be given an A + grade.

        To delete a line, move the pointer over it and click the Delete icon.There must be at least two lines left for the schema to be valid, and the last line cannot be deleted. To insert a line, click the + sign anywhere after the first line.

        When rows are added or removed, or values ​​are changed in the schema, the remaining rows and values ​​are adjusted when they are saved. The system checks that there are no missing numbers in the schema. Also, if you enter an invalid number, an error message appears.

        When finished, click Save.The panel can be closed only after clicking the Save or Cancel button. Then click the cross (X) to return to the Gradebook Settings panel.

        Algorithm for determining the shape of objects by analyzing images obtained in the infrared range

        Download the text of the article in PDF format

        Zelensky A.A., Semenishchev E.A., Frants V.A.

        Algorithms for preliminary processing of images obtained in the infrared range and reconstruction of the contours of objects are considered. The use of these approaches allows you to get an approximate idea of ​​the shape of objects in the absence of information obtained in the optical range. The following algorithms are used as approaches for primary image processing: filtering and blurring of the image; threshold binarization; detection of boundaries of temperature changes.The filtering and blurring algorithm is based on a multi-criteria method. The thresholding binarization algorithm is based on thresholding. The algorithm for finding the boundary of an object is based on the use of a mathematical approach to find an equidistant curve. The article presents block diagrams of algorithms and their mathematical description. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is shown on a set of test images for solving the problem of finding the shape of objects by analyzing data obtained in the infrared range.

        edge detector, infrared, equidistant curve, filtering, thermal images

        Article bibliography:
        Zelensky A. A. Algorithm for determining the shape of objects by analyzing images obtained in the infrared range / A. A. Zelensky, E. A. Semenishchev, V. A. Frants // Reports of TUSUR. – 2018. – T. 21, No. 3.- S. 63–68. DOI: 10.21293 / 1818-0442-2018-21-3-63-68

        Allow or limit an IP address range

        Specify an IP address range to restrict unauthorized connections to the Fiery Server.

        You can specify a range of IP addresses from which access will be allowed, as well as block access from specific IP addresses. You can configure several separate address ranges within which access is allowed or denied.The Fiery Server will ignore commands and jobs sent from unauthorized IP addresses.

        Important: There are two versions of Configure, each corresponding to the Fiery Server to which you are connected. This is a compound procedure that describes the steps to take when connecting to a Fiery Server with FS100 / 100Pro or earlier, and notes about the steps to take when using an FS150 / 150 Pro or later.If you are unsure which version of Configure you are using, see Which version of Configure are you using ?.

      1. From Configure, select.

        Important: If you are connected to a Fiery Server with FS150 / 150Pro, select to access the settings described in this procedure.

      2. Select the IPv4 tab and select the Enable IPv4 address filter check box, or select the IPv6 tab and select the Enable IPv6 address filter check box.

        Important: If you are connected to a Fiery Server with FS150 / 150Pro, select the IPv4 Address Filtering and IPv6 Address Filtering check boxes.

      3. When adding multiple ranges, select a policy that will apply to most IP ranges. In the Default Filtering Policy list, select Accept to allow access from a range of IP addresses. Select Deny to block a range of IP addresses.

        Important: The Default Filter Policy list will help you add multiple ranges one after the other. When defining a range, you can Accept or Deny it, regardless of the default setting.The settings in the Default Filtering Policy list are not applied to ranges that have already been added.

      4. Click Add.

        Important: If you are connected to a Fiery Server with FS150 / 150Pro, click Add IPv4 Address Filtering or Add IPv6 Address Filtering.

      5. In the window that appears, select Accept or Deny for the range of IP addresses.
      6. Enter an IP address range (IPv4) or enter an IPv6 address and prefix length (IPv6), and then save your changes.
      7. Repeat the above steps to add other ranges.
      8. Apply or save your changes.

        Important: If you specify a range of IP addresses to block but do not specify a range from which access will be accepted, all network communication with the Fiery Server is disabled.

      9. How is it comfortable to play shooters on a gamepad?

        Part 1. Settings

        • Hey-yo, ladies and gentlemen! In touch Sergey Borlader, once the editor of the portal about console video games, and now the leading podcast for him “At the edge of the universe.” I am passionate about video games. Do not feed bread, let us press buttons, exploring mysterious worlds and fighting powerful bosses. But there is one strange twist in my love: the game of shooters absorbs me more than any other. Gamepad shooters.
        • I became interested in this craft more than ten years ago and still cannot stop. For the last two years I have been actively practicing in multiplayer, where I have made tangible progress. Personal achievements – the title of “Apex Predator”, emblems for 20 kills and 4,000 damage per match in the console version of Apex Legends, as well as getting into the top 1% of Call of Duty: Warzone players with K / D 2.7 in crossplay. For all the time, I managed to try a lot of gamepads, platforms, modifications and settings, I mastered the Clow grip method. I have something to tell you!

        To begin with, the default view settings in all console shooters are terrible. Rather, they are intended for inexperienced beginners who have picked up a controller for the first time. For those who want to become better, there is a chance of salvation, but they will have to abandon old habits and almost learn to play again.

        Step 1. Dead zone.

        Dead Zone – the range in which stick deviations are not recorded.

        In an ideal world, we would unscrew this parameter to zero, but this is just a utopia. The device of modern 3D analogs can initially allow a slight misalignment of the sticks, which in turn can lead to their drift.

        Drift stick (English Drift – “drift”) – misalignment of the stick in the zero position, due to which the deviation of the 3D analogue is recorded even at rest.This phenomenon causes the unauthorized movement of the character, or the camera, in any direction. With the wear of the mechanism, the effect increases. It is usually treated by cleaning the potentiometers of the problematic 3D analog or by replacing it completely.

        To hide this flaw, dead zones were introduced. They depend on the specific instance of your gamepad and you will have to select their sizes yourself. Strive to a minimum, but so that the scope does not lead to the side without your knowledge, and you can clearly control it.

        The smaller the dead zone, the better!

        Step 2.Sensitivity of the review.

        Look Sensitivity – the ratio between the degree of stick deflection and the displacement of the sight in the game. It can be called the sensitivity of the joystick, camera, stick, and so on. Often divided into two separate parameters: the X-axis and the Y-axis sensitivity, but it is better to keep these values ​​the same for more intuitive stick control.

        Sensitivity, like tastes, is an individual concept. You need a special approach to it, and you can only identify that one through long practical wanderings.But the principle is as simple as two and two. Strive for the maximum, but look for your comfort limit. Start with low values ​​and gradually increase this parameter when you realize that the current speed is not enough for you. The main thing is not to overdo it and do not lose control.

        The higher the viewing sensitivity, the better!

        Step 3. Output curve.

        Output Curve is a graph for processing incoming signals of a 3D analogue, which is responsible for the dependence of the camera movement acceleration on the amount of stick deflection.May also be referred to as recoil curve, response curve, aiming response type, and the like. In modern games, it usually has several options for setting, in earlier projects it is absent at all.

        Secret forbidden knowledge begins with this setting, because its correct choice will allow you to get a little closer to the accuracy of a computer mouse. There are a lot of inference curves, but we will analyze only their main types.

        Standard – deceleration of the sight when the stick is deflected to the middle and a gradual decrease in the effect after.Not at all responsive and weakly effective. In fact, it takes more than half of the stick travel, which could help with micromovements. This inference curve is widely used by developers as an unwavering standard, including in games where this parameter cannot be adjusted.

        Linear – directly proportional dependence of the sight movement speed on the degree of stick deflection. Simply put, the greater the stick deflection, the higher the speed of the scope movement. A linear inference curve is the most optimal in the vast majority of cases.

        Dynamic – gradual acceleration of the sight in the first half of the stick travel and smooth deceleration in the second. It can be called differently, an example is taken from the Call of Duty series. It is an excellent analogue of a linear output curve, more sensitive in micromovements.

        Your choice: linear curve and its analogues. In this case, you get the opportunity to both quickly turn 180 degrees, and comfortably bring the sight on the enemy’s head from a sniper rifle. All the parameters responsible for the slowing down of the sight, such as anti-aliasing during the view from Doom Eternal, should be turned off to make the control of the sight more intuitive.

        The output curve must be linear or similar!

        Step 4. Aiming assistance.

        Aim Assist is an algorithm that adjusts the player’s shooting process to obtain the most comfortable gaming experience. It is widely used both for control from a gamepad and from a computer mouse. In modern shooters, it is divided into two main types: sticking and bullet magnetism. Sticking slows down the crosshair when approaching an enemy, and magnetism adjusts the bullet’s trajectory slightly to make hits seem fair to the player.The first type is used mainly for a gamepad, and the second for both types of game paddles.

        The behavior of the aim assist depends on the specific game. If we talk about multiplayer projects, then this is often a barely noticeable slowdown of the sight next to the enemy, but in single-player and some frivolous multiplayer games, there is also a variant of auto-aiming (English Auto Aim), which automatically aims the sight at the enemy.

        Contrary to the accusatory speeches of many adherents of the keyboard and mouse, in the multiplayer of most shooters, aiming assistance is poorly expressed.Sometimes she even gets in the way, clinging to knocked out enemies. However, once a year, the stick fires, and therefore if the help works adequately, then it is better to leave it. You will hardly notice the assistant’s work, but it will be a little more comfortable to play.

        If aiming assistance does not interfere, then it is better not to turn it off!

        Step 5. Field of view.

        Field of View (FOV – Field of View) – angular space seen by the game camera at one time.The higher the angle of the field of view, the larger the area of ​​space is instantly displayed on the player’s screen. The standard value of this parameter is about 70 °, the maximum is about 120 °. At high values, the camera seems to move away, due to which the models of enemies in the center of the screen become smaller. For the same reason, the sensitivity of the view seems to be slower, and the speed of movement, on the contrary, is fast.

        Large values ​​of this parameter can negatively (but not critically) affect the FPS, due to the fact that with the expansion of the visible area, the render area also increases.

        The approach to choosing the correct field of view is similar to the sensitivity of the view. Strive for the maximum, but don’t forget the comfort limit. Yes, the models of enemies will become smaller, but this way you will better see what is happening around, and it will become easier for you to control the environment.

        The larger the field of view, the better!

        Step 6. Motion blur.

        Motion Blur (English Motion Blur) – defocusing the camera when quickly rotating it in order to convey the effect of speed.

        The worst evil you can think of for a shooter. The screen is blurred when you move the scope and it is almost impossible to see anything at this moment.

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