Cotton on: the staggering potential of switching to organic clothes | Fashion
Most Britons underestimate the full environmental impact of cotton, thinking it takes only 314 litres of water to make a cotton T-shirt – which is only 12% of the true figure of 2,700 litres, according to a new report out today.
Yet buying a certified organic cotton T-shirt rather than an ordinary one would save a staggering 2,457 litres of water – enough for one person to drink eight glasses of water a day for three and a half years.
Consumers are being urged to save water in the supply chain by buying organic cotton T-shirts in a new study from the Soil Association – the trade body that licenses organic products and promotes organic farming, as well as the environmental charity Hubbub.
Two in five Britons also said that while they care about the environment, it has not occurred to them that the manufacture of their clothing might have a negative impact on the planet, according to the new research.
Within the fashion industry, more than half of garments sold in the UK are made from cotton, meaning that switching conventional cotton to more sustainable cotton alternatives continues to present one of the biggest opportunities for retailers to reduce their environmental impact.
Cotton is a notoriously thirsty crop as detailed in the report. Growing cotton accounts for 69% of the water footprint of textile fibre production; just one kilogram of cotton takes as much as 10,000-20,000 litres of water to produce.
Nomads clothing AW19 … pioneers in sustainability, producing organic cotton clothes.
The World Economic Forum has identified water scarcity as one of the top 10 global risks to society over the next 10 years, yet the bulk of cotton is grown in countries that are already facing severe water stress.
However, growing cotton organically uses significantly less (up to 91%) water than conventional cotton, the report says. In addition, conventional cotton uses approximately 16% of the world’s insecticides and 7% of pesticides.
Sales of Soil Association certified textiles grew by 18% in the UK in 2018, highlighting growth in the market that is now worth £41.3m. In the UK, brands such as Komodo, Frugi, Greenfibres, Nomads, People Tree, and Seasalt have been pioneers in sustainability, producing organic cotton clothes that are fully certified throughout production and processing. Superdry is planning to go 100% organic by 2040.
To highlight the issue, Hubbub and the Soil Association will this week unveil a 3.5-metre installation at the Westfield shopping centre in west London to show shoppers how much water organic cotton saves versus non-organic cotton.
Sarah Divall from Hubbub said: “The call for a more sustainable fashion industry has never been louder, and encouraging people to make easy switches when they do buy something new, such as to organic cotton, can make a real difference. Hubbub is committed to making the fashion industry better for the planet and making it easier for shoppers to make the right choices. ”
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Who made my clothes? Inside Cotton On’s Chinese factories
Six years ago, Zhang Baobao left his family behind in his village home and moved to Wuxi, a large industrial city in southwest China.
Home for the 25-year-old today is a dormitory from which he can see the garment factory where he spends up to 8 hours a day, cutting fabric for fast fashion garments that get shipped around the world.
If you’ve bought anything from one of the 143 apparel stores owned by the Cotton On Group in New Zealand, chances are it was made in this factory, which produces nine million items for Cotton On each year.
Garment workers Zhang Guiyan and Zhang Baobao see their baby twice a year.
On a typical day, New Zealanders buy about 28,000 garments from a Cotton On store – Cotton On, Cotton On Kids, Cotton On Body, Rubi Shoes, Supre, and Factorie – most of which are made in China.
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Standing on the production floor of the Wuxi Everbright factory, Zhang Baobao and his wife, 20-year-old Zhang Guiyun, talk about their one-year-old daughter, Zhang Zirui, who is being raised by their parents back in Anhui, a village in Suzhou province, 365 kilometres away.
Garment worker Liu Yue is 27 years old, from He Fei City in Anhui Province, 360 kilometres away from his workplace.
It’s part of the deal working here that they won’t get to see their infant for at least five months. The young couple send the money they earn back home.
According to their boss, a Wuxi employee earns from the minimum wage of 1890 yuan ($380) a month, and an average of 3700 to 4000 yuan a month ($747 to $807), for working at his factory – an amount that NGOs say meets the minimum wage but is still not enough.
Guiyan smiles shyly, touching the factory security card strung around her neck, hiding the misspelt words of her t-shirt, “Uban Ourfitters, Seattle”. “People treat us very well here,” says her husband, who wears a white t-shirt emblazoned with the single word, “Superman”.
Wuxi Everbright factory has been making Cotton On garments for a decade, and the company says they have a strong relationship.
It’s currently fashionable to know where our clothes come from, and by the end of next year, Cotton On will join fashion giants like Zara and H&M in publishing its supply chain. However, it’s also fashionable to buy cheap, seasonal clothes in a climate of perpetual sales – trends that drive fashion retailers to make ever-cheaper apparel on tighter turn-arounds.
“We live in a throwaway culture. The problem with that is you have to squeeze the supply chain to do it cheaper and cheaper,” says Christina Dean, the founder of Redress, a UK fashion NGO working to reduce waste in the industry.
Auckland mother-of-four Sarah McLeod has stocked up on pyjamas, leggings and sweatshirts at Cotton On Kids this winter, choosing the store because it is a “one stop shop”, and paying $20 for a pair of leggings, for example. “I definitely don’t see Cotton On as a cheaper option but I can go in there and get everything I need in one shop,” she says.
Wuxi Everbright is one of Cotton On’s top 20 suppliers.
H&M is preparing to open new stores in Auckland and Christchurch, and Dean predicts more will follow. Fashion giants like H&M and Zara are always on the hunt for the next market, she says, and New Zealand is on a par with India, where the two retailers are frantically opening stores.
“It sounds like you’ve barely scratched the surface with fast fashion in New Zealand,” says Dean. “If I compare what is happening in India, consumers will start shopping like crazy.”
But Dean urges New Zealand consumers to question the mass consumption of cheap clothing, “and ask themselves if they want a hand in it”. Big business won’t push for change, she says, as it makes profits through this system. “The best way to crack the egg is to start with the awakening of the consumer.”
Garment workers at Wuxi Everbright work 8 hours a day, six days a week, to make clothes for Cotton On and local Chinese brands.
Since the day founder and co-owner Nigel Austin sold his first acid denim jackets out of the back of his Ford Bronco at a Geelong market in 1988, the Australian company has surged to become one of the biggest retail giants in Australasia. Privately owned by Austin and his cousin, Ashley Hardwick, the group has 1600 stores around the globe, including 160 in New Zealand.
Fast fashion chains are increasingly throwing a spotlight on their operations in response to pressure from conscious consumers like McLeod.
As part of its desire for transparency, Cotton On invited Stuff to China in late May to its suppliers’ conference and to see inside two of its 450 Chinese factories.
An assembly room at Wuxi Everbright.
At the conference, Cotton On managers revealed to an audience of about 300 factory owners and workers the good and the bad of outsourcing production to China and increasingly India, Sri Lanka, Cambodia, Mynamar and Bangladesh.
Star suppliers were awarded champion certificates at the end of the day. Cotton On presented statistics about those who were failing based on its audits. In 2016, 16 per cent of its factory workers weren’t paid the minimum wage, 28 per cent weren’t paid enough overtime, 23 per cent were paid incorrect entitlements, and 20 per cent didn’t get their entitled day off each week.
Cotton On has 14 terms of trade, and paying the workers at least the minimum wage is one of those. If factories are caught underpaying staff, Cotton On’s sustainability manager Adam Lloyd says the company works with the supplier to rectify the problem, keeping tabs on it through audits.
A young woman cuts fabric at Wuxi Everbright.
“If after numerous attempts to fix the issue the factory still does not comply, we begin an exit strategy to remove ourselves from the factory while giving them time to source new business, protecting the workers’ jobs during our exit,” he says.
In a further problem, a growing number of factories are subcontracting to others without Cotton On’s permission to get their massive production orders fulfilled.
CALLS FOR THE LIVING WAGE
A worker checks Cotton On garments at Wuxi Everbright.
If Gershon Nimbalker, author of industry bible the Ethical Fashion Report, had his way, workers like Baobao and Guiyan would be paid at least the living wage, a minimum of US$550 a month (NZ$750). The cost? Just 50 cents extra a t-shirt.
“You have a situation where a lot of these workers are taken away from crushing rural poverty to working conditions which are only slightly better.”
Nimbalker was also invited to the May conference, where he addressed suppliers and visited three Cotton On factories, including an unannounced visit to one factory where he and Cotton On managers just turned up.
Making Cotton On shirts at Wuxi Everbright factory, Wuxi. New Zealand is Cotton On’s fourth biggest region in terms of global sales.
His impression? Cotton On is one of Australasia’s top ethical brands, he says. Its suppliers are checked by internal and external auditors. The factories were clean, and staff were provided meals and accommodation.
“But you always get the best understanding what it’s like by independently talking to workers, and I didn’t get that chance.”
Nimbalker is also concerned about the conflict for suppliers who are under pressure not to raise their prices for Cotton On, while also being asked to protect workers wages and conditions.
About 300 garment workers at Wuxi Everbright make 200,000 garments for Cotton On a month.
Cotton On put up a slide showing it paid suppliers an average US$3.57 for a Cotton On item in 2017, up from US$3.33 in 2016; a Cotton On kids garment had risen in price from a US$2.47 average in 2016 to US$2.56 this year.
“It’s a huge problem for the fast fashion and value fashion industry, where you have the brands on the one hand asking their suppliers to have greater social awareness, and on the other hand they’re saying, don’t put your prices up,” Nimbalker says.
GOING TO THE SOURCE
Workers get paid per piece on top of their basic salary.
A muddy river runs beside a five-lane highway, two boats sluggish in the distance. Six million people live in Wuxi, typically residing in tall, thin apartment blocks or dormitories attached to factories.
Our mini van heads south towards the city that was once the birthplace of modern commerce. During the Tang dynasty, Wuxi was famous for its silk farms and rice fields. Today, green fields have been replaced with skyscrapers and factories, as Wuxi is now the site of more than 300 garment factories, and industrial zones producing electronics, medicines and chemicals.
Lake Taihu is the colour of pea soup, a dirty brown watery expanse lying beneath a grey sky so bleak that it seems impossible a sun is in the sky above it.
Peak Fun, 41, is the managing director of Wuxi Everbright, overseeing three factories and eight subcontracting factories. He is keen to create a supportive working environment, and pays at least the minimum wage.
From the 1980s, industrial parks began lining its edges, polluting the lake. The Chinese government has tried to clean up the damage, closing 1000 culpable factories, but today, about 60 per cent of the lake and its waterways are still polluted.
Wuxi Everbright is behind a security fence. Sun pierces through the haze above, as the Chinese managing director, Peak Fun, vigorously shakes my hand, his black BMW X5 parked near the entrance.
The 41-year-old manager takes us through the staff canteen, where garment workers have not long finished their supplied lunch. In the staff leisure room, a weights machine is against the wall, near a treadmill, a ping pong table and shelves lined with books.
A worker steams a Cotton On shirt at Wuxi Everbright, which will be in stores in August.
One of Cotton On’s top 20 suppliers, Wuxi Everbright runs this factory and two others, along with eight subcontracted factories. Shown a factory introductory video, we watch garment workers in the company playing a game of tug of war and taking part in a fire drill.
Two buildings facing each other contain the workplace and the homes of about 150 garment workers. The couples, who must have a marriage certificate, sleep on the top floor. In each male and female dormitory, three sets of bunk beds are lined up against a wall.
The workers’ wet clothes drape on washing lines on each small balcony, blocking out much of the light in some rooms. The workers can’t escape the factory, as they can see it from each dormitory window. The dorms look clean, and they’re not cramped, but six men or women must share a room.
A female dorm at Wuxi Everbright. Six garment workers share this room.
On the ground floor of the factory and office block, a woman drops her head over a navy blue patterned Cotton On garment laid out on a table, inspecting it for flaws. On the top floor, vast sheets of fabric as big as yacht sails are spread on a long table filling one room, which two workers cut with scissors.
Peak proudly tells us a single machine cuts 20 sheets of fabric, doing a job that used to be done by hand. In another large room, bolts of fabric are stacked on shelves, waiting to be transformed into fast fashion clothes. Along with Cotton On garments, this factory turns local designs into garments for fashion conscious Chinese.
He has seen big changes in the 15 years since he became a merchant for the garment industry.
Another female dorm at Wuxi Everbright. This is the workers home for 49 weeks a year.
Of the 600 garment factories that used to be in the Wuxi area, only about half are left. Wages have risen over time, and costs have gone up. Over the past five years, global brands have left China for cheaper countries like Cambodia and Bangladesh. Peak’s factory no longer makes simple t-shirts – they’re made in Dhaka or Cambodia, where wages are cheaper.
In the main factory, rows of young machinists are lined up at whirring sewing machines, as music booms out of speakers on the walls. Every stitch they sew adds to the money they’ll send back to their families in their villages up to 10 hours away. Each month, the 300 garment workers, who must be 18 or older, whip up 200,000 garments.
Later, Peak tells me over a lunch of soup about the “big challenge” of allowing workers to see their families. The factory has wifi, so the staff can connect with their children and relatives, and a foundation fund allows five workers a year to have their families to stay in a spare room for up to a week. Workers return home twice a year – for two weeks over the Chinese New Year and a week in October.
Guangyu Textile Factory vice-president Beck Sheng with a pink fabric that is already in Zara collections at his textile factory in China. Cotton On sources fabric from his factory, which Fairfax Media visited.
The conditions in the two factories visited appeared adequate. When asked if Cotton On has confidence in the conditions of its other 448 factories, Lloyd says it does. Cotton On also backs the conditions in its subcontractor factories.
“There are always improvements which can be made and we’re committed to making a positive difference and improving the lives of factory workers”
Lloyd says the company is “exploring different living wage methodologies and how we can integrate these into our programs”.
Guangyu Textile Factory, where workers like this one guard machines making fabrics for Westerners clothes.
Cotton On’s rules of trade meet local Chinese laws. However, the national secretary of the Textile Clothing and Footwear Union of Australia, Michele O’Neil, wants Australia and New Zealand to pass modern slavery laws like Britain, France and the Netherlands, to control brands making goods offshore.
O’Neil says in some parts of China, the minimum wage for garment workers is as low as US$185 (1250 yuan or NZ$250) a month and workers are denied the right to join a union.
A worker checks a textile machine at Cotton On’s textile supplier, the Guangyu Textile Factory.
“You walk into a factory you’re given permission to visit and it looks clean and safe, and it looks okay, but it doesn’t tell you the whole story. I hear through my international work that what happens the day before there is an audit or an international guest, that there will be some changes made. The lights will be turned on and the doors will be unbolted.”
“That’s not a comment on Cotton On suppliers, but we know it happens.”
Lloyd says Cotton On has long-term partnerships with Wuxi Everbright and the Guangyu Textile Factory, and they did not conceal anything during the visits. “Michele is definitely correct in what she’s saying, and for that reason we do conduct thousands of unannounced visits each year to ensure our suppliers are adhering to our 14 Rules to Trade. We have seen no significant disparity between announced and unannounced visits.”
The final word goes to McLeod, a conscious consumer who checks ethical ratings when she shops. Cotton On, with its A-minus score, gets her tick.
The owner of a voice-over agency, Big Mouth Voices, she wants to know where her childrens’ clothes come from, and that the workers who made them are well-treated. “I’ve stopped shopping at another brand with a D rating. In an ideal world, stores would have their ratings on their doors so consumers can be truly informed,” she says.
But McLeod wouldn’t want to pay more for Cotton On clothes, arguing the brand and factories should share more of their profits with the workers. “If a brand like Cotton On is truly ethically-minded, I think it has a responsibility to give more of its profits to those who have actually made the clothes, who deserve a living wage.”
* Sarah Catherall’s trip to China was paid for by Cotton On.
* Clarification: An earlier version of this story reported that Zhang Baobao worked up to 10 hours a day. Staff in Zhang’s factory are required to work eight hours a day with the choice to work an additional two hours, for which they are paid overtime. The copy has been amended to reflect this.
Cotton On raise NZ$292k to stamp out bullying
21st May, 2019
Pink Shirt Day:
NZ Prime Minister, Jacinda Ardern
Pink Shirt Day:
Ambassador, Larissa Carlson
Pink Shirt Day:
Ambassador, Larissa Carlson
Pink Shirt Day:
New Zealand The Project TV show
Pink Shirt Day:
New Zealand The Project TV show
Through a strong and successful partnerships program which has seen the Group collaborate with organisations along the likes of Carrie’s Beanies 4 Brain Cancer and the Australian Football League and women’s competition, the Group was thrilled to take their community partnership platform across the sea to support the Mental Health Foundation of New Zealand (MHF).
Cotton On was the exclusive retail partner of the MHF’s anti-bullying campaign: the Pink Shirt Day Campaign, and was privileged to spread awareness for the cause focused on mental health issues, specifically bullying in schools and the workforce.
New Zealand has some of the highest rates of bullying within schools and workplaces in the world. Through a survey initiated by New Zealand’s Education Review Office, released last week to coincide with Bullying Free Week, 11,085 students surveyed on their experiences of bullying showed that nearly half of primary school children and a third of teenagers reported being bullied in the past month.
The MHF used Pink Shirt Day, held on Friday, 17 May 2019 to raise awareness and understanding of the prevalence and impact of bullying on young people’s mental health and wellbeing. Cotton On produced the unisex t-shirts (adult and kids) and sold them in select New Zealand Cotton On stores and Cotton On Kids stores and online at cottonon. com/NZ/ with free shipping thanks to the generosity of logistics company, Toll Group. As a result we were able to contribute 100% of net proceeds from each sale toward the MHF’s mission.
The MHF has delivered Pink Shirt Day Campaign since 2012, with the 2018 campaign resulting in 4,000 pink t-shirts sold for the cause. Releasing the t-shirts for sale to the New Zealand public on Monday, 29 April, the Group set out to sell 20,000 t-shirts for this year’s campaign.
The pink t-shirt which emphasised MHF’s motto of: Speak Up, Stand Together and Stop Bullying saw the uptake of 200 shirts sold per hour during the few days before Friday, 17 May.
In anticipation for the day, many New Zealand residents passionate for the cause took to social media, encouraging their community to get behind the day by purchasing a t-shirt. Influential spokesperson, New Zealand Prime Minister, Jacinda Ardern also took to social media wearing her pink shirt in solidarity.
On the official Pink Shirt Day the country turned pink, or māwhero, as thousands wore their shirts in support of the cause. Throughout the day the t-shirts continued to fly off the shelves with an average of 400 shirts sold per hour across the region, ending the day with close to 20,000 shirts sold during the campaign timeframe.
New Zealand TV show, The Project exclusively revealed the campaign results on Friday evening whereby Cotton On Group NZ Country Manager, Kerry Ashford handed over the official cheque to Mental Health Foundation Chief Executive, Shaun Robinson for the amount of NZ$291,999.
Kerry was thrilled to provide the MHF with the cheque, reflecting on the day by saying:
“We’re incredibly proud of what we were able to achieve in partnership with the Mental Health Foundation of New Zealand and Toll Group for last Friday’s Pink Shirt Day. With the support of the community, our team members and local businesses we were able to contribute NZ$291,999 to support MHF’s bullying prevention work around New Zealand. We were thrilled to sell close to 20,000 t-shirts and we hope that our support of the campaign has meant more people are aware of this very important cause and raise awareness around mental health issues.”
The Group, alongside their Cotton On brand were thrilled to contribute such a significant amount toward the Mental Health Foundation of New Zealand, the largest corporate contribution to the organisation to date, particularly in the first year of our partnership to aid in eliminating bullying in schools and workplaces across the country.
Rinse cleans and delivers Cotton On
About Cotton On
Cotton On is Australia’s largest retailer of fashion apparel, cosmetics, house furnishings, and kids’ clothing. The brand was founded in 1991 by Nigel Austin and employs over 320,000 people worldwide with 1500 locations around the world. Cotton On is known for its casual, trendy, and affordable clothing and accessories.
What Rinse knows about Cotton On
Cotton On seems to be trendy
Rinse was founded in 2013 and has become the national leader in clothing care. Over the years, this is what we’ve learned about Cotton On:
240 Cotton On garments cleaned and delivered
Gained Popularity by 77% in the past year!
Top cities for Cotton On
Rinse serves 5 major markets in the US: The San Francisco Bay Area, Los Angeles, Chicago, Washington Metro Area, and Boston. This is where Cotton On is worn the most:
Rinse cleans these stains in Cotton On garments the most
Stains from beverages like coffee, juice, wine, milk, or tea may require careful neutralization. Rinse works to clean these stains using specialized dry cleaning solvents. Other foods, like chewing gum, butter, chocolate, egg, spaghetti, or ice cream also leave stains on clothing, and require special spot treatment to resolve. Condiments like ketchup, mustard, mayonnaise, soy sauce, or salsa can also be difficult to remove. Rinse can clean these kinds of stains from Cotton On garments utilizing dry cleaning skills honed during decades of work.
Cosmetic stains are also common. Eye liner, mascara, foundation, blush, eye shadow, lip balm, and nail polish are all pigmented, and so can leave stains on garments easily. Rinse utilizes dry cleaning best practices to remove these sometimes-difficult stains from your favorite Cotton On garments.
Candle wax, crayons, or glue can also damage Cotton On clothing, requiring special attention during the beginning of the dry cleaning process. On the other hand, common odors from perfume or perspiration can more-easily be removed from Cotton On garments during dry cleaning. Another common type of stain is from oil, either from cooking oils like butter or lard, or lubricating oils like motor oil or grease. Whether the stain is particularly tricky to resolve, or more straightforward, Rinse would be happy to pick up your Cotton On garment for dry cleaning.
Un-dyed Loop Wheel Organic Cotton T-shirt online store
Un-dyed Loop Wheel
Organic Cotton T-shirt
We don’t use a level-dyeing agent. Therefore, there may be some irregularities in the products.
All items are dyed to order. Some items take longer to dye, so we ask you to wait on average 3 weeks after you place your order. Especially the double gauze series, takes extra time to prepare. Approximate completion dates will be sent to you by email.
Tezomeya’s products are made with organic cotton on loop wheel knitting machines. We do not use any extra processes. Because of this there may be irregularities in length of 2-3 cm. Please understand our sizing is based on the averages of these differences, so your product may be slightly shorter or longer than the size chart. Please email us for sizing advice.
Un-dyed Loop Wheel Organic Cotton T-shirt – Short sleeve
Un-dyed Loop Wheel Organic Cotton T-shirt – Long sleeve
From Cotton to Customer: How Your T-Shirt is Made
T-shirts are durable, classic, and versatile garments with mass appeal as a staple closet item. The life of a T-Shirt begins in cotton fields most commonly found in the US or India. They’re typically made of 100% cotton but can be found in polyester or a polyester-cotton blend. Fabric uses vary depending on the designers choice of material and budget; stretchable knit fabrics or jersey, which is comparatively inexpensive and great for screen printing and heat applications, are commonly used. Before a T-shirt is stocked by your favorite retailer, it goes through several processes.
Field to Gin
The cotton balls are put into a gin where the usable cotton is mechanically separated from the seeds and chaff. Modern cotton gins use multiple powered cleaning cylinders and saws which leads to higher productivity and less labor intensive work than previous methods required.
Spinner to Loom
Bales of cotton fibers are spun at a facility where they are carded, combed and blended. Before the carding stage, which involves separating the fibers into loose strands, the cotton is taken off a picking machine. The spun cotton is then knit on a loom (the weaving process) into a rough greyish fabric.
The fabric is treated with heat and chemicals where is takes on its final touch and appearance. Examples of this include bleaching, printing, and dyeing. At this stage, the fabric goes through inspection for grey textile. This process is typically divided into three separate stages of preparation, coloration, and finishing. Fabric are “finished” to the desired softness and coloring.
Cut and Sew
Often times the finished fabric travels great distances to its next stop, the sewing facility. 15% of the fabric will end up on the cutting room floor as sewers create the blank garments.
Transforming Into a Perfect Print
The customer contacts a screen-printing facility to finalize design specifics. At this stage, Pantone colors, sizing, placement, and ink type are all confirmed. Each color in the artwork is separated and printed onto clear film. This is called a film positive.
The films are used to expose the image onto mesh screens that have a photo sensitive emulsion. Each screen is exposed on a vacuum sealed UV Light table. The screens are rinsed with water and the images are checked for accuracy. The screens are registered into place on an automatic screen press that can print up 900 t-shirts an hour! Each screen has a unique color loaded into it with either plastisol or waterbased ink.
At Your Door
In the last stage, the printed t-shirts are folded, sorted and placed into inventory. When an order is placed online the t-shirt is pulled from inventory, packed and shipped to its new home.
Liked This Post On The Design Process? Check Out These:
90,000 Materials for shirts, types and features
Men, like women, follow fashion, trying to take into account current trends and look dignified in all situations. Therefore, the question of the fabrics from which shirts are made, one of the most important items of a man’s wardrobe, is of great importance. Of course, nowadays a great variety of fabrics are produced, each of which has its own advantages and disadvantages. Here are some of the most popular shirt materials.
For many decades, cotton has been considered the “king of fabrics”.This material of natural origin has excellent thermal conductivity, it removes moisture, is highly durable and is quite ironable.
However, you should buy a cotton shirt one size larger, as it is guaranteed to shrink after the first wash. Another disadvantage of cotton fabric is its ability to wear out quickly.
Therefore, it is better to purchase a product whose fabric composition includes both cotton and artificial material (for example, viscose).
Silk shirt – of course, it looks especially luxurious, but it is only appropriate for exceptional occasions. Silk wrinkles very quickly, is difficult to iron, requires super-careful care, but even if all conditions are met, it does not differ in durability.
Oxford is a dense, coarse weave, soft and pleasant to the touch. It is used to sew men’s casual shirts that go well with jeans and woolen suits.
Poplin – a fabric that is similar in density to Oxford, but softer and more silky. It is not afraid of washing, retaining its shape and soft texture for a long time. It is versatile in use, it is from it that shirts are most often sewn for everyday wear.
A soft medium weight fabric containing cotton or wool is called flannel. A plaid flannel shirt, which always saves in the cold season, is a must-have in every man’s wardrobe.The fabric has one drawback – its villi tend to roll, respectively, the product takes on a worn look.
Each material has its own unique characteristics. Cotton shirts are versatile, while oxford and poplin make the shirt more formal. This is due to the method of weaving threads, which is used in the production of a particular material.
90,000 What materials are shirts made of
Reading time: 7 minutes
The quality of the shirt depends to a large extent on the quality of the fabric from which it is sewn.Moreover, the fabric has a great influence on the general appearance of the product, as well as on the scope of its application – for example, the composition and type of weaving of the fabric can determine the degree of formality of the shirt and its suitability for wearing in hot or cold weather. In this article, we’ll take a look at the basic materials used to make shirts.
Table of contents:
Raw materials for fabrics
Most often, the following terms can be found on the label indicating the composition of the shirt fabric:
- Cotton is a natural material that can be either mediocre or very good.As a rule, it “breathes” well and tolerates washing normally in the washing machine; gives a slight shrinkage during the first washings.
Hawes & Curtis Cotton Shirt
- Polyester is a synthetic material that can last for a long time and perfectly tolerate machine wash without shrinking … but does not breathe well and can cause allergies; besides, in some cases polyester looks cheap and not very comfortable. More often it is used in a mixture with cotton – and the higher the proportion of cotton in the composition, the better.Dickies Polyester Cotton Shirt
- Linen is a natural material that has outstanding hygroscopicity (absorbs moisture well) and breathes well. As a rule, tolerates machine wash well, but sometimes there are “dry clean only” badges on linen shirts. Tactile sensations vary; cheap linen is usually not very pleasant. Durability can be impressive if the raw materials and fabrics are of good quality.
Pink linen shirt
- Elastane, lycra is a synthetic material used to make fabrics more elastic and stretchy.It is usually added to cotton in an amount of 1-10%.
T.M.Lewin Lycra Shirt
- Cotton and wool blend. In addition, occasionally shirts are made of cotton with the addition of merino wool and even cashmere (about 10-50%). As a rule, the corresponding models can also be washed in washing machines, but in the mode for wool – and preferably with a special detergent for wool. These shirts are very good for winter and cold weather, but in hot weather they will not be the best choice.
Viyela shirt in cotton and wool
In any case, 100% cotton shirts are classics. Michael Anton, an American expert on men’s clothing and footwear, argues that “all good shirts should be cotton <...> synthetic shirts not only look cheap, but irritate the skin, and cotton shirts caress it.” Further, he is skeptical about 100% silk and even 100% linen, noting at the same time a good option – a mixture of cotton and linen (the proportions are very different; usually the share of flax varies from 20 to 70%).
T.M. shirt Lewin in cotton and linen
Yarn types by twist type
The yarn from which the fabric is woven can be single, double or even triple twisted (1-ply, 2-ply, 3-ply). The latter option is extremely rare; 2-ply yarns are wider and 1-ply extremely widespread. These designations are deciphered very simply: 2-ply means that each thread is double, that is, it represents two very tightly twisted threads; in the case of 3-ply, the strands are triple, and in the case of 1-ply, single strands.All other things being equal, 2-ply fabrics are more abrasion-resistant, stronger and more durable than 1-ply fabrics, and they better withstand multiple washes.
Hawes & Curtis shirt in 2-ply fabric
It should be added that some brands use the terms 2-fold / two-fold, as well as double twisted and two ply to refer to 2-ply fabrics.
Types of fabrics by the type of weaving of threads
Depending on the type of weaving of threads, the following types of shirt fabrics can be distinguished:
- Poplin is the classic, most common and versatile option.Plain weave, smooth fabric, great compatibility potential.
Hawes & Curtis Poplin Shirt
- Oxford (oxford) – a less popular option. The threads are grouped in several pieces (basket weave), and as a result, the fabric acquires a pronounced texture; in addition, the threads are often dyed in different colors, or dyed and unpainted yarns are involved in the weave. Oxford is often associated with casual shirts, but Royal Oxford is also suitable for shirts that go with suits; it can be recognized by its small diamond pattern and light silky sheen.T.M. shirt Lewin from Oxford
- Twill (twill) – fabric with a diagonal weave; other things being equal, it is warmer than poplin, so it is less suitable for heat, but better for winter (this is usually true for Oxford). The degree of versatility is high. One of the twill subspecies is the herringbone, which goes well with the costumes.
Hawes & Curtis Twill Shirt
- End-on-end – essentially the same as poplin, but here the weave is formed by alternating threads of two different colors (usually dyed and unpainted).This is a less restrictive option than poplin. From a distance, the end-on-end fabric appears to be solid, but upon closer inspection, it becomes obvious that it is not actually solid.
T.M. shirt Lewin from end-on-end
- Jacquard (jacquard) – fabric with a relief pattern, created on special machines. Usually has an informal appearance. It often looks pretentious, but there are also pretty options. In general, at the initial stage of the formation of a shirt wardrobe, it is better not to get carried away with jacquards.Haves & Curtis jacquard shirt
- Dobby is a subspecies of jacquard; most often – fabric with embossed stripes. Can be quite austere and elegant in appearance.
T.M. shirt Lewin from dobby
Now on sale there are many shirts made of fabrics marked easy iron, non-iron, wrinkle-free, easy care. Such materials are characterized by minimal creasing; they are easy to iron and do not wrinkle too much during wear.Of course, their characteristics vary greatly. The cheapest fabrics of this kind can be short-lived; in addition, they can be harmful to health, and their appearance and tactile sensations are often poor. In most cases, the non-iron / easy iron effect is achieved by treating the fabric with formaldehyde or other chemical agents, so here it is worth giving preference to well-known and reliable manufacturers who actively sell their products in Europe and the USA. Their products comply with strict safety standards and are unlikely to harm your health, although they can cause allergies in some people.
Charles Tyrwhitt non-iron shirt
We add that there are fabrics and easy care shirts with completely natural processing, but they are usually expensive and very rare.
Types of fabrics for men’s shirts (shirts)
Historically, 99% of modern men’s shirts are made from cotton. Cotton outperforms other fabrics in durability. Cotton is preferable because it washes well and does not require additional maintenance.In addition, cotton meets the quality-price conditions. It is believed that the best cotton in the world is produced by North America and Egypt (varieties Sea-Island, Mako, Louisiana). Most of the shirts are made from short-haired cotton from India and Central Asia.
The length of the cotton fiber ranges between 16.5 and 43 mm. The length of the original fiber (the length of the fiber obtained from 1 gram of raw material) determines the number of the produced yarn. The longer the fiber, the higher the yarn number. For example, if the yarn has a number of 40, this means that from one gram of cotton, 40 meters of thread is obtained.
From long staple Egyptian cotton the highest quality textile products are made. The main advantage of this cotton is the length of its fibers – 35-44 mm. Egyptian cotton yarns are thinner and stronger, resulting in increased fabric density. Therefore, from Egyptian cotton, you can make durable and high-quality materials, which at the same time will weigh less and better breathe.
The virtues of Egyptian cotton:
- High thermal conductivity. Egyptian cotton is distinguished by high moisture absorption, it does not heat at all and cools perfectly, and therefore is indispensable in hot countries.
- Breathability. Wearing cotton clothes, your body will feel comfortable, fresh and cozy.
- High hydrophilicity. Cellulose, which accounts for more than 90% of cotton fabric, absorbs moisture well.
- Softness to the touch.
- High strength. Single fiber can support 2 to 8 grams of weight. Strength increases with moisture and decreases due to drying, as well as with prolonged exposure to light.
- High heat resistance. Cotton can withstand up to 150 ° C in dry environments. It is recommended to iron Egyptian cotton products using steam or damp.
- Easy maintenance. Cotton fabric does not require special washing modes, products can be boiled, it is allowed to use concentrated detergents and chlorine bleach (diluted during rinsing).· Resistant to alkaline attack.
- Hypoallergenic. Despite the widespread use of chemicals during the cultivation and manufacture of cotton fabric, the finished product does not cause allergies.
Shirts from Cotton Blend are made from fabrics that are a combination of natural and synthetic fibers.
As a rule, shirts are made from two types of cotton blends: a cotton blend and polyester and a cotton blend and Lycra . polyester fibers do not wrinkle and dry quickly, so shirts containing these fibers do not shrink or wrinkle. Shirts made of cotton with polyester added do not shrink after washing, unlike pure cotton fabrics.
Lycra (otherwise known as spandex ) is combined with cotton to create a stretch fabric. This fabric is especially good for creating tight-fitting shirts. The combination of man-made and natural fibers allows you to achieve results that are not possible with pure cotton fabrics.
For the manufacture of men’s shirts, fabric is used from yarn that has passed the procedure of twisting (single and double) and processing.
Single twist fabric is the most common fabric for both custom-made and mass-produced shirts. The difference is in the number of yarn used, in the length of the yarn obtained during the processing of cotton. Shirts for mass production are made of yarn not exceeding No. 30 single twist.Shirts made of such fabric are a universal combination of price and quality. The single-twist fabric feels soft and breathable even at yarn number 40.
Double twisting (in English it is two ply or to fold) is a way to enhance the wear-resistant properties of the future fabric by twisting the yarn in half. For sewing business-class men’s shirts, double-twisted yarn no lower than No. 80 is used. The higher the yarn number, the more pleasant the fabric of the shirt is to touch the body. On yarn number 160, the cotton fabric feels like silk.In the characteristics of fabrics, this is referred to as 2X2, that is, a thread twisted in half both along the warp and along the weft.
Various types of shirt fabrics are created from yarn in the weaving process. Basically, the peculiarity of the fabric is determined by the options for weaving the threads – warp and weft . Warp thread refers to threads running parallel to each other in the fabric, along the fabric. In the process of weaving, it is the warp threads that I stretch, bend to lay the weft thread between them. Weft thread is a transverse thread that runs perpendicular to the warp threads and intertwines with them during the weaving process.Basically, at present, the fabric is produced on looms with pneumatic weft threading. Due to the specifics of the process, it was impossible to produce shirting fabric from yarns thinner than 120’s on manual and mechanical weaving machines that were used earlier, provided that this machine worked very slowly. But in the case of the production of such a fabric, one could be sure of its quality (expressed, ultimately, in wear resistance, and hence durability), since the level of internal defects of the warp and weft threads was minimized due to the peculiarities of the production technology.
Already in the first quarter of the 20th century, weaving looms with pneumatic insertion of the weft thread were created. This has resulted in the ability to create fabrics from 2×2 yarns 140’s, 160’s, 170’s, 180’s, 200’s, and 240’s.
For branded and custom-made shirts, yarn fabrics from number 100 are used. The finest yarn is 200X2, 240X2. The yarn of such numbers can be spun only from the finest and longest cotton fibers of Sea Island and rarely Mako. The annual harvest of such cotton is 1-2% of the total world harvest.For this reason alone, such fabric cannot be cheap. At the same time, as far as I know, such cotton is harvested by hand, and not using mechanical devices, such as combines: manual labor becomes more expensive everywhere – another plus to the cost of the finished fabric.
# 200’s double twist yarn is thinner than human hair. The thinner the yarn, the more pleasant the fabric is for the body. Starting from No. 160, the sensation of such a cotton fabric is the sensation of silk. But the thinner the yarn, the harder it is to weave and, accordingly, the more expensive the fabric made from it is.Twisting two strands of yarn before making a fabric is also an additional and costly option, which also increases the cost of the fabric. All these nuances and nuances make the price of the fabric so heavy that often a shirt made of fabrics woven from high numbers of yarns is comparable to the price of a good suit.
High-quality fabric should contain at least 60X30 threads on the weft and warp in one centimeter. This rule can only be violated in some “veils”.
Ideally, the number of warp threads is the same as the number of threads in the weft. Then the finished fabric will have the greatest strength. In practice, this is rarely the case for technological reasons. Good manufacturers sometimes set the balance of strength in certain types of fabrics by increasing the number of weft yarns.
After the weaving process, the fabric must go through a finishing process. This is an equally important process, since only the final finishing gives the fabric a presentation.There are many finishing processes, and each of the manufacturers has its own technological secrets – therefore, it would seem that fabrics of different manufacturers that are the same in weaving, density and other characteristics differ from each other both in appearance and in tactile sensations and, ultimately, in wear resistance.
So, for example, when processing with caustic soda solution beats. weight 1.25 cotton fiber is greatly shortened (up to 20%) and, as it were, swells, turning into a smooth cylinder with a barely noticeable inner channel.This gives the fiber a strong sheen. This process is called Mercerizing by the name of John Mercer. In this case, the cotton fiber becomes stronger, and its ability to dye increases. Mercerizing cotton allows you to dye it in bright, juicy tones and, quite often, this shine is unknowingly perceived as an admixture of synthetic fiber.
And this is just one of the finishing processes. Some fabric manufacturers don’t do the finishing themselves, but donate their fabrics for finishing to other firms.Italian and Swiss factories are considered the best in the finishing of shirt fabrics. Finishing a fabric, like many stages of creating a product, is not an exact science – it is rather an art, so the stability of finishing can vary from batch to batch. The fabric can be either softer, or harder, and so on.
As a result of the weaving process for shirts, various types of fabrics are created by weaving warp and weft threads. The most common types of fabrics, obtained mainly by varying weave methods and used to make shirts, include: poplin, (voile) voile, oxford (oxford), royal oxford (royal oxford), twill (twill), jacquard (jacquard) , dobby, crepe de chine, charmeuse, faille, tone-on-tone, chintz, mesh, matting and others.
The most popular fabric types are:
Plain weave (Poplin)
Matte weave (Pinpoint, Oxford, Royal Oxford)
Twill weave (Twill, Gabardine, Cavalry, Herringbone)
Jacquard fabric , Dobby).
MEN’S SMOOTH FABRIC SHIRTS ( Poplin )
Poplin is a smooth and durable fabric. It was made already in the XIV century.in the French city of Avignon. During the Avignon captivity of the popes, the fabric acquired its modern name – poplin, which means “papal fabric”.
Poplin is a common plain weave.
Poplin is a simple weave and warp thread. The weft threads are straightened, and the warp thread density is higher than the weft thread density. Thus, the front side forms a small transverse scar. The most appropriate from poplin look classic suit shirts for the most formal situations.
MEN’S OXFORD FABRIC SHIRTS
Fabric Oxford got its name from the creators – owners of a textile factory in Scotland. Oxford fabric appeared in the 19th century and was originally made from pure cotton, but now various synthetic fibers such as polyester and rayon are added to this fabric.
The peculiarity of the Oxford weave is that the weft thread is thicker than the warp thread. This type of fabric belongs to the so-called “matting” weave.To create Oxford fabric, dyed and undyed threads are used, thereby achieving the effect of a small cell.
These shirts are suitable for both formal occasions and everyday wear. Oxford shirts are low maintenance, can be washed frequently and retain their shape much better than other types of shirts, they are very durable and practical. Oxford fabric is very light and breathable, so it is perfect for sewing summer shirts for men.Especially comfortable in Oxford shirts will be for those men who lead an active lifestyle, are constantly on the move and whose every day is scheduled by the minute.
MEN’S PINPOINT SHIRTS ( Pinpoint )
Pinpoint Weave is a variation of Oxford fabric. Shirts are made from this fabric, which are ideal for everyday life and wear outside of work. Pinpoint weave is woven in the same way as Oxford, but uses a different yarn to create it, resulting in less weight.
There are two ways to determine how soft a fabric is. Fabrics with a higher yarn count are of higher quality and are therefore softer and more pleasant to the touch. That is why clothing made from Egyptian cotton is so highly prized. Another indicator of softness is the weight of the fabric. Pinpoint weave is lighter in weight than Oxford. Therefore, Pinpoint weave shirts are much softer than Oxford shirts. This is due to the fact that thinner yarns are used when sewing shirts made of Pinpoint weave.
Synthetic fibers are sometimes included in Pinpoint weave. Due to the fineness of the material, men’s pinpoint weave shirts can wrinkle very quickly. That is why many men prefer Oxford shirts. If ironing your shirt is not a problem for you and you appreciate the lightness and softness of the material, then a shirt made of “Pinpoint” weave fabric will be an excellent option for you.
MEN’S TWILL FABRIC SHIRTS ( Twill)
Shirts made of twill fabric, such as Twill, have a distinctive weave pattern of parallel, diagonal veins.
Parallel, diagonal “veins” are created on the twill thanks to the special weaving of the weft threads. Unlike Oxford fabric, where the weft and warp are simply intertwined and the weft runs over and under the warp, twill creates a slightly different weave. There are two types of twill weave – 2/1 twill and 2/2 twill. If the weft thread goes over two warp threads and under two warp threads, then it is a 2/2 twill. If the weft thread passes over two warp threads and under one warp thread, then this is a 2/1 twill.
Due to the peculiarities of weaving, the twill drapes very well.
In addition to the unusual weaving of the fabric, there is another characteristic feature of twill shirts. As a rule, fabrics for shirts do not have a front and back side. The twill is divided into the front part and the back part. On the front side of the twill, an unusual weaving pattern is more clearly visible. Striped twill shirts look especially good, as the twill weave favorably emphasizes and enhances the striped pattern on the fabric.
MEN’S HERRINGBONE SHIRTS ( HERRINGBONE )
Herringbone belongs to the family of twill fabrics (only it has a V-pattern, not a pattern in the form of parallel diagonal lines). Such a pattern is created by alternating the direction of the twill weaving. If you look closely at the traditional twill, you can see that the diagonal lines in its pattern are located not only in parallel, but also in the same direction.The name of the herringbone fabric is due to the fact that if you look at the V-shaped pattern from a certain angle, it will resemble a herringbone.
Herringbone fabric is often used for sewing shirts. An interesting herringbone pattern looks especially advantageous on colored shirts. If you compare a white Oxford shirt with a white herringbone shirt, you can see the difference. The unusual herringbone weaving method creates the illusion of completeness and neatness. Herringbone fabric may appear thicker than Oxford fabric, but on closer inspection, herringbone fabric is still more attractive, as it is smoother to the touch and looks more elegant.Twill fabrics tend to be resistant to water (this is both their advantage and disadvantage). The obvious benefit is that herringbone shirts do not need to be added in any detail: they are original and attractive in their own right.
MEN’S JACQUARD SHIRTS ( Dobby)
Jacquard (Jacquard ) – is a fabric, the interweaving of threads in which forms a relief pattern.The fabric is made using a special loom with jacquard weaving. These weaves are simple, when they are formed from two systems of threads by a combination of simple and small-patterned weaves, and complex, when they are formed from three or more systems of threads. The special machine was invented back in 1801 by Joseph Marie Jacquard. To date, the principle of operation of such a machine has not changed, except that now it works with the help of computer technology.
Dobby ( Dobby ) – a simplified version of jacquard.This is what is commonly called woven fabrics for the production of shirts. This type of fabric can have a variety of corrugated patterns. The fabric gets this look thanks to special weaving techniques and the use of threads of different sizes. Classic white looks especially rich and luxurious. A dobby shirt is suitable for both formal and informal situations.
Dobby shirts are similar to jacquard shirts but have a simpler woven weave. Dobby fabric is one of those materials that are particularly strong and durable, so shirts of very high quality are obtained from it.Another advantage of dobby fabric is that it can be easily dyed in a variety of colors. Therefore, this fabric is very often used in the textile industry.
Due to the structure of the woven weave, dobby shirts practically do not wrinkle, so they are very convenient to use for everyday wear. Dobby shirts are just as comfortable and lightweight as cotton shirts, but they do not have the drawbacks of cotton fabrics (in particular, they do not wrinkle or wrinkle).Dobby fabric (depending on the type of yarn) is used for both casual and evening wear. So, for evening dresses, dobby fabric is used, woven from artificial silk.
MEN’S SATIN SHIRTS ( SATIN)
Satin (fr.satin ) – comes from Zaytun – the old Arabic name for the Quanzhou harbor in China, where this type of fabric was brought from. Satin was originally a kind of silk fabric.After all, it was completely made in China from silk. However, at the end of the 19th century, a technology was invented in which silk threads were replaced by cotton threads. Now for the manufacture of satin fabrics, depending on the needs and tasks, including artificial and synthetic threads are used.
Satin combines the practical qualities of cotton with the softness and sophistication of silk. Due to its qualities, satin is widely used for the manufacture of men’s shirts.
Satin has a smooth, silky texture on the front side.For the base, there is a dense thread, and twisted and thin, elongated for the front surface. There is an alternation of 4 warp threads and one front thread. When using tightly twisted threads, satin gets a noble shine.
The use of mercerization in the production technology of satin fabric gives satin high density and durability of the paint. With the sequential processing of the fabric with alkali and acid, the fibers swell, small fibers are removed from the threads.
Satin fabrics for men’s shirts are distinguished by lightness and softness, hydroscopicity, low thermal conductivity (cool in summer, comfortable in winter), wear resistance.The linen wrinkles a little and does not shrink with proper washing. The pattern applied to the fabric is abrasion resistant and remains bright for a long time. Satin made of natural fabrics does not cause allergic reactions and is comfortable to wear on a naked body.
How to choose the right men’s shirt?
All about men’s white men’s shirt.
How to correctly measure your dimensions.
Men’s shirt care
Types of men’s shirt collars.
How to choose a jacket for application? – News and articles
So that it fits well, retains its appearance for a long time, is pleasant to the body and easy to care for.
In this article we will talk about the materials and technologies for making shirts for women and men. Let’s consider different types of fabrics and show you what to look for when choosing shirts as corporate clothing.
Shirt fabric is made from cotton, polyester, silk, rayon or a blend of fibers. Pure cotton or blended fabrics are most commonly used.
Cotton fabrics have good hygiene properties, eg hygroscopicity. They breathe well and absorb moisture. Cotton shirts practically do not “shrink” and do not deform during washing. And what is important – the price / quality conditions are met.
These fabrics are based on cotton, to which synthetic fibers are added to improve performance.Pure cotton fabrics wrinkle and get dirty faster. The addition of only 5% of polyester fibers makes the cotton fabric smoother, more durable, less brand – more suitable for everyday wear, for example, corporate shirts. At the same time, the “comfort” of such fabrics hardly decreases.
A small amount of synthetic fibers, up to 30%, is the most optimal. When the amount of synthetic fibers approaches 50% or more, the “natural” properties of the fabric decrease. If you are faced with the task of choosing more “wearable” and affordable shirts, pay attention to shirts made from a mixture of cotton and synthetics.When ordering a large edition, it is important that such fabrics are cheaper.
In Sol’s shirts, the cotton / synthetics proportions are perfectly calibrated, they retain the best properties of natural fibers, and also show the advantages of synthetics – wear resistance, crease resistance, ease of care.
Popular blended fabrics:
- Cotton / polyester blend. Polyester fibers hardly wrinkle and dry quickly. Such shirts retain their shape longer and wear little.
- Cotton / Elastane Blend (Lycra / Spandex). This fabric stretches well and is especially good for creating tight-fitting shirts.
The degree of twist of the yarn also affects the properties of the fabric. Distinguish:
- Single-strand – obtained by twisting in one step two, three or more threads of the same length. Most office shirt fabrics are made from cable yarns.
- Multi-stranded – resulting from two or more twisting processes.So, to obtain a two-fold yarn, part of the threads is first twisted, and then, folding them, they are twisted again. The fabric obtained from such yarn is more durable and wear-resistant. The complication of technology increases the final price of the fabric.
Harvest shirts are made from fabric made from double twist yarns.
Density affects the consumer properties of the fabric, its plasticity and strength. The density index depends on the thickness, degree of twist and additional processing of the thread, as well as on the type of weaving.
If the yarn is tightly twisted, and the threads are tightly adjacent to each other in the fabric, the fabric will be stronger, but stiffer. Fabrics with the same density value from different manufacturers can be different: more or less thin (more or less transparent to the light). The reason is different production and processing technologies.
Density can be measured in gsm 2 (weight / area) or D (“denier”, weight in grams per 9000 meters of thread).
The look and type of fabric is determined by the weaving of the warp and weft threads.The warp threads (share) run in the fabric along the edge, the weft threads – across. In the process of weaving, the shuttle with the weft thread slips between the stretched warp threads, which are lowered or raised according to the weaving pattern.
Main fabric types:
- Plain weave (eg poplin)
- Matte weave (Oxford)
- Twill weave
- Jacquard weave
Papal fabric.The homeland of poplin is the French city of Avignon, where the residence of the Pope was located; the first mentions of this fabric date back to the XIV century. Double-sided, formed by a combination of a thin dense warp with a coarser and thinner transverse weft, forming a fine rib.
Poplin – plain weave and warp threads. The density of the warp is 1.5-2 times higher than the density of the weft threads. Thus, a small transverse scar is visible on the front side.The most appropriate poplin shirts look classic for more formal situations.
- Poplin – 100% Cotton
- Poly-cotton Poplin – Cotton Blend with Polyester
- Stretch Poplin – The fabric contains elastane (Lycra / Spandex)
Fabric type with weave type “matting”, traditionally used for sewing men’s shirts.
Oxford fabric got its name from the creators – the owners of a textile factory in Scotland.Oxford fabric appeared in the 19th century and was originally made from pure cotton, but now various synthetic fibers such as polyester are added to this fabric.
- The weft is thicker than the warp.
- To create oxford fabric, dyed and undyed yarns are used, achieving a textured effect. Oxford shirts are low maintenance. The fabric is lightweight and breathable, so it is perfect for sewing summer shirts for men.
Shirts made of twill weave, such as twill, feature a weave pattern of parallel diagonal veins.
- Very good drape.
- Divided into front and back.
- The weaving pattern is more clearly visible on the obverse.
- Striped shirts look especially good.
Fabric, the interlacing of the threads in which forms an embossed pattern.
A special machine for making this kind of weaving was invented back in 1801 by Joseph Marie Jacquard.
Jacquard fabrics look more elegant than other weaves.
After fabrication, the fabric must be finished. This is an important stage, because it is the processing that gives the fabric its final look and gives it additional properties.
Finishing of the fabric can include dyeing, finishing (impregnation for stiffening) and special treatments (waterproof, fireproof, and others).
Easy Care – treatment with a wash-resistant polymer composition. Must have for office shirts. It is applied on 100% cotton fabrics, provides easy ironing and allows you to keep the shape longer. Clothes with such processing do not require special care. Most Harvest and Sol’s shirts are Easy Care.
What else is worth paying attention to
- Compliance with cutting technology affects the quality of the shirt. With the correct layout of the patterns, the parts will retain their shape and will shrink evenly after washing.Unscrupulous manufacturers, saving fabric, may violate the technology. Parts cut out incorrectly are deformed after the first wash. You can’t wear such a shirt a second time.
- Pay attention to the quality of the seams. Good shirts have clean seams, while cheaper shirts use an overlock.
- In a quality shirt, the collar retains its shape even after many washes. This is influenced not only by the quality of the doublerin seal, but also by the use of special stiffeners – plastic inserts.
- Stamped buttons made from cheap plastic that can melt under the iron should be avoided.
Harvest and Sol’s office shirts meet all quality requirements. In addition, almost all models are complementary – there are both male and female versions.
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When reprinting and citing text, follow the Rules for the use of materials.Used images not belonging to Project 111 are distributed under a Creative Commons license. Cotton Harvest, Kimberly Vardeman, CC BY 2.0 license.
How to choose a shirt? Pay attention to the fabric
Cotton fabric itself is quite soft, but it is still far from delicate silk or cashmere without special processing. For additional softening, the cotton cloth is subjected to mercerization: for a short time, it is immersed in a solution of strong alkali (potassium or sodium hydroxide, less often in strong inorganic acids), and then washed with water.The alkali dissolves the thinnest strands that make up the fibers and makes the yarn smooth. By the way, cotton does not dissolve in organic acids, so it is useless to try to mercerize the fabric, for example, with vinegar.
Mercerization reduces the area of the fabric, therefore, to prevent shrinkage, the fabric is stretched during the procedure (moreover, stretching gives the fabric additional shine).
As in any technological process, stretching and alkali are usually not enough: only adherence to a strict method allows you to achieve results.Temperature conditions, pressure, and pre- and post-procedure tissue processing are also important. One combination of these factors results in a particularly soft and pleasant to the touch cotton. You can recognize a thing from it by the Cashmere Feeling label.
Traditionally, the HENDERSON spring-summer collection includes luxury shirts from the Italian factory Albini. Since 1876, Albini has been creating fabrics from Egyptian cotton, which is considered the finest in the world.
Adding synthetic fibers is not always a bad thing.Cotton recovers its shape well after stretching, things made of it can be worn for a long time, but the synthetic fiber elastane can further extend the service life of clothes, not too much affect the ability to absorb moisture or conduct air. In addition, clothes made of cotton with the addition of elastane are easier to sew to the figure, emphasizing their advantages. Cotton garments with the addition of elastane can be identified by the Stretch label.
Summer shirts – choosing fabrics – Your-Shirt
Summer is already in the yard, which means that it’s time to think about updating your wardrobe.First of all, you need to take care of the presence of men’s shirts with excellent thermoregulatory, breathable, hypoallergenic and hygroscopic properties. What materials meet these requirements and are best suited for sewing summer men’s shirts?
Optimal fabric for summer shirts
The modern textile industry offers several material options ideal for the summer heat.
Cotton is one of the best fabrics for sewing summer shirts for men.This material has an impressive list of advantages:
- Hygroscopic and hydrophilic. The fabric easily absorbs moisture from the air, as well as the evaporation of the human body (sweat). Interestingly, when wet, cotton products become more durable (unlike most other materials, the strength of which decreases when wet).
- Thermal protection. Cotton fiber has a hollow structure, due to which the clothes made from it do not heat up.
- High strength.Depending on the type of cotton used to obtain the material, an individual fiber of the fabric can withstand a load of up to 8 g. However, it should be borne in mind that the degree of density of cotton decreases as it is exposed to direct sunlight and high temperatures.
- Softness. The touch of cotton cloth to the body is very pleasant and almost imperceptible.
- Hypoallergenic. This advantage of cotton fabric is especially true for men with sensitive skin, as well as for allergy sufferers.
However, 100% cotton also has disadvantages:
- Products from it wrinkle easily. Therefore, if you are not inspired by the prospect of walking all day in a wrinkled shirt, it is better to pay attention to clothes made from a mixture of cotton and synthetic fibers – for example, polyester.
- Pure cotton shrinks after the first wash. The shrinkage rate varies from 2 to 5%.
- When stored in damp rooms, cotton shirts are susceptible to mold and subsequent rotting.
- Products made of high-quality 100% cotton are distinguished by their high cost.
Like cotton, 100% linen is a suitable option for sewing summer shirts for men. This is evidenced by its characteristics:
- Linen has the ability to reflect UV radiation, which makes linen items indispensable in summer wardrobe.
- This material is characterized by high hygroscopicity and thermal conductivity. For this reason, linen shirts are widespread in countries with extremely hot and humid climates.
- Linen is hypoallergenic, does not irritate the skin, and is pleasant to the touch.
However, like pure cotton, 100% linen has some drawbacks. The most notable among them:
- Significant shrinkage during washing (especially in hot water). Because of this, linen is always moistened and dried before being sewn.
- Linen shirts for men wrinkle very much. Perhaps, the dimensional stability of linen products is even lower than that of similar items made of cotton.For this reason, small amounts of synthetic threads are often added to linen fibers.
- Pure linen products are not cheap.
Denim & Chambray
Denim is used for sewing informal summer men’s shirts, as well as its thinner counterpart – chambray fabric. Both of these materials are characterized by high density and lightness, they are highly breathable and absorb moisture. By the way, unlike pure cotton and linen, denim and chambray are much cheaper.
Despite the fact that this material is mainly associated with cold weather, shirts made of the finest wool can be a suitable option for the summer. For example, clothing made from soft and tactile flannel is ideal for an informal look. Woolen shirts allow the body to breathe, they are characterized by good dimensional stability and heat protection.
To obtain the so-called summer wool (cool wool), expensive Australian merino raw materials are used.Hence, the main disadvantage of shirts made of this material naturally follows – their high cost. However, the cost of buying summer wool clothing will pay off due to the comfort while wearing.
From the point of view of the ratio of price and quality, the most optimal fabric for sewing summer shirts is a blended material. It can be cotton or linen with a little polyester or lycra. Due to the inclusion of artificial fibers in the fabric, manufacturers are able to achieve greater dimensional stability and a long service life of clothing.At the same time, the material remains breathable and pleasant to the touch.
Summer shirts in the online store “Your shirt”
Men’s shirts for summer with short and long sleeves are presented in our online store. Most of the products are made from mixed materials (cotton and polyester), due to which the products are distinguished by excellent breathability and wear resistance.
90,000 How to iron cotton shirts for women and men
Step by Step: How to Iron a Shirt to Make It Look Great!
Shirt ironing is not as easy as it seems at first glance.But in order for your shirt to look great and not lose its appearance after a few hours, you need to know a few simple rules:
Why ironing a shirt is so important? Yes, because in a clean ironed shirt we look much better, more elegant, more presentable. That is why we choose a shirt for the office or business meetings. But, if your shirt is dirty or poorly ironed, then the effect on you will be appropriate.
Fortunately, there are easy ways to say goodbye to your wrinkled shirt once and for all.And also how to give your shirt a great look, whether it’s an old shirt or a new wardrobe.
Where to start?
Start with the right iron. Because even knowing all the ironing rules, but not having a good tool, all our efforts will go to waste. Insufficient steam or inappropriate temperature will not bring our efforts to the desired result. To avoid this, let’s check if your iron is working correctly or is it worth investing in a new purchase?
When you start ironing, remember that it is better to iron the shirt when it is not completely dry, or slightly wet it dry.This will help smooth out any creases more easily and the shirt will be straighter when worn.
The collar is the most important!
Pay special attention to it and always start ironing from it. Since it is the collar that always comes into view of your interlocutor and is the presentation of the entire shirt. To iron the collar well, it should be laid on the board. Ironing should start from the inside and go from the edges inward. Also iron the outside. After that, the collar will hold itself perfectly and give shape to the entire shirt.
After the collar, you can proceed to the shoulders. This element of the shirt requires a certain dexterity and precision from us. Go to the bottleneck on the board. To avoid the formation of a piping on the shoulder, this part must be ironed separately from the bottom of the shirt. After ironing one shoulder, it’s time to iron the shirt sleeves. It is important to position the sleeve correctly on the board. Fold the sleeve of the shirt along its seam and lay it on a board with open cuffs. The ironing of this piece begins with the cuff. Remember that all buttons must be unfastened.
First, iron the cuffs on the inside and then on the outside. Then you can iron the entire sleeve. Then we turn our attention to the shoulder section of our cotton shirt. This is a shirt element that connects the collar to the back of the shirt. To iron this little detail well, we have to place one shoulder of the shirt on the narrowest end of the board and slide the iron from the top of the hand to the middle of the shirt.
The next step is in front of the shirt. Place one of the front pieces of the shirt over the wider end of the board.If your shirt has pockets, start with them. Do not press them hard with the iron to avoid new creases. Then, gently iron the seams and around the buttons, then iron the back.