Over the years, Cotton On became a household name with numerous customers from every corner of the USA. Whether you are a regular customer or you ordered some of their products for the first time, you should get familiar with the Cotton On return policy.
DoNotPay can help get the knack of Cotton On product returns and complete the returning process effortlessly.
Cotton On Return Policy in Detail
Cotton On is a retailer who is selling clothing in numerous countries of the world, and its return policy differs from one country to the other. In the U.S., Cotton On return policy covers:
Faulty item returns
What Is the Cotton On Return Policy if You Change Your Mind?
If the item you purchased at Cotton On doesn’t suit you, you can return it as long as the product is unused, unwashed, and has all original tags attached.
The Cotton On return policy states that you can place a return any time—all you need is proof of purchase.
Although Cotton On accepts the returns of most of their products, you will not be able to return:
Smile maker products
When it comes to returnable merchandise—you can either exchange it or get a refund to the original payment method.
Cotton On Return Policy—Faulty Item Returns
It is not unusual to purchase an item and later discover it has some smaller defects or damage. If that is something that you’ve experienced after buying a Cotton On product, you can return the item and request a refund or exchange.
Cotton On return policy states the company may even refund shipping expenses on faulty items. All you need to do is provide a receipt or another proof of purchase.
How To Make a Product Return to Cotton On
It doesn’t matter whether you bought Cotton On item in-store or online—you can return it in two ways:
In-Person Cotton On Return Process
To return Cotton On merchandise in person, you will have to:
Use the Store Finder to locate the nearest store
Make sure the item still has all labels and tags, and prepare the receipt
Carry the item back to the store
The Cotton On return policy states the retailer will grant you an instant refund.
Returning Cotton On Merchandise by Mail
Cotton On product returns via mail are available only for online purchases. This retailer also offers free online returns for USA domestic orders.
To return Cotton On item by mail, you have to:
Find Easy Exchanges & Returns
Select Click here to create a UPS Returns Label
Provide some basic information
Wait for Cotton On email with instructions
In case the unwanted Cotton On item is listed on the original invoice with other items, you will not receive a refund for shipping expenses. You can’t exchange items bought online.
Cotton On COVID-19 Returns Update
Since the global pandemic caused the temporary closing of all Cotton On retail stores, you can return the items you purchased via the Cotton On website by mail.
Unfortunately, if you wish to return an item you bought in-store, you will have to wait until Cotton On stores reopen.
Return the Unwanted Cotton On Item With DoNotPay’s Help!
Swiping through the Cotton On website to figure out the return policy can be a mind-numbing job. It may even involve going back and forth with the merchant, and the best way to prevent that is using DoNotPay. Our app is a great assistance for all of you who are tired of wasting time on return requests. All it takes is:
Logging in to your DoNotPay account
Finding the Item Return Request product
Answering a few questions about your Cotton On purchase and adding photos
Submitting your request
After that, the DoNotPay app will produce a customized return request letter. The letter will explain to the retailer what is wrong with the product you wish to return and whether you want to receive a replacement or refund.
In case you cannot receive a free return label from the merchant, DoNotPay can get you one so you can send the return package without charge.
How Long Until Cotton On Processes Your Return Request?
After receiving the return package you sent via mail, Cotton On will send you a confirmation email. It may take up to ten days for Cotton On to process your refund.
In case you think this is too long, you can turn to DoNotPay. Our app can demand that the retailer processes your request by the date that suits you most.
Aside from Cotton On, DoNotPay can assist you with returns to:
Returned Your Faulty Item? Discover Other Nifty DoNotPay Products!
Apart from being your shortcut through returning your faulty items to merchants, our app can do so much more! From helping you request a refund, get extended warranties, file insurance claims, and find clinical trials in your vicinity to assisting you in creating legal documents, getting them notarized, and faxing them—DoNotPay can do it all.
Do you think you’re eligible for a victims of crime compensation program? Our app can help you apply for it. Do you want to get revenge on persistent robocalls, report someone for stalking or harassment, or get your noisy neighbors to be quieter? We got your back!
You Don’t Have To Waste Time in Endless Lines
Returning an item may require you to wait in endless lines, but if you sign up for our AI-driven app, you will be able to skip all kinds of queues! You won’t have to spend ages waiting in lines at the DMV or in customer support phone queues because DoNotPay will provide an easier way to get what you need.
If you want to skip the hassle of waiting on the phone when canceling a service, requesting refunds or compensation from airlines, requesting a college fee waiver, or connecting with a loved one in prison, you can count on DoNotPay to provide easy solutions.
Does Cotton On offer free returns? What’s their exchange policy? — Knoji
Does Cotton On guarantee items with a free return policy? How good is their customer service for returns? Does Cotton On accept in-store returns? Does Cotton On offer a money-back guarantee? Does Cotton On require a receipt to make a return? How long is Cotton On’s return window?
Free return policies rating: 5. 0 – 1 rating
Yes, Cotton On does offer free returns & exchanges.
We researched this on Jul 6, 2021. Check Cotton On’s website to see if they have updated their free returns & exchanges policy since then.
From Cotton On’s website:
Items purchased online can be returned in store with proof of purchase. In the case of online purchases, refunds will not include the cost of shipping, except as provided below. read more
See more details
What other shipping & returns policies does Cotton On offer? Here’s their scorecard:
Cotton On FAQ
Does Cotton On offer free shipping?
Yes. As of -, Cotton On does offer free shipping policies. View the discussion thread for more details.
Does Cotton On offer free returns & exchanges?
Yes. As of July 6, 2021, Cotton On does offer free return policies. View the discussion thread for more details.
Does Cotton On offer international shipping?
Yes. As of July 6, 2021, Cotton On does offer international shipping policies. View the discussion thread for more details.
Does Cotton On offer curbside pickup?
Yes. As of July 6, 2021, Cotton On does offer in-store pickup. View the discussion thread for more details.
View full FAQ
How to Return Nearly Anything Without a Receipt
Whether you’ve gotten a gift you really don’t like or you’re just prone to losing receipts, returning items without a receipt can sometimes be a minefield. Here are some tips and techniques to make sure you get your money back.
This post was originally published on October 26, 2011.
Sadly, there’s no one method for getting your money back every time—your experience is going to vary from store to store, and even from customer service rep to customer service rep. The best thing you can do is prepare yourself before you go, and build up a good case if they ask you for a receipt. Here’s what you’ll want to consider ahead of time.
Check That Store’s Policy
Before doing anything else, check up on that store’s return policy, so you know what you’re going to face. Many stores don’t actually care about having a receipt—Wal-Mart, for example, will let you get cash back for anything under $25, and store credit for anything above that—no receipt necessary. Target, on the other hand, can look up any purchase using your credit card or gift card. If you shop at stores like Costco, that require a membership, they can easily track your account’s purchases. Amazon even has a policy for gift returns, which is great when you don’t have the receipt yourself. Basically, don’t waste time building up a case if you don’t need it—check your store’s policy, see if you can wrangle up whatever you need to get your money back, and head on in.
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Return It As Soon As Possible
With a few exceptions, you’re going to get the best results the sooner to the purchase date you try and return the item. This is especially important if the store has a policy about returning items within 90 days, or some other specified period of time. If you’re after this date, however, you can try returning it without a receipt and say it was a gift—if they can’t track the purchase date, then there’s no way for them to know how quickly it was returned. Having it in the original packaging helps as well.
Be Nice and Stay Calm
This is super important. No matter how frustrated you are with the company, it’s rarely the customer service rep’s fault that you had to wait in line, or that your product was defective, or that you don’t have a receipt. In most cases, they want to be there as little as you do, and you’re going to make them want to help you a lot less if you’re rude—and since, in many cases, you’re the one trying to go against store policy, you want them to be on your side as much as possible. Being honest is also great, but be careful it doesn’t hurt your chances of returning the item—if you knew the item was non-refundable and say so, you’re probably going to have a harder time convincing them. But letting them know you lost the receipt can be okay, if you back it up with other evidence (see below).
Bring In Other Evidence
The old “it was a gift” line only works so often. You can try it, but if it doesn’t work, try again with some other evidence of your purchase (at another store or with a different representative). That means at the very least bring the credit card you used to purchase the item, or (even better) a bank statement that shows the purchase on a specific date. It won’t always work, but it’s good to come into the store as prepared as possible (and this method obviously doesn’t work with something that actually was a gift). The more information you can give them that might help them look up the purchase in their records, the better. Photo by Dave Dugdale.
Show That You’re a Regular, Loyal Customer
If it’s a smaller store that you shop regularly, you have a much better chance of returning the item. Build a relationship with the people that work there. If that’s not an option, you can always provide evidence of your loyalty. Weblog Bukisa provides a great example:
Be charming, but authoritative (You must know what your are talking about). Real Life Example: “Good afternoon, I’d like to interest you in my problem. My wife and I received these Tiffany candlesticks on our 5th anniversary. As I was lighting them yesterday evening for our 7th anniversary dinner, the top of the crystal stick cracked clear of the base on one of them. Obviously there was a weak point in the crystal. My wife is quite heartbroken. She loved these so much that every time there is a wedding in the family she presents the couple with the same candlesticks—why, I’m sure Tiffany has a record of such things and can see how many candlesticks and other items we have purchased over the years. In fact. all out baby gifts are from Tiffany as well. Can you possibly replace it? I am sure the factory will want to examine this one.”
The other thing you can really do to help here is exchange it for something at the same store, or at least be buying something else while you’re returning that item. Even if they’re completely unrelated—say, you’re returning a computer keyboard but buying a few DVDs—it’ll show that you’re a regular customer at the store and you’re not trying to pull a fast one.
Don’t Take No for an Answer—Especially If It’s Defective
All this assumes you’re just returning an item because you don’t want it anymore. If the item is defective, there are actually laws in place to protect you from faulty goods. These laws vary from state to state and country to country, so you’ll have to look up the laws for your specific area. Consumer web site Which runs down some of the caveats to these laws in the UK:
If you buy a product that turns out to be faulty, you can choose to ‘reject’ it: give it back and get your money back. However, the law gives you only a ‘reasonable’ time to do this—what is reasonable depends on the product and how obvious the fault is. However, even with something like a car, you usually have no more than three to four weeks from when you receive it to reject it.
Most states in the US should follow very similar laws, but it differs from place to place. The bottom line is that if an item is defective, you have a much better chance of getting a refund, so be very firm when returning a defective item—even if it’s been awhile. While the official grace period may be short, you can often persuade some people to honor much longer agreements. Bukisa gives another great example:
Most stores will simply return the faulty product back to the manufacturer. If it is the store’s own brand, liken the product to a superior brand, but show dismay that the quality is not the same. “I absolutely love these pillow cases, the cotton is almost as soft as that of my (other similar manufacturer), but I am extremely dismayed that the cotton, while soft, is of such poor quality that the cloth has started to shred, and even develop holes after washing. These are only 2 years old! I’ve had (other manufacturer’s) bed linens for over 10 years. and I would expect (Name of Manufacturer) to be of the same quality and standard. Surely (the manufacturer) will want these back in order to solve the problem.”
The longer you wait, the more of a long shot it is, but you have nothing to lose if the item becomes defective after a year or two and it’s something that’s supposed to last you a long time. Photo by Paul Hussey.
Realize That Store Credit Is Often As Good As It Gets
Pick your battles. If you can get the store to offer you store credit, you’ve probably won that battle. You won’t be able to make every store give you cash back, or refund your credit card, but a willingness to compromise can get you pretty far. Whether it’s store credit, exchanging the item right then and there, or (if it’s defective) getting a repair or replacement, you’ll be getting more of your money’s worth with a compromise than you would just keeping the unwanted item. Photo by Diaper.
Last-Ditch Effort: Wait Until the Holidays
I stress this at the end because, in general, you want to try returning an item as soon as possible for the best result (especially if it’s defective). However, if you don’t have any luck, see if you can wait until after a holiday season. If it’s a more timeless item (that is, something that was not obviously sold earlier in the year), the end of December is a great time to return items, even if they weren’t Christmas gifts. You may have to stand in line a bit longer, but since so many people are returning gifts at that time, stores tend to be a lot more lenient with their return policies. Only use this as a last-ditch effort, though; you’ll want to at least try the above tricks as soon as possible before you wait 6 months for the holidays to roll around.
Of course, your mileage may vary with all of these tips—every store’s policy is different, and you could even get different results depending on the customer service rep you speak to. In the end, the best thing you can do is save your receipts for things when you buy them, at least until you know they work the way you want them to. When it comes to gifts, life’s a bit harder, but rarely will you have to suffer through keeping the item—especially once the holidays roll around.
Got your own tips for returning items without a receipt! Please share them with us in the comments!
Photo remixed from an original by Ben_onthemove.
No receipt? No problem, you can still get a refund | Consumer affairs
Just because retailers are desperate for our custom, does not mean they will play fair with consumers says lawyer Geoffrey Woodroffe, former director of the Centre for Consumer and Commercial Law at Brunel University. “Most retailers are fully aware of obligations but rely on consumers’ ignorance of the law,” he adds.
Here are some favourite tricks used to deny consumers legal rights:
Telling customers to send faulty items back to manufacturers. This is wrong, designed to shift the problem elsewhere. The buyer has a contract with the retailer, not with the manufacturer who may not even have a representative in this country, let alone be geared up to deal with faulty items.
Claiming that goods are not designed for a long life. No one expects ballet shoes to last long on a cross-country hike, so it can be a matter of common sense.
But goods should not disintegrate the day after a warranty expires. Woodroffe cites a 1982 case in his Consumer Law and Practice (written jointly with solicitor Robert Lowe) where a judge ruled on the durability of a Land Rover towbar – in the consumer’s favour.
Many stores claim items left their shelves in a perfect condition, so any subsequent fault must be down to the consumer. That’s almost impossible to prove either way. But recent legislation says that if a durable item fails in its first six months, then it should be treated as if it had not worked from the start. US-owned clothing store Lands End goes to the other extreme, with a limitless guarantee on goods.
Stores often try the “no refund or return without a receipt” line. No store has to change or refund an item simply because the owner does not like the colour. But where an item fails, shops do not have the right to demand a receipt. A credit card slip or statement or even the say-so of a person who was present when the products were purchased, are legally enough.
Notices saying “No return on sale goods” are out of order. While stores do not have to exchange sale goods if the buyer changes their mind, consumers always have full rights to a refund or an exchange if goods are faulty, the price they were sold at being immaterial.
Restocking-fees for the return of goods which are not faulty are also illegal. Under the Distance Selling Regulations, consumers have up to seven days to send back items bought on the internet or by phone or mail order without being charged. But they can reject items such as CDs where the seal has been broken.
Delivery & Returns
We aim to dispatch all orders within 48 hours of receipt.
Parcels should reach you within 3 working days of leaving our warehouse. Orders over £50 are delivered by DPD and may require signature on receipt, you may want to give us an alternative address where someone will be there to sign for your parcel. DPD provide a one hour delivery window, notified by SMS or email, so you will know exactly when to expect your order.
UK INCLUDES: Northern Ireland, Scottish Highlands, Isle of Man and Isle of Wight.
Orders under £75
Orders over £75
Bed delivery (includes delivery)
Other furniture items will be charged at cost, please contact customer services for a quote.
Free Delivery offers exclude ALL furniture.
Non UK deliveries
Belgium, Luxemburg, Netherlands
Republic of Ireland, Austria, Switzerland
Denmark, France, Germany
Czech Republic, Italy, Spain
Portugal, Finland, Hungary, Poland, Sweden
Countries not listed?
If your country is not listed above, the cost of shipping will depend on the weight/size of your parcel and we will add the shipping charge appropriate to your country once it has been calculated. Rest assured that we will always inform you of this charge and ask for your acceptance before shipping.
Shipping fragrances outside the EU?
Due to strict safety regulations we are currently unable to ship perfumes or any liquids to any countries. If you need any further information please contact our customer service team at [email protected] or by phone on +44 08452622212.
Overseas Delivery Times
Overseas, BFPO and non UK delivery times may vary. For all our deliveries a signature may be required.
Overseas Orders & VAT
We remove VAT charges from orders shipped outside the EU but please be aware that Import duties / tax may be charged by your country of import. Any local taxes / duties will be your sole responsibility.
Our Returns Address
Cologne & Cotton Returns
15-16 Highdown Road
Royal Leamington Spa
Contact Customer Services
Telephone – 0845 2622212 ( This is not a premium rate number )
Email – [email protected]
Customer services is open 9.30am – 5.30pm Monday to Friday. We are not open on public bank holidays.
We hope you will be delighted with your purchase, if you need to return any item please do so within 28 days, ensuring that the item returned is in perfect condition and unused for a refund or exchange.
We cannot offer refunds or exchanges on any opened perfumery, bath products, duvets, pillows or washed bed linen due to hygienic considerations (your statutory rights are not affected).
We cannot be held responsible for goods lost in postage and for peace of mind you may like to send the goods via a recorded delivery service. We regret that we cannot refund this charge.
No refund will be offered on any return postage charges incurred if you have changed your mind about your purchases.
Please contact our customer services team should your return be too large to use the services provided by the Post Office or should you have a disability that prevents you from being able to return your items by post. We can also arrange for our courier company to collect the parcel from your home. You will need to be at home to hand over the parcel and there is a charge for this service.
Your rights to return goods are protected under the EU Distance Selling Directive which can be found at http://www.hmso.gov.uk/si/si2000/20002334.htm
A receipt for the sale of twenty four bales of cotton sold on behalf of Aaron Spell, March 25, 1836.
This document and the following document are receipts for cotton sold on behalf of cotton planter Aaron Spell on two separate occasions, one before the panic, in 1836, and one during the panic, in 1840. On this receipt, the numbers in columns represent bale numbers and weights. The total weight is then multiplied by the price paid per pound of cotton, in this case seventeen cents per pound for the first group of fifteen bales, and sixteen cents per pound for the second group of nine bales. Varying sale prices may suggest that some of the cotton was better quality than the rest. The notes at the bottom of the receipt detail additional charges deducted from the total sale price, such as shipping, storage, insurance, and broker’s fees.
Sale 24 Bales Cotton by order and for account of Aaron Spell Esq.
How to Spin Cotton on a Spinning Wheel – Debbie Held – Schacht Spindle Company
If you’ve avoided spinning cotton on your wheel because of the fiber’s reputed need for special equipment or you’ve heard that it’s a difficult spin, have I got news for you: neither of these things is definitively true. With some basic knowledge, a bit of practice, and even just your fast-speed whorl (at a 15:1 ratio), you’ll be spinning cotton in no time.
(Note: On my Sidekick, I used the smaller groove on the high-speed whorl. Due to the wheel’s unique build, the ratio came in at about 15:1—plenty fast for me. You may prefer a higher ratio. If using a wheel in double drive, be sure to use high-speed bobbins with the small end towards the whorl)
Here’s what else you’ll need to spin cotton:
Here’s what is true: Fiber harvested from the cotton plant is notoriously fine and short stapled, which seems to be the hurdle for most wool-loving spinners.
A woolen draw and a high twist are its optimal companions. Thin or thinnish singles are recommended. (I like mine at 22 twists per inch.) Draft only to the staple’s mid-point for best results.
Get set up for success:
Make some rolags from your ginned lint.
Lint is the collection of seed-hair fibers left behind when ripe cotton boll has been picked and then de-seeded by cotton ginner.
Many spinners spin straight from teased-apart lint, but the rolag preparation makes for a far easier place to begin. If you only have traditional hand cards with a PSI (points per square inch) of 72, like I do, you can still use them to gently card your rolags.
Reconsider the leader you’re using on your bobbins.
Fine crochet cotton is a game changer, no matter what you may be spinning. Try it and see for yourself.
Adjust your wheel for fine spinning.
Use the smallest groove of your fastest whorl; and low tension/take-up.
One of the beauties of spinning cotton is just how forgiving it is as handspun. Lumps and bumps can smooth out remarkably well during plying, leaving behind an unexpectedly lovely yarn. Besides, a few slubs here and there only add character to a finished cotton fabric.
Since the drafting zone is so short, be gentle with your movements and anticipate breakage as you learn.
If high-speed spinning is not part of your wheel’s current setup, you can instead treadle faster to provide the added twist needed to stabilize your yarn. Double-lacing your flyer should also help.
Experiment with your whorls to find the best fit for your needs.
We’re going to start with the carded sliver, the easiest preparation to conquer. Carded sliver has a hint of natural twist, left over from its processing. If you feel that twist is blocking your ability to draft open your fiber, try turning it around and spinning from the other end.
Join the fiber to your leader yarn, then carefully inchworm your way through a few yards of wound-on singles. With your front hand, pinch off the accumulated twist.
You are now ready to spin your way into any one of the following four woolen draw methods, all of which allow the twist between your hands to draft out/attenuate the fiber for you—a hallmark of this type of draw:
Short backward draw
Your back hand (the one holding your fiber supply) gently pulls backward for half a staple length; the front hand releases built-up twist, filling the just-drafted bit of yarn with air. “Pinch, draw back, release,” (then wind on) is a helpful mantra to say to yourself as you rhythmically spin along.
Other than the front hand releasing the initial twist, this is a one-armed maneuver. Your fiber hand draws smoothly back as far as feels comfortable, then forward again, all while the natural tug of the expanding twist attenuates the fiber at the same rate. To stabilize the yarn as you draw your arm back, close your fingers around the drafting zone and more twist will build. Wind on. Repeat. You may find that moving your arm farther away from your body provides a better angle.
Supported long draw
If you’re having issues with long draw, add your front hand back in as your twist manager. The fiber arm’s movements remain long and smooth, as above, only now your front arm is the gate keeper of the all-important twist.
If you’re having trouble with slubs and yarn consistency, double draw can give you greater control over your spun yarn. First, draw back several inches (or more), as in nos. 2 and 3, and then, pinching off the troublesome area with both hands, draft again, drawing out the slubs.
Tips on plying
Stop frequently to check your ply-back sample for adequate twist, just as when spinning wool. A 2-ply or traditional 3-ply (if you’re looking for a heavier weight yarn) will be your most stable yarns. Since cotton itself has no elasticity, and since breakage can be more of an issue than when spinning wool, a chain- or Navajo-ply is not well suited to this yarn.
For these same reasons, ply from two or more bobbins, not a center-pull ball, initially.
Don’t worry too much about singles that may seem over-twisted and/or lumpy. Just do your best to ply to balance, stopping to check your freshly plied yarn.
With fresh bobbins, now try spinning your rolags—and any other preparations you may have on hand.
Much ado has been made about the ways to finish handspun cotton. This is not the space to examine them all. Personally, I set my twist the same way I set other handspun: I soak the yarn for 20 minutes in a basin filled with warm water and my favorite gentle soap or yarn wash; if I’ve used real soap, I then soak the yarn in plain water. After first rolling it in a towel, I snap the yarn between my forearms and hang it to dry.
I only boil the yarn (for about 30 minutes) when I want to play with color deepening. (Cellulose fibers do not felt.)
And there you have it. While this is not an exhaustive list of the methods spinners use to spin up cotton with ease, these are the steps I personally took on my own road to appreciating this fiber.
Enjoy the ride.
∗Organic cotton is bred to improve upon some of the plant’s less enjoyable traits. Some say that it is also earth friendly.
Polyester versus cotton: which material is more environmentally friendly
More and more people are paying attention to the environmental friendliness of clothing, but it can be difficult to understand which material will do less harm to nature. We compared the environmental impact of polyester and cotton T-shirts at each stage
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Receipt of raw materials
Cotton fiber is obtained from cotton plant. This is a plant that needs a lot of water. 69% of the so-called "water footprint" (the amount of used and polluted water) in the production of textiles is precisely the cultivation of cotton.Another problem with cotton growing is that it requires huge amounts of chemicals to control pests and diseases. The industry accounts for 16% of all pesticides used in the world.
A more sustainable alternative to traditional organic cotton. No chemical pesticides or fertilizers are used in its production. Water consumption with this approach ultimately also decreases: if 2700 liters of water are required to produce one T-shirt from ordinary cotton, then in the case of certified organic cotton, the consumption is 2457 liters.
The raw material for polyester is oil - and this is where the main claim to this material lies. But here, too, there is an alternative: polyester made from recycled plastic (most often from plastic bottles). Its production requires 30-50% less energy and uses recyclable materials instead of non-renewable resources.
A research team from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology estimates that emissions from the production of polyester required for one T-shirt averaged 5.5 kg CO 2 -equivalent.
Emissions may vary due to various factors. For example, from the method of joining threads: creating a woven fabric is much more energy-intensive than creating a knitted fabric. The thickness of the thread also affects - the thinner it is, the more energy is needed for twisting. It is also important to consider what source of energy the factory uses - if it runs on coal, the emissions of the final product are higher than if it is produced using renewable energy sources.
The average value of emissions from the production of cotton T-shirts is 4.3 kg of CO 2 -equivalent, which is slightly lower in comparison with synthetic.
Methods for dyeing and finishing fabrics can also be different. To dye textiles in white or light colors, it is preliminarily subjected to a bleaching procedure (sometimes this is done before dyeing in dark shades). Extremely toxic chlorine bleaches are often used in industries. To fix the color, special fixing agents, such as chromium, are needed - even natural dyes can become hazardous to the environment. Cotton absorbs paint worse, so it requires more additional chemicals during the dyeing process.
Cotton and Polyester
To understand which of the T-shirts is more sustainable, ideally, you need to calculate the transport footprint of each of them, and for this, track the entire supply chain.
For example, consultancy GreenDelta gives this example of a supply chain for a cotton T-shirt: US-made cotton fiber is sent to a factory in Bangladesh to make fabric and sew T-shirts from it, and ready-made garments from Bangladesh are sent to Germany for sale.But the larger the manufacturer, the more participants in this process: brands use the services of subcontractors, and those - the services of other subcontractors.
The transport footprint is influenced not only by the geography of deliveries, but also by the type of transport itself. Thus, emissions from the transportation of 2 tons of cargo over a distance of 5 thousand km on a small container ship (type of sea vessel) will amount to 150 kg in CO 2 -equivalent compared to 6605 kg from air delivery. The congestion of the vehicle, the efficiency of the delivery schedule, and the type of fuel used are also important.
Polyester, like other synthetic textiles, emits microplastics during washing. 35% of the microplastics in the ocean comes from washing machines. The problem can be partially solved by special bags for washing, which trap small plastic particles. True, it is not clear what to do with the accumulated fibers later - they are not yet accepted for processing.
In addition, synthetics will probably have to be washed more often, as they absorb odors better.Polyester, unlike natural fabrics, "locks in" odor particles, and sometimes they will not wash out even with washing, explains researcher Rachel McQueen from the University of Alberta.
Polyester is considered to be more durable. This opinion is shared, for example, by Charles Ross, a professor at the Royal College of Art and an expert on sustainable development.
“If you use the same polyester and cotton T-shirts, the cotton will wear out faster,” says Ross.
It is safer to wash a cotton T-shirt - natural fibers do not litter oceans with microplastics. If it's only about the smell, washing may not be necessary at all: sometimes it is enough for cotton clothes to just hang for a while for the smell to evaporate.
The durability of a cotton fabric depends on its quality. Anushka Reese, author of the book "Smart Wardrobe", advises paying attention to cotton made from long fibers - the fabric made of them is denser and stronger, less pilling.To check the length of the threads, you can look through the fabric at the light - even thin cotton should not be transparent. It is also worth carefully examining the threads, they should be approximately the same thickness and without gaps.
Textiles, both synthetic and natural, are quite difficult to recycle. Usually this process is downcycling, which means that the quality of the processed raw materials is significantly reduced. From textiles, rags and regenerated fibers are obtained - materials that can be used for noise and heat insulation, as cleaning rags.Only 1% of textiles are recycled into material again suitable for sewing clothes. In total, 13% of textiles are recycled.
T-shirt made of polyester, non-biodegradable. It is assumed that things made from this material will not decompose for about 200 years.
Natural fibers are biodegradable. True, if the fabrics have undergone dyeing and other types of processing, toxic substances can remain in them, which, if improperly disposed of, will end up in the environment.In addition, if a cotton T-shirt ends up in a landfill, without oxygen, it can take decades for decomposition, and greenhouse gases will be released in the process.
What is the bottom line?
During the life cycle of a T-shirt, a huge number of factors affect its sustainability, and the material is only one of them. For example, researcher Jost Vochtländer compared the environmental costs of different types of textiles, including polyester, cotton, nylon, acrylic and elastane.The highest costs were found in thin woven cotton fabric. However, the study does not take into account the stage of distribution, the possibility of recycling, it also does not involve organic cotton and recycled textiles.
Analysts at the McKinsey consulting bureau concluded that, on average, manufacturing processes account for the largest share (71%) of greenhouse gas emissions in the life cycle of clothing and footwear.
So perhaps the best way to reduce environmental damage is not to initiate the production of a new thing.For example, it may take longer to wear existing T-shirts or buy new ones at the resell.
90,000 Raw cotton and cotton seeds. Sampling methods - RTS-tender
Date of introduction 1977-07-01
1. DEVELOPED AND INTRODUCED by the USSR Ministry of Agriculture
I.A. Rodimtsev, E. I. Varsakina, A. I. Kotov
2. APPROVED AND PUT INTO EFFECT by the Decree of the State Committee of the USSR on standards of 12.05.76 N 1168
3. REFERENCE REGULATORY AND TECHNICAL DOCUMENTS
Designation of NTD referenced
9015 4.By Resolution of the State Standard of 07.04.92 N 366, the limitation of validity
was removed 5. EDITION (June 2010) with Amendment N 1, approved in March 1987 (IUS 6-87)
1. This standard applies to seed cotton - raw and intended for sowing cotton seeds and establishes sampling methods for determining the sowing qualities of seeds.
2. Depending on the weight of the batch of seed cotton or cotton seeds, sampling is made from the batch or part thereof.The mass of the control unit established for seed cotton and cotton seeds is shown in Table 1.
t, not more than
Control unit weight
seeds during cleaning and storage
9030 9012 9030 0002 Third and subsequent reproductions
1.When determining the quality of seeds during the storage period of seed cotton, the control unit is taken as a riot, barn or storage compartment.
2. When determining the quality during the transportation of seeds, a wagon, a barge, or a road convoy run shall be taken as a control unit.
3. The terms "control unit", "weight", "spot sample", "combined sample", "average sample" - according to GOST 20290.
The definition of the batch is given in Appendix 1.
Name and form of documents certifying seed quality are given in Appendices 2-4.
(Modified edition, Amendment N 1).
4. Sampling is carried out from the entire lot if its mass is equal to or less than the mass of the control unit indicated in Table 1. If the established mass of the control unit is exceeded, the batch is divided by eye into parts corresponding to the mass of the control unit, and samples are taken separately from each part.
When splitting a lot, draw up a diagram and number the allocated parts (control units).
Example. The mass of the batch of untreated cotton seeds of the second reproduction is 57 tons.Before sampling, based on Table 1 and the mass of the batch, it is divided by eye vertically into three equal parts (control units), as indicated in Fig. 1.
Scheme of dividing a batch of seeds into control units
a - seeds in bags; b - seed heap
5. Methods of sampling point samples from seed cotton
5.1. When picking or transporting a batch of seed cotton, point samples are taken daily from seed cotton harvested or transported per day.
Spot samples are taken evenly over the entire horizontal surface of the bundle, completed at a cotton picking station and a cotton ginnery, two spot samples per 10 m: one at a depth of 10 cm, the other at a depth of 50 cm. Spot samples are taken by hand.
5.2. To take point samples from a batch of seed cotton stored in riots, lines are drawn on the surface of the riot - three on the longitudinal sides and one on the end sides. Single samples are taken along the marked lines at a distance of at least 50 cm from each other (see.drawing 2) at a depth of at least 10 cm from the surface of the riot.
Scheme of location of places for taking one-off samples
Note. The "X" sign denotes the place where a single sample was taken.
5.3. To take point samples from seed cotton stored in warehouses, wells are dug - one for each compartment of the barn or warehouse.
Spot samples are taken every 50 cm of the inner vertical surface of the well.
5.4. From raw cotton packed in bags, spot samples are taken: from each bag - if there are up to 20 bags in the batch; from every 10th bag (but not less than 15) - if there are 21-150 bags in the batch; from every 20th bag (but not less than 20) - if there are more than 150 bags in the batch. Single samples are taken by hand from the middle of the bag.
5.5. The mass of point samples of seed cotton is calculated in such a way that the mass of the combined sample made up of them is not less than 8 kg.
6. Methods of taking point samples from cotton seeds
6.1. From seeds stored in bulk, point samples are taken evenly from the walls of wells, which are dug to the entire depth of the embankment - one well per control unit.
Before re-sampling of point samples, the remaining wells are cleaned and point samples are taken at a distance of at least 20 cm from the surface of the walls.
Samples are taken from a batch of naturally bare seeds with increased flowability with a probe, while the wells are not dug.
6.2. From seeds packed in bags, spot samples are taken: from each bag - if there are up to 10 bags in the batch; from every fifth bag (but not less than 10) - if there are 11-100 bags in the batch; from every tenth bag (but not less than 20) - if there are more than 100 bags in the batch.
Spot samples are taken with a probe or by hand from the middle of the bag.
6.3. During cleaning of a batch of seed cotton, denudation, sorting, calibration or centralized disinfection of seeds, spot samples are taken with a mechanical sampler installed at the outlet of the seed fraction of seeds.
In the absence of a sampler, spot samples are taken with a ladle, a mug or a handful, crossing the stream of seeds along its entire width at regular intervals, but not less often than after 30 minutes.
6.4. The mass of spot samples of seeds is calculated in such a way that the mass of the combined sample made up of them is at least 5 kg.
7. Compilation of the combined sample
7.1. Selected spot samples are examined in order to identify their uniformity in color, odor, contamination and other signs.
Uniform spot samples are combined into a pooled sample separately for each control unit (lot) of seed cotton or seed.
Spot samples, in which heterogeneity is detected, are not combined, and the corresponding parts of the batch are isolated for a separate analysis of the sowing qualities of seeds. In this case, the selection of spot samples and the compilation of the combined sample are performed anew.
If it is impossible to isolate a part of the batch, the entire batch is refined (cleaning, drying), and then re-sampling.
Div. 5-7. (Modified edition, Amendment N 1).
8. Isolation of average samples of seed cotton
8.1. To isolate average samples, the combined sample of seed cotton is poured onto a table, a sheet of plywood, cardboard or thick paper, thoroughly mixed at least six times, raking simultaneously from both sides to the center, then leveled with a layer thickness of 4-6 cm, give it the shape of a square , which is divided into 16 parts. Selecting raw cotton from different places of each part, take consistently average samples.
8.2. From the combined sample of seed cotton taken when completing the batch, average samples weighing 1 kg each are isolated: one to determine the germination and maturity of seeds and the second to determine mechanical damage to the seeds.
If the batch of seed cotton to be denuded consists of one control unit, an average sample of 2 kg is taken to determine seed germination and maturity.
Average samples intended for determining the germination and maturity of seeds must come to the seed laboratory in the form of seeds, advanced on a ten-saw laboratory gin.Residual fiber content of seeds is allowed no more than the norms established by the standard for the sowing quality of seeds.
To determine the uniformity of seeds in terms of size, the average sample is isolated from the remains of the average samples of seeds after determining the germination and maturity. The remains of the average samples are combined and 1 kg of seeds is isolated by the quartering method.
8.1, 8.2. (Modified edition, Amendment N 1).
8.3. To determine mechanical damage to seeds in hand-picked raw cotton, average samples taken from control units of one batch are mixed also by the method specified in cl.8.1, 1 kg of raw cotton is isolated.
To determine mechanical damage to seeds in seed cotton, machine-harvested, average samples taken from each control unit are analyzed.
8.4. From the combined sample taken during the storage period of seed cotton, one average sample weighing 1 kg is isolated to determine the germination, moisture and burntness of the seeds. The sample must be sent to the seed laboratory in the form of seeds.
(Modified edition, Amendment N 1).
9.Isolation of medium samples of cotton seeds
9.1. Average seed samples are isolated from the combined samples by the quartering method. To do this, the seeds of the general sample are poured onto a sheet of plywood, cardboard, thick paper or a smooth table with two diagonals and squares applied (Figures 3 and 4) and thoroughly mixed at least six times with two wooden planks or rulers, raking the seeds simultaneously from two opposite edges to the center, trying to keep the rulers parallel to one or the other diagonal.With this mixing, a uniform distribution of fine impurity particles in the seed mass is achieved. Then the seeds are leveled in the form of a square with a layer up to 3 cm thick and divided diagonally into four parts. The seeds of the two opposite triangles are removed, and the remaining two are joined together, mixed and divided again. This operation is repeated until approximately 500 g of seeds remain in each triangle. From the seeds forming two opposite triangles, an average sample weighing 1 kg is made for general analyzes: determination of germination, weight of 1000 seeds, absolute weight, burn, weediness, mechanical damage, residual fiber, residual pubescence of bare seeds.The seeds from the other two triangles are mixed, divided as described above to form an average sample of 500 g to determine the moisture content and infestation of seeds by barn pests.
Sheet marking for the selection of medium samples and weighed seeds
Diagonal seed dividing scheme
Also from An average sample of 1 kg is isolated from the combined sample taken from the seed fraction obtained during calibration to determine the evenness of the seeds, and an average sample of 3 kg is isolated from the combined sample taken from the pelleted seeds to determine the accuracy of seed sowing.
The list of laboratory analyzes of the sowing qualities of cotton seeds is given in Appendix 5.
10. It is allowed to isolate several parallel average samples from the combined sample.
9.1, 10. (Changed edition, Amendment No. 1).
11. A seed sample intended for general analyzes (except for determination of moisture and infestation) is placed together with a registration form (see Appendix 6) in a bag made of dense cloth, and an average seed sample intended for determining the moisture content and pests, together with a tear-off coupon of the registration form, are placed in a clean, dry glass container of appropriate capacity, which is tightly sealed with a ground stopper.
If a sample intended for determining moisture and infestation by barn pests can be analyzed within 6 hours after sampling, then it is allowed to place the seeds in an iron jar with a tight-fitting lid.
12. Average samples of seed cotton should be delivered to the seed laboratory within three days after sampling, cotton seeds - on the day of sampling.
13. Analysis of samples received by the seed laboratory must begin on the day of receipt of the sample and end no later than the next day, with the exception of the analysis to determine germination, which is completed five days later for pubescent seeds and four days later for bare seeds.
14. When medium samples arrive at the seed laboratory, check the integrity of the package, sample weight, correct filling of the registration form, correspondence of the number of average samples to the batch weight. Average samples that do not meet the listed requirements are not accepted for analysis. The samples received are recorded in the log book. The record form is given in Appendix 7. Average samples isolated from one total sample are recorded under one number.
15. Allocation of samples for the analysis of seeds
15.1 The average seed sample is reduced by quartering to 250-300 g, mixed and divided into four triangles. From each of the two opposite triangles of seeds, 50 g of seeds are weighed to determine the debris and mechanical damage. The seeds of two triangles weighing 125-150 g are collected in the form of a roller, from which eight samples of 100 pieces are counted. seeds in each. The counting is carried out from the right side of the roller, separating each time in a row without choosing 5 pieces. seeds, and lay them on cardboard, lined with 20 squares.Take seeds that have retained at least their natural size.
Two samples, 100 pcs. seeds in each are used for the analysis of germination, the other two samples of 100 pcs. seeds - to determine the mass of 1000 pieces. seeds and absolute weight, two samples of 100 pcs. - to determine maturity, two samples of 100 pcs. to determine the burn.
From the seeds remaining in the roller, also in a row, without choice, two weighed portions weighing 10 g each are weighed to determine the residual fibrillation by the pubescent seeds, or two weighed portions weighing 30 g each - for the analysis of the residual pubescence of bare seeds.In this case, free fiber, fluff and litter are not included in the sample.
15.2. From the remnants of the average sample of pelleted seeds by the quartering method, two weighed portions weighing 100 g each are isolated - to determine the crumbling of pellets and two weighed portions weighing 50 g each - to determine the completeness of the etching.
From the remnants of the average sample of the pickled pubescent seeds by the quartering method, two weighed portions weighing 25 g are isolated to determine the completeness of the pickling.
15.3. The average sample, designed to determine the moisture content and infestation by barn pests, is poured out of the jar, mixed thoroughly, leveled with a layer one seed thick, after which, taking two or three seeds from different places in the layer, two weighed portions weighing 10 g are collected, which are placed in pre-weighed metal cups.About 80 g of seeds, selected as described above, are placed in a ground-stopper jar where they are stored until analysis is complete in case re-analysis is required. The remainder of the average sample after the selection of seeds to determine the moisture content - 400 g in its entirety is used to determine the infestation by barn pests.
15.4. The average sample, designed to determine the evenness of seeds in size, is poured onto a smooth surface, mixed thoroughly, leveled with a layer of 1 cm thick, divided into four triangles, of which two opposite ones are combined.From each part of the sample, by the method specified in clause 15.3, a sample weighing 250 g is made.
To determine the uniformity of seeds in size, the average sample of seeds is stripped with sulfuric acid and two samples weighing 250 g each are isolated.
15.5. An average sample of raw cotton weighing 1 kg, intended to determine mechanical damage to the seeds, is poured onto the table, mixed thoroughly, leveled in the form of a square, divided into 16 equal parts and two weighed portions weighing 100 g each are taken from different places of each part in slices of raw manual collection or in machine-collected raw materials.
15.6. Remains of average samples used to determine the quality of seeds, with the exception of samples used to determine moisture and infestation by barn pests, after all analyzes are carried out, are stored by the laboratory in bags with appropriate registration forms until the start of the new harvesting season. After this period, the samples are depersonalized. The seeds are stored in a laboratory in a special dry room.
16. Sampling to determine the sowing qualities of cotton seeds is carried out by the departments of technical control of cotton ginning plants during the acquisition, storage, receipt of raw seed cotton from procurement points; when cleaning, sorting, exposing, calibrating, disinfecting, storing, receiving lots of seeds from other ginneries.
From batches of seed cotton and seeds of family collections, as well as batches intended for experimental work and state variety testing, sampling is carried out by the organizations for which the seeds are intended.
17. Determination of the sowing quality of seeds is carried out by cotton seed laboratories.
In the process of processing cotton seeds, the control of the sowing quality of seeds in terms of mechanical damage, residual fiber, residual pubescence is carried out by the departments of technical control of cotton factories.
18. Control over the correctness of sampling of seed cotton and seeds is carried out by seed cotton laboratories.
In case of disagreement on the quality of seeds, sampling is carried out by the Central or Republican Control and Seed Cotton Station.
A lot of seed cotton is considered to be the amount of seed cotton harvested in one farm from one group of fields, one botanical variety, the same reproduction, varietal purity, one year of harvest originating from one elite farm, one industrial grade completed in no more than 15-20 days in September and 10-15 days in October, drawn up with one quality document.
A batch of seeds is considered to be any quantity of cotton seeds obtained at one time from one batch of seed cotton, uniform in sowing qualities, drawn up by one quality document.
underline), with a mass of _________________________ obtained from cleaning raw cotton of fields N ____,
harvested in the area of _______________ procurement center ___________, cotton variety _____________
25 901 reproduction on approbation __________
2. Germination rate
9010 9010 9010
9018 9010 9010 9010
5.Quarantine weed seeds
6. Mechanical damage
8. Residual fiber
10. Burning rate
9027 ... per 1 kg
12. Weight of 1000 seeds
14. Dragee debris
7 9012 9010 9012
7 9027 9010
16. Seeding disc number
17.For this batch,
(cotton plant, collective farm, state farm, etc.)
Head. Seminal Laboratory
(Surname, surname, s., o.)
________________ * Size - Note from the manufacturer of the database.
Cotton Seed Laboratory at the Cotton Plant
Cotton Seed Laboratory at the Cotton Plant
cotton seed (valid for 2 months from the date of issue)
for cotton seed (valid for the period not 2 months from the date of issue)
Per seed lot N
For the seed batch N
obtained from cleaning seed cotton -
raw batch N
, harvested in
raw batch N
, harvested in
(indicate the region, procurement point, collective farm, sovkhoz)
(specify the region, procurement point, sovkhoz, collective farm)
in 19___intended for shipment
in 19 ___, intended for shipment
(indicate to whom it was sent)
Seeds single, double linting, bare, calibrated, pickled, dragee
Seeds single, double linter, bare, calibrated, pickled, dredged
(underline as required)
Method of stripping seeds
Method of stripping seeds
% purity % 9000
Field group for approbation
Group of fields for approbation
(specify elite farm)
(specify elite farm)
Seed analysis result
P Results of the analysis of seeds
%, germination rate
%, germination rate
%, mechanical damage
%, 1000 seed weight
%, 1000 seed weight
4 9070 9070 g, burner
% nine 0003
%, dragee shedding
%, dragee shedding
seeding disc number
seeding disc number
4 967 mm, fiber yield
mm, fiber yield
932 9012 90 134
Analyzed by batch
Head. seed cotton laboratory
Head. seed cotton laboratory
(Surname, s., o.)
* The dimensions correspond to the original. - Note from the manufacturer of the database.
Reverse side of the certificate
To whom the sowing seeds of lot N
Name of the recipient of the seeds
Number of duplicate certificates
Number of wagons, cars
Number of bags
Mass of seeds sent, t
Back side of the root of the certificate
Reverse side of the root of the certificate
Reverse side of the root of the certificate
Reverse side of the root of the certificate
Name of the recipient of seeds (republic, ginnery, ginnery)
Date of dispatch of seeds
Number of duplicate certificates
Number of cars, cars 9019
bags 901 Mass of seeds sent, t
from "" ____________ 19__
Cotton plant N
(specify the location of the plant)
Issued on the basis of 90_6 ________12
90_6_9_9012 90_9_9012 90_9_9012 90_9_9012
cleaning of raw cotton batch N
, harvested in the area of
(name of the cotton plant, cotton collection point, etc.) , calibrated, sorted,
8.Storage of batches of seed cotton in unfavorable conditions
Germination, moisture, burn rate
APPENDIX 6 Mandatory
6 9012 9012 9012
REGISTRATION FORM to an average sample of sown cotton seeds (seed cotton) taken at
with seeds for analysis of moisture and infestation by barn pests).
picking, cleaning, storing, exposing, pickling, etc.
1. Where is the average seed sample taken
1. Laboratory sample number
cotton plant, procurement point, collective farm, state farm, etc.)
2.Ordinal No. of the sample by lot
2. For what purpose was the sample taken
3. Cotton variety
3.9 Laboratory number
3.9 Laboratory 4. Lot of seed cotton N
4. Lot of seed cotton N
5.Seed lot N
5. Seed lot N
6. Store N
7. Origin of seeds
(elite farm and the place of harvest of the current year)
8Method of harvesting raw cotton
9. Cotton variety
12. Field group for approbation
13.Seeds lintered, bare, calibrated, pickled
(underline and indicate the dressing agent)
14. Lot weight
15. Mass of the sampled
16. Number of storage and storage method of seeds
17Date of sampling
Responsible for storage
, and., o.)
At the selection were present:
(position held, signature)
APPENDIX 7 Mandatory
9000 batch number 9000 Batch number
Batch number of seed- raw cotton
Seed batch number
Where the sample was taken (name- organization)
Cotton variety- chat- nickname
Sor- total purity
Group of fields as tested
Industrial variety of raw cotton
Seeds lintered, bare, calibrated, pickled
Date of sampling
Date of receipt of the sample in the laboratory
Date of start of analysis
Hammock CMI with two wooden planks cotton 200x100 cm multicolor
Article no. 4033288
A hammock is one of the most pleasant outdoor activities.It will allow you to comfortably sit in the shade and completely relax. The hammock will come in handy not only in the country, but also on a hike.
The best place for a hammock is a free space between two trees, or it can be hung on metal supports specially prepared for this product. The hammock is made of thick cotton fabric that can withstand heavy loads. Two wooden planks hold the model well in a suspended state and evenly distribute the load on the mount.Strong ropes are looped on both sides of the hammock. The hinges can be fixed to the support using carabiners.
Seat base material:
4 9358 9358 9077 9077 9358 9358
Seat base material:
Dimensions and weight 9011 (gross) 9355 935 1.60 kg
Country of origin:
Practical work "Obtaining hydrogen in the laboratory and studying its properties."8th class
Place of the lesson: Grade 8. Topic II: Oxygen, hydrogen, water as a solvent.
Lesson type : practical work
Educational - to improve experimental skills - methods of working with laboratory equipment and substances; the ability to observe, draw conclusions, draw up the results of practical work in a notebook.
Developing - work on the development of skills to skillfully handle fire, hazardous substances.
Educational - expanding the horizons of students, building respect for the history of science.
Health-preserving - development of ideas about a healthy lifestyle in the blocks: "Chemistry in everyday life - safe behavior"
Planned learning outcomes:
Be able to work with an automatic Kiryushkin device for obtaining gases
Be able to collect gas by displacing water
Know how to check combustible gas for cleanliness
To be able to draw correct conclusions from the observed experiments and characterize the properties of hydrogen
Multimedia Presentation 2 (Microsoft Power Point)
Overalls - robe
Filling capacity of laboratory tray for student (13 pcs.)
laboratory rack with foot, test tube holder, test tube rack, dosing spoon, filter paper
spirit lamp, matches
Kiryushkin automatic device for obtaining gases, 3 test tubes, crystallizer with water
zinc granules, hydrochloric acid (decomp.), Copper (II) oxide
Filling capacity of laboratory tray for teacher:
crucible tongs, beaker, glass plate, glass rod
"results" of safety violations
Methods and Techniques :
Verbal (teacher's story, conversation).
Visual (viewing presentation slides; demonstration of techniques for working with laboratory equipment and substances).
Student self-development of experimental skills.
(italics describe the actions of the students and the teacher, the peculiarities of the lesson methodology; regular font - the teacher's speech)
I. Organizational moment (1 min.)
Note the presence of gowns for all students, check if the passages are free of bags, if the girls' hair is removed. Leave only pens, calculators and notebooks on the tables.
II. Enhancing the knowledge needed to do practical work (13 min.)
In this lesson we will get hydrogen in the laboratory. It is a gaseous substance; is explosive if contaminated with air, and therefore requires special attention.
Pupils sign the safety log at the same time as they discuss.
Familiarization with the lesson plan. I.
In the previous lesson, students were prepared for this practical work (Presentation 1) and the homework was set:
The slide appears gradually, in accordance with the conversation
What starting materials will we use to obtain hydrogen?
Is it necessary to heat the reaction mixture?
What to look for when recording observations?
What device will we use to produce hydrogen?
What methods can be used to collect hydrogen, why?
The slide appears gradually, in accordance with the conversation
How to prove the presence of hydrogen in a receiving tube?
What kind of chemical reaction occurs in this case?
What to look for when recording observations at this work point?
What is oxyhydrogen gas?
View two videos.
If an explosion occurs in a glass vessel, the fragments can injure others and the experimenter.
When checking hydrogen for purity, a small volume (about 15 ml) is burned.
Potential micro-explosion cannot cause injury.
TB Rule: while there is no conviction that the gas from the device is emitted clean, keep the opening of the gas outlet pipe away from the flame of the spirit lamp.
Demonstration of the results of violations of TB rules: test tube with a cracked bottom
Rule of TB : it is necessary to heat the tube in the place where the solid is located, and not above where the air is.Uneven heating will crack the tube.
test tube with traces of hydrochloric acid mixed with copper oxide ( II)
TB rule: when charging an automatic device with hydrochloric acid, you must take care not to overflow the acid (max 2 ml), otherwise the excess from exothermicity and the violent flow of the process will get into the gas outlet tube.
III. Demonstration of the experiment by the teacher (7 min.)
Teacher's word with conversation elements
1.Take a small amount of black copper (II) oxide powder with a dosing spoon, place in a test tube, and leave in a test tube rack until an experiment to study the reducing properties of hydrogen is carried out.
2. Fix the automatic gas production device in the tripod leg. Charge the device with initial substances: place 4-5 zinc granules on a rubber circle, add hydrochloric acid through a funnel so that its layer above the zinc is no more than 2 ml. Close the device as tightly as possible.
3. To check the gas for purity, I have to prepare an alcohol lamp in advance. The two of you work together and light the alcohol lamp after you collect gas into the receiver tube.
Safety regulations: working with an alcohol lamp
a) before lighting the spirit lamp, you need to check whether the disc fits snugly against the opening of the reservoir (otherwise the spark may get into the reservoir and the entire volume of alcohol will ignite)
b) light only with a match (you cannot use a lighter, another spirit lamp)
c) the match should be put in the tray, making sure that it is extinguished ( demonstration of violation of the safety rules - burnt tray)
d) to extinguish the flame, it should be closed with a cap (cannot be blown out)
Collect evolved hydrogen by air displacement, holding the receiving tube upside down.Check the gas for cleanliness: pinch the opening of the test tube with your finger and bring the test tube to the flame of an alcohol lamp, open it.
4. Then collect the evolved hydrogen by displacement of water: take a full test tube of water, turn it over in the crystallizer and bring the gas outlet pipe to the hole. When the receiving tube is completely filled with hydrogen, pinch the hole with your finger under water. Make sure the gas is clean.
5. Fix the tube with copper oxide (II) in the holder.
Safety regulations: securing the tube in the holder
a) the test tube is fixed in the upper third part closer to the hole
b) the test tube should not fall out, but rotate (otherwise, when heated, the glass expands and the test tube may burst)
c) to remove the tube from the holder, you need to loosen the clamp.
Warm up the test tube on the flame of an alcohol lamp 2-3 times, then heat it in the upper part of the flame, in the place where copper (II) oxide is located. Introduce the evolving hydrogen gas line.
After the end of the experiment, allow the test tube to cool, then place it in a rack for test tubes.
6. Put out the spirit lamp, block the evolution of hydrogen with a clamp.
Basic safety rule: work with confident hands!
IV.Practical work, registration of results, cleaning of the workplace (23 min.)
1. Students carry out practical work independently. The teacher monitors the correct execution of the experiment technique and compliance with the safety rules.
2. Cleaning of the workplace: after the end of the experiment to study the reducing properties of hydrogen:
1st student: put out the alcohol lamp, let the reactor tube cool down, then put it in a tube rack.
2nd student: shut off gas evolution in the automatic device, remove the funnel, place the remaining zinc on filter paper. Take the device out of the tripod leg, drain the spent solution into the "DRAIN FLIP", hand over the device to the teacher.
teacher: collects trays and crystallizers with water.
3. Demonstration experiment: study of the reaction product of zinc with salt water with slot
Pour the spent solution into a glass and transfer a few drops using a glass rod to a glass plate.Strengthen the plate in crucible tongs and evaporate the solution on a flame
What is being observed?
4. Draw up the results of the experiment: formulate and write down observations, conclusion (what you learned about the gaseous substance hydrogen in practical work), hand over the notebook.
Chemistry for all XXI. Chemical experiments with and without explosions. Akhlebinin A.K. et al., 2006.
Registration of work in the student's notebook:
Practical work 5: Hydrogen production and study of its properties
1. Method for producing hydrogen - interaction of active metals with acids.
Zn + 2HCl = ZnCl 2 + H 2 ↑ + Q - under normal conditions
The reaction of the interaction of zinc granules with hydrochloric acid proceeds slowly at first, then very violently, the test tube heats up
Colorless gas is emitted from the gas outlet pipe
When the resulting solution is evaporated, a white powder remains on the glass plate
2.Devices for obtaining and collecting hydrogen
Fig. The device for producing hydrogen is automatic, which allows you to stop the reaction at any time using a clamp (Kiryushkin's device).
Gas collection by water displacement - possible because hydrogen is slightly soluble in it.
Fig. Gas collection by air displacement - holding the receiving tube upside down, as
- therefore, hydrogen is lighter than air
3.Detection of hydrogen - checking it for purity
when the first portion of gas is burned, a sharp barking sound is heard
while burning the second portion of gas a light cotton is heard Figure 5 "p-groin"
4. Property of hydrogen - active reducing agent
powder changes color from black to copper
colorless liquid droplets appear on the walls of the test tube
One of the ways to obtain hydrogen in the laboratory is the interaction of zinc with dil.hydrochloric acid to form salt (zinc chloride) and hydrogen. Hydrogen is a colorless gas, odorless, slightly soluble in water, lighter than air, explosive when mixed with air, reduces metals from their oxides.
By registering on this website and (or) providing your personal data, you provide ETAM Rus LLC (location address: Russia, Moscow, 123312, Presnenskaya naberezhnaya 10, office 564) and its authorized representatives acting in accordance with by a confidentiality agreement, your express consent to the processing of your personal data in the ways and for the purposes specified in this Policy below.
Your personal data that we may process includes:
1.Surname, name, patronymic;
2. Email address;
3. Passport data;
4. Fixed (mobile) telephone number;
5. Postal address;
6. Payment details (bank account number, etc.)
7. Username (login) and password;
8. Age (date of birth), etc.
The personal data you provide will be used for the following purposes:
1. Fulfillment and observance of contracts for the sale of goods purchased by you, or other contracts concluded between you and us;
2.Answers to your inquiries, and
3. Providing you with information about ETAM products and also including in relation to the above products, sending commercial information by e-mail or using other similar means of communication (such as SMS-mailing), as well as telephone calls. You can change your preferences for receiving such information by specifying the appropriate items in the "My Personal Information" section of the website, and edit them. You can unsubscribe from receiving newsletters by going to the "My personal data" section and unchecking the "I want to receive news and interesting offers" option.
4. In the event that you provide us with personal data of third parties, you are responsible for informing the third party about the use of such data and for obtaining appropriate consent. If you purchased a product or a gift card, the third party personal data you provide will be used for the following purposes: (a) managing delivery and / or confirming the correctness of receipt of the relevant product; and (b) replies to any request or offer that you may formulate in relation to the specified product.
5. If you choose the payment method " Cash on delivery ", please note that in case of returning the purchased goods, you will need to provide additional data that will be used solely for the purpose of refunding the amount paid (your bank account data, passport data etc.), and this information, if necessary, can be disclosed to a third party making money transfers.
Since we are responsible for the database, we are committed to maintaining the confidentiality of your personal data and to ensure that your rights of access, change, cancellation and disagreement are exercised by sending a letter to the above address to the address of the location in accordance with the paragraph below.
Corrections (update, change) in personal data will be carried out in the following cases:
After you provide us with corrected (updated, changed) personal data;
At the request of authorized federal executive bodies of state power;
In other cases stipulated by the current legislation.
Anonymization of personal data, blocking, deletion and destruction can be carried out in the cases and for the reasons stipulated by the current legislation.
In order to achieve the objectives stated above, we may need to carry out cross-border processing or transfer of information that you have provided to us, companies that are part of the “ETAM Group”. We hereby inform you that by registering on this website and providing us with information, you give us your explicit consent and permission to disclose such information and / or transfer it to the aforementioned ETAM Group companies.In addition, if it is necessary to achieve the above goals, as well as for the implementation and provision of certain services or additional functions, third-party providers may also gain access to your personal data, for example, companies providing technological services, managing financial transactions, providing logistics services , transportation, order management and others, in order to provide our users with sufficient guarantees when making purchases, etc.e. Your consent to such access / disclosure includes cases when, for the effective provision of services, providers may be located in countries or territories outside of Russia and / or have access to data from such countries, such as, for example, EU countries / territories or the United States.
Your consent to the processing and cross-border transfer of your personal data will be valid until you revoke it by sending a letter to the above address to ETAM Rus LLC.
The user (you) hereby guarantees that the personal data provided is valid and accurate, and undertakes to notify us of any changes to such data.Any loss or damage incurred by the site or by the persons responsible for the website, or by any third parties as a result of receiving erroneous, inaccurate or incomplete data in the registration forms, will be the sole responsibility of the User.
What is a cookie?
A cookie is a small text file that a website places on your computer, phone or other device that contains information about how you navigate this website.Cookies are necessary to make your navigation easier, to ensure your convenience and they do not harm your computer. Although this policy uses the general term cookies because they are the primary storage method for the information used by this website, the "local storage" of the web browser is used for the same purposes as cookies. Therefore, all information included in this section also applies to such “local storage”.
For what purposes are cookies used on this website?
Cookies are an important part of the functioning of the website.The main purpose of our cookies is to improve your navigation on the site. For example, cookies allow us to identify you (if you are registered on our site), remember your preferences (language, country, etc.) during navigation and for future visits to the site. This information is collected in cookies and also allows us to improve the website by evaluating the patterns used and the number of visits, to adapt the website to the individual interests of the user, to increase the search speed, etc.
Why are cookies NOT used on this website?
In the cookies we use, we do not store personally identifiable information that needs protection, such as your address, credit card details, etc.d.
Who uses the information stored in cookies?
The information stored in these files on our website is only used by us, with the exception of Google Analytics, a service that is used and operated by Google and us for statistical purposes.
Yes, shutdown is possible. However, if you choose this configuration, it is possible that you will not be able to access some parts of our website, may experience less efficient navigation and may not be able to use some of our services.If you would like to restrict, block or erase cookies from the website, you can do this by changing the configuration of your browser. You can find out more about the configuration of cookies in your browser in the "Help" or "Help" menu.
How to take measurements
Clothes, children 3-7 years old
Clothes, girls 7-13 years old
Clothes, boys 7-13 years old
Shoes, children 1-3 years old
Foot length, mm
Insole length is approximate (depends on shoe model)
Shoes, children 3-7 years old
Foot length, mm
Insole length is approximate (depends on shoe model)
Shoes, children 7-13 years old
Foot length, mm
Insole length is approximate (depends on shoe model)
Foot length, cm
Actual shoe size (feet)
Straight-leg cargo trousers in pure cotton
Create a casual look with these pure organic cotton cargo pants.Modern straight fit with classic button and zip. Convenient functional pockets on the sides, leg and back. M&S Collection: comfortable wardrobe pieces that combine classic and modern styles
Detailed description More details:
- Style: cargo pants
- Fit: straight
- Closure: Button and Zipper
- Organic cotton Composition
- 100% cotton
(excluding finishing) Care instructions
- Machine wash at 30º
- Machine dryer
Which delivery method do you prefer?
Please pay attention: the official online store Marks & Spencer in Russia offers all possible delivery methods for your convenience.
Arranging the delivery methods in ascending order of cost, we get a list:
Delivery to the pick-up point
Delivery by courier to the door
You can pay for the order in a convenient way for you: on the website or upon receipt.