Cotton on nineteen ninety one: Men’s Pants, Chinos, Trackies & Denim

8. The Market Revolution | THE AMERICAN YAWP

William James Bennett, View of South Street, from Maiden Lane, New York City, c. 1827, via Metropolitan Museum of New York

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In the early years of the nineteenth century, Americans’ endless commercial ambition—what one Baltimore paper in 1815 called an “almost universal ambition to get forward”—remade the nation. Between the Revolution and the Civil War, an old subsistence world died and a new more-commercial nation was born. Americans integrated the technologies of the Industrial Revolution into a new commercial economy. Steam power, the technology that moved steamboats and railroads, fueled the rise of American industry by powering mills and sparking new national transportation networks. A “market revolution” remade the nation.

The revolution reverberated across the country. More and more farmers grew crops for profit, not self-sufficiency. Vast factories and cities arose in the North. Enormous fortunes materialized. A new middle class ballooned. And as more men and women worked in the cash economy, they were freed from the bound dependence of servitude. But there were costs to this revolution. As northern textile factories boomed, the demand for southern cotton swelled, and American slavery accelerated. Northern subsistence farmers became laborers bound to the whims of markets and bosses. The market revolution sparked explosive economic growth and new personal wealth, but it also created a growing lower class of property-less workers and a series of devastating depressions, called “panics.” Many Americans labored for low wages and became trapped in endless cycles of poverty. Some workers, often immigrant women, worked thirteen hours a day, six days a week. Others labored in slavery. Massive northern textile mills turned southern cotton into cheap cloth. And although northern states washed their hands of slavery, their factories fueled the demand for slave-grown southern cotton and their banks provided the financing that ensured the profitability and continued existence of the American slave system. And so, as the economy advanced, the market revolution wrenched the United States in new directions as it became a nation of free labor and slavery, of wealth and inequality, and of endless promise and untold perils.

 

The growth of the American economy reshaped American life in the decades before the Civil War. Americans increasingly produced goods for sale, not for consumption. Improved transportation enabled a larger exchange network. Labor-saving technology improved efficiency and enabled the separation of the public and domestic spheres. The market revolution fulfilled the revolutionary generation’s expectations of progress but introduced troubling new trends. Class conflict, child labor, accelerated immigration, and the expansion of slavery followed. These strains required new family arrangements and transformed American cities.

American commerce had proceeded haltingly during the eighteenth century. American farmers increasingly exported foodstuffs to Europe as the French Revolutionary Wars devastated the continent between 1793 and 1815. America’s exports rose in value from $20.2 million in 1790 to $108.3 million by 1807. But while exports rose, exorbitant internal transportation costs hindered substantial economic development within the United States. In 1816, for instance, $9 could move one ton of goods across the Atlantic Ocean, but only thirty miles across land. An 1816 Senate Committee Report lamented that “the price of land carriage is too great” to allow the profitable production of American manufactures. But in the wake of the War of 1812, Americans rushed to build a new national infrastructure, new networks of roads, canals, and railroads. In his 1815 annual message to Congress, President James Madison stressed “the great importance of establishing throughout our country the roads and canals which can best be executed under national authority.” State governments continued to sponsor the greatest improvements in American transportation, but the federal government’s annual expenditures on internal improvements climbed to a yearly average of $1,323,000 by Andrew Jackson’s presidency. .

Clyde Osmer DeLand, “The First Locomotive. Aug. 8th, 1829. Trial Trip of the “Stourbridge Lion,” 1916. Library of Congress.

State legislatures meanwhile pumped capital into the economy by chartering banks. The number of state-chartered banks skyrocketed from 1 in 1783, 266 in 1820, and 702 in 1840 to 1,371 in 1860. European capital also helped build American infrastructure. By 1844, one British traveler declared that “the prosperity of America, her railroads, canals, steam navigation, and banks, are the fruit of English capital.”

Economic growth, however, proceeded unevenly. Depressions devastated the economy in 1819, 1837, and 1857. Each followed rampant speculation in various commodities: land in 1819, land and enslaved laborers in 1837, and railroad bonds in 1857. Eventually the bubbles all burst. The spread of paper currency untethered the economy from the physical signifiers of wealth familiar to the colonial generation, namely land. Counterfeit bills were endemic during this early period of banking. With so many fake bills circulating, Americans were constantly on the lookout for the “confidence man” and other deceptive characters in the urban landscape. Prostitutes and con men could look like regular honest Americans. Advice literature offered young men and women strategies for avoiding hypocrisy in an attempt to restore the social fiber. Intimacy in the domestic sphere became more important as duplicity proliferated in the public sphere. Fear of the confidence man, counterfeit bills, and a pending bust created anxiety in the new capitalist economy. But Americans refused to blame the logic of their new commercial system for these depressions. Instead, they kept pushing “to get forward.”

The so-called Transportation Revolution opened the vast lands west of the Appalachian Mountains. In 1810, before the rapid explosion of American infrastructure, Margaret Dwight left New Haven, Connecticut, in a wagon headed for Ohio Territory. Her trip was less than five hundred miles but took six weeks to complete. The journey was a terrible ordeal, she said. The roads were “so rocky & so gullied as to be almost impassable.” Ten days into the journey, at Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, Dwight said “it appeared to me that we had come to the end of the habitable part of the globe.” She finally concluded that “the reason so few are willing to return from the Western country, is not that the country is so good, but because the journey is so bad.” Nineteen years later, in 1829, English traveler Frances Trollope made the reverse journey across the Allegheny Mountains from Cincinnati to the East Coast. At Wheeling, Virginia, her coach encountered the National Road, the first federally funded interstate infrastructure project. The road was smooth and her journey across the Alleghenies was a scenic delight. “I really can hardly conceive a higher enjoyment than a botanical tour among the Alleghany Mountains,” she declared. The ninety miles of the National Road was to her “a garden.”

Engraving based on W. H. Bartlett, “Lockport, Erie Canal,” 1839. Wikimedia.

If the two decades between Margaret Dwight’s and Frances Trollope’s journeys transformed the young nation, the pace of change only accelerated in the following years. If a transportation revolution began with improved road networks, it soon incorporated even greater improvements in the ways people and goods moved across the landscape.

New York State completed the Erie Canal in 1825. The 350-mile-long human-made waterway linked the Great Lakes with the Hudson River and the Atlantic Ocean. Soon crops grown in the Great Lakes region were carried by water to eastern cities, and goods from emerging eastern factories made the reverse journey to midwestern farmers. The success of New York’s “artificial river” launched a canal-building boom. By 1840 Ohio created two navigable, all-water links from Lake Erie to the Ohio River.

Robert Fulton established the first commercial steamboat service up and down the Hudson River in New York in 1807. Soon thereafter steamboats filled the waters of the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers. Downstream-only routes became watery two-way highways. By 1830, more than two hundred steamboats moved up and down western rivers.

The United States’ first long-distance rail line launched from Maryland in 1827. Baltimore’s city government and the state government of Maryland provided half the start-up funds for the new Baltimore & Ohio (B&O) Rail Road Company. The B&O’s founders imagined the line as a means to funnel the agricultural products of the trans-Appalachian West to an outlet on the Chesapeake Bay. Similar motivations led citizens in Philadelphia, Boston, New York City, and Charleston, South Carolina to launch their own rail lines. State and local governments provided the means for the bulk of this initial wave of railroad construction, but economic collapse following the Panic of 1837 made governments wary of such investments. Government supports continued throughout the century, but decades later the public origins of railroads were all but forgotten, and the railroad corporation became the most visible embodiment of corporate capitalism.

By 1860 Americans had laid more than thirty thousand miles of railroads. The ensuing web of rail, roads, and canals meant that few farmers in the Northeast or Midwest had trouble getting goods to urban markets. Railroad development was slower in the South, but there a combination of rail lines and navigable rivers meant that few cotton planters struggled to transport their products to textile mills in the Northeast and in England.

Such internal improvements not only spread goods, they spread information. The transportation revolution was followed by a communications revolution. The telegraph redefined the limits of human communication. By 1843 Samuel Morse had persuaded Congress to fund a forty-mile telegraph line stretching from Washington, D.C., to Baltimore. Within a few short years, during the Mexican-American War, telegraph lines carried news of battlefield events to eastern newspapers within days. This contrasts starkly with the War of 1812, when the Battle of New Orleans took place nearly two full weeks after Britain and the United States had signed a peace treaty.

The consequences of the transportation and communication revolutions reshaped the lives of Americans. Farmers who previously produced crops mostly for their own family now turned to the market. They earned cash for what they had previously consumed; they purchased the goods they had previously made or gone without. Market-based farmers soon accessed credit through eastern banks, which provided them with the opportunity to expand their enterprise but left also them prone before the risk of catastrophic failure wrought by distant market forces. In the Northeast and Midwest, where farm labor was ever in short supply, ambitious farmers invested in new technologies that promised to increase the productivity of the limited labor supply. The years between 1815 and 1850 witnessed an explosion of patents on agricultural technologies. The most famous of these, perhaps, was Cyrus McCormick’s horse-drawn mechanical reaper, which partially mechanized wheat harvesting, and John Deere’s steel-bladed plow, which more easily allowed for the conversion of unbroken ground into fertile farmland.

A. Janicke & Co., “Our City, (St. Louis, Mo.),” 1859. Library of Congress.

Most visibly, the market revolution encouraged the growth of cities and reshaped the lives of urban workers. In 1820, only New York had over one hundred thousand inhabitants. By 1850, six American cities met that threshold, including Chicago, which had been founded fewer than two decades earlier. New technology and infrastructure paved the way for such growth. The Erie Canal captured the bulk of the trade emerging from the Great Lakes region, securing New York City’s position as the nation’s largest and most economically important city. The steamboat turned St. Louis and Cincinnati into centers of trade, and Chicago rose as it became the railroad hub of the western Great Lakes and Great Plains regions. The geographic center of the nation shifted westward. The development of steam power and the exploitation of Pennsylvania coalfields shifted the locus of American manufacturing. By the 1830s, for instance, New England was losing its competitive advantage to the West.

Meanwhile, the cash economy eclipsed the old, local, informal systems of barter and trade. Income became the measure of economic worth. Productivity and efficiencies paled before the measure of income. Cash facilitated new impersonal economic relationships and formalized new means of production. Young workers might simply earn wages, for instance, rather than receiving room and board and training as part of apprenticeships. Moreover, a new form of economic organization appeared: the business corporation.

States offered the privileges of incorporation to protect the fortunes and liabilities of entrepreneurs who invested in early industrial endeavors. A corporate charter allowed investors and directors to avoid personal liability for company debts. The legal status of incorporation had been designed to confer privileges to organizations embarking on expensive projects explicitly designed for the public good, such as universities, municipalities, and major public works projects. The business corporation was something new. Many Americans distrusted these new, impersonal business organizations whose officers lacked personal responsibility while nevertheless carrying legal rights. Many wanted limits. Thomas Jefferson himself wrote in 1816 that “I hope we shall crush in its birth the aristocracy of our monied corporations which dare already to challenge our government to a trial of strength, and bid defiance to the laws of our country.” But in Dartmouth v. Woodward (1819) the Supreme Court upheld the rights of private corporations when it denied the attempt of the government of New Hampshire to reorganize Dartmouth College on behalf of the common good. Still, suspicions remained. A group of journeymen cordwainers in New Jersey publically declared in 1835 that they “entirely disapprov[ed] of the incorporation of Companies, for carrying on manual mechanical business, inasmuch as we believe their tendency is to eventuate and produce monopolies, thereby crippling the energies of individual enterprise.

 

Slave labor helped fuel the market revolution. By 1832, textile companies made up 88 out of 106 American corporations valued at over $100,000. These textile mills, worked by free labor, nevertheless depended on southern cotton, and the vast new market economy spurred the expansion of the plantation South.

By the early nineteenth century, states north of the Mason-Dixon Line had taken steps to abolish slavery. Vermont included abolition as a provision of its 1777 state constitution. Pennsylvania’s emancipation act of 1780 stipulated that freed children must serve an indenture term of twenty-eight years. Gradualism brought emancipation while also defending the interests of northern enslavers and controlling still another generation of Black Americans. In 1804 New Jersey became the last of the northern states to adopt gradual emancipation plans. There was no immediate moment of jubilee, as many northern states only promised to liberate future children born to enslaved mothers. Such laws also stipulated that such children remain in indentured servitude to their mother’s enslaver in order to compensate the enslaver’s loss. James Mars, a young man indentured under this system in Connecticut, risked being thrown in jail when he protested the arrangement that kept him bound to his mother’s enslaver until age twenty-five.

Quicker routes to freedom included escape or direct emancipation by enslavers. But escape was dangerous and voluntary manumission rare. Congress, for instance, made the harboring of a freedom-seeking enslaved person a federal crime as early as 1793. Hopes for manumission were even slimmer, as few northern enslavers emancipated their own enslaved laborers. Roughly one fifth of the white families in New York City owned enslaved laborers, and fewer than eighty enslavers in the city voluntarily manumitted their enslaved laborers between 1783 and 1800. By 1830, census data suggests that at least 3,500 people were still enslaved in the North. Elderly enslaved people in Connecticut remained in bondage as late as 1848, and in New Jersey slavery endured until after the Civil War.

Emancipation proceeded slowly, but proceeded nonetheless. A free Black population of fewer than 60,000 in 1790 increased to more than 186,000 by 1810. Growing free Black communities fought for their civil rights. In a number of New England locales, free African Americans could vote and send their children to public schools. Most northern states granted Black citizens property rights and trial by jury. African Americans owned land and businesses, founded mutual aid societies, established churches, promoted education, developed print culture, and voted.

Nationally, however, the enslaved population continued to grow, from less than 700,000 in 1790 to more than 1.5 million by 1820. The growth of abolition in the North and the acceleration of slavery in the South created growing divisions. Cotton drove the process more than any other crop. Eli Whitney’s cotton gin, a simple hand-cranked device designed to mechanically remove sticky green seeds from short staple cotton, allowed southern planters to dramatically expand cotton production for the national and international markets. Water-powered textile factories in England and the American Northeast rapidly turned raw cotton into cloth. Technology increased both the supply of and demand for cotton. White southerners responded by expanding cultivation farther west, to the Mississippi River and beyond. Slavery had been growing less profitable in tobacco-planting regions like Virginia, but the growth of cotton farther south and west increased the demand for human bondage. Eager cotton planters invested their new profits in more enslaved laborers.

The cotton boom fueled speculation in slavery. Many enslavers leveraged potential profits into loans used to purchase ever increasing numbers of enslaved laborers. For example, one 1840 Louisiana Courier ad warned, “it is very difficult now to find persons willing to buy slaves from Mississippi or Alabama on account of the fears entertained that such property may be already mortgaged to the banks of the above named states.

Sidney & Neff, Detail from Plan of the City of Lowell, Massachusetts, 1850. Wikimedia Commons.

New national and international markets fueled the plantation boom. American cotton exports rose from 150,000 bales in 1815 to 4,541,000 bales in 1859. The Census Bureau’s 1860 Census of Manufactures stated that “the manufacture of cotton constitutes the most striking feature of the industrial history of the last fifty years.” Enslavers shipped their cotton north to textile manufacturers and to northern financers for overseas shipments. Northern insurance brokers and exporters in the Northeast profited greatly.

While the United States ended its legal participation in the global slave trade in 1808, slave traders moved one million enslaved people from the tobacco-producing Upper South to cotton fields in the Lower South between 1790 and 1860. This harrowing trade in human flesh supported middle-class occupations in the North and South: bankers, doctors, lawyers, insurance brokers, and shipping agents all profited. And of course it facilitated the expansion of northeastern textile mills.

 

While industrialization bypassed most of the American South, southern cotton production nevertheless nurtured industrialization in the Northeast and Midwest. The drive to produce cloth transformed the American system of labor. In the early republic, laborers in manufacturing might typically have been expected to work at every stage of production. But a new system, piecework, divided much of production into discrete steps performed by different workers. In this new system, merchants or investors sent or “put out” materials to individuals and families to complete at home. These independent laborers then turned over the partially finished goods to the owner to be given to another laborer to finish.

As early as the 1790s, however, merchants in New England began experimenting with machines to replace the putting-out system. To effect this transition, merchants and factory owners relied on the theft of British technological knowledge to build the machines they needed. In 1789, for instance, a textile mill in Pawtucket, Rhode Island, contracted twenty-one-year-old British immigrant Samuel Slater to build a yarn-spinning machine and then a carding machine. Slater had apprenticed in an English mill and succeeded in mimicking the English machinery. The fruits of American industrial espionage peaked in 1813 when Francis Cabot Lowell and Paul Moody re-created the powered loom used in the mills of Manchester, England. Lowell had spent two years in Britain observing and touring mills in England. He committed the design of the powered loom to memory so that, no matter how many times British customs officials searched his luggage, he could smuggle England’s industrial know-how into New England.

Lowell’s contribution to American industrialism was not only technological, it was organizational. He helped reorganize and centralize the American manufacturing process. A new approach, the Waltham-Lowell System, created the textile mill that defined antebellum New England and American industrialism before the Civil War. The modern American textile mill was fully realized in the planned mill town of Lowell in 1821, four years after Lowell himself died. Powered by the Merrimack River in northern Massachusetts and operated by local farm girls, the mills of Lowell centralized the process of textile manufacturing under one roof. The modern American factory was born. Soon ten thousand workers labored in Lowell alone. Sarah Rice, who worked at the nearby Millbury factory, found it “a noisy place” that was “more confined than I like to be.” Working conditions were harsh for the many desperate “mill girls” who operated the factories relentlessly from sunup to sundown. One worker complained that “a large class of females are, and have been, destined to a state of servitude.” Female workers went on strike. They lobbied for better working hours. But the lure of wages was too much. As another worker noted, “very many Ladies . . . have given up millinery, dressmaking & school keeping for work in the mill. With a large supply of eager workers, Lowell’s vision brought a rush of capital and entrepreneurs into New England. The first American manufacturing boom was under way.

Winslow Homer, “Bell-Time,” Harper’s Weekly vol. 12 (July 1868): 472. Wikimedia.

The market revolution shook other industries as well. Craftsmen began to understand that new markets increased the demand for their products. Some shoemakers, for instance, abandoned the traditional method of producing custom-built shoes at their home workshops and instead began producing larger quantities of shoes in ready-made sizes to be shipped to urban centers. Manufacturers wanting increased production abandoned the old personal approach of relying on a single live-in apprentice for labor and instead hired unskilled wage laborers who did not have to be trained in all aspects of making shoes but could simply be assigned a single repeatable aspect of the task. Factories slowly replaced shops. The old paternalistic apprentice system, which involved long-term obligations between apprentice and master, gave way to a more impersonal and more flexible labor system in which unskilled laborers could be hired and fired as the market dictated. A writer in the New York Observer in 1826 complained, “The master no longer lives among his apprentices [and] watches over their moral as well as mechanical improvement.” Masters-turned-employers now not only had fewer obligations to their workers, they had a lesser attachment. They no longer shared the bonds of their trade but were subsumed under new class-based relationships: employers and employees, bosses and workers, capitalists and laborers. On the other hand, workers were freed from the long-term, paternalistic obligations of apprenticeship or the legal subjugation of indentured servitude. They could theoretically work when and where they wanted. When men or women made an agreement with an employer to work for wages, they were “left free to apportion among themselves their respective shares, untrammeled . . . by unwise laws,” as Reverend Alonzo Potter rosily proclaimed in 1840. But while the new labor system was celebrated throughout the northern United States as “free labor,” it was simultaneously lamented by a growing powerless class of laborers.

As the northern United States rushed headlong toward commercialization and an early capitalist economy, many Americans grew uneasy with the growing gap between wealthy businessmen and impoverished wage laborers. Elites like Daniel Webster might defend their wealth and privilege by insisting that all workers could achieve “a career of usefulness and enterprise” if they were “industrious and sober,” but labor activist Seth Luther countered that capitalism created “a cruel system of extraction on the bodies and minds of the producing classes . . . for no other object than to enable the ‘rich’ to ‘take care of themselves’ while the poor must work or starve.”

Americans embarked on their Industrial Revolution with the expectation that all men could start their careers as humble wage workers but later achieve positions of ownership and stability with hard work. Wage work had traditionally been looked down on as a state of dependence, suitable only as a temporary waypoint for young men without resources on their path toward the middle class and the economic success necessary to support a wife and children ensconced within the domestic sphere. Children’s magazines—such as Juvenile Miscellany and Parley’s Magazine—glorified the prospect of moving up the economic ladder. This “free labor ideology” provided many northerners with a keen sense of superiority over the slave economy of the southern states.

But the commercial economy often failed in its promise of social mobility. Depressions and downturns might destroy businesses and reduce owners to wage work. Even in times of prosperity unskilled workers might perpetually lack good wages and economic security and therefore had to forever depend on supplemental income from their wives and young children.

Wage workers—a population disproportionately composed of immigrants and poorer Americans—faced low wages, long hours, and dangerous working conditions. Class conflict developed. Instead of the formal inequality of a master-servant contract, employer and employee entered a contract presumably as equals. But hierarchy was evident: employers had financial security and political power; employees faced uncertainty and powerlessness in the workplace. Dependent on the whims of their employers, some workers turned to strikes and unions to pool their resources. In 1825 a group of journeymen in Boston formed a Carpenters’ Union to protest their inability “to maintain a family at the present time, with the wages which are now usually given.” Working men organized unions to assert themselves and win both the respect and the resources due to a breadwinner and a citizen.

For the middle-class managers and civic leaders caught between workers and owners, unions enflamed a dangerous antagonism between employers and employees. They countered any claims of inherent class conflict with the ideology of social mobility. Middle-class owners and managers justified their economic privilege as the natural product of superior character traits, including decision making and hard work. One group of master carpenters denounced their striking journeymen in 1825 with the claim that workers of “industrious and temperate habits, have, in their turn, become thriving and respectable Masters, and the great body of our Mechanics have been enabled to acquire property and respectability, with a just weight and influence in society. In an 1856 speech in Kalamazoo, Michigan, Abraham Lincoln had to assure his audience that the country’s commercial transformation had not reduced American laborers to slavery. Southerners, he said, “insist that their slaves are far better off than Northern freemen. What a mistaken view do these men have of Northern labourers! They think that men are always to remain labourers here—but there is no such class. The man who laboured for another last year, this year labours for himself. And next year he will hire others to labour for him.” This essential belief undergirded the northern commitment to “free labor” and won the market revolution much widespread acceptance.

 

In the first half of the nineteenth century, families in the northern United States increasingly participated in the cash economy created by the market revolution. The first stirrings of industrialization shifted work away from the home. These changes transformed Americans’ notions of what constituted work and therefore shifted what it meant to be an American woman and an American man. As Americans encountered more goods in stores and produced fewer at home, the ability to remove women and children from work determined a family’s class status. This ideal, of course, ignored the reality of women’s work at home and was possible for only the wealthy. The market revolution therefore not only transformed the economy, it changed the nature of the American family. As the market revolution thrust workers into new systems of production, it redefined gender roles. The market integrated families into a new cash economy. As Americans purchased more goods in stores and produced fewer at home, the purity of the domestic sphere—the idealized realm of women and children—increasingly signified a family’s class status.

Women and children worked to supplement the low wages of many male workers. Around age eleven or twelve, boys could take jobs as office runners or waiters, earning perhaps a dollar a week to support their parents’ incomes. The ideal of an innocent and protected childhood was a privilege for middle- and upper-class families, who might look down upon poor families. Joseph Tuckerman, a Unitarian minister who served poor Bostonians, lamented the lack of discipline and regularity among poor children: “At one hour they are kept at work to procure fuel, or perform some other service; in the next are allowed to go where they will, and to do what they will.” Prevented from attending school, poor children served instead as economic assets for their destitute families.

Meanwhile, the education received by middle-class children provided a foundation for future economic privilege. As artisans lost control over their trades, young men had a greater incentive to invest time in education to find skilled positions later in life. Formal schooling was especially important for young men who desired apprenticeships in retail or commercial work. Enterprising instructors established schools to assist “young gentlemen preparing for mercantile and other pursuits, who may wish for an education superior to that usually obtained in the common schools, but different from a college education, and better adapted to their particular business,” such as that organized in 1820 by Warren Colburn of Boston. In response to this need, the Boston School Committee created the English High School (as opposed to the Latin School) that could “give a child an education that shall fit him for active life, and shall serve as a foundation for eminence in his profession, whether Mercantile or Mechanical” beyond that “which our public schools can now furnish.”

“The Sphere of Woman,” Godey’s Lady’s Book vol. 40 (March 1850): 209. University of Virginia.

Education equipped young women with the tools to live sophisticated, genteel lives. After sixteen-year-old Elizabeth Davis left home in 1816 to attend school, her father explained that the experience would “lay a foundation for your future character & respectability.” After touring the United States in the 1830s, Alexis de Tocqueville praised the independence granted to the young American woman, who had “the great scene of the world . . . open to her” and whose education prepared her to exercise both reason and moral sense. Middling young women also used their education to take positions as schoolteachers in the expanding common school system. Bristol Academy in Taunton, Massachusetts, for instance, advertised “instruction . . . in the art of teaching” for female pupils. In 1825, Nancy Denison left Concord Academy with references indicating that she was “qualified to teach with success and profit” and “very cheerfully recommend[ed]” for “that very responsible employment.”

Middle-class youths found opportunities for respectable employment through formal education, but poor youths remained in marginalized positions. Their families’ desperate financial state kept them from enjoying the fruits of education. When pauper children did receive teaching through institutions such as the House of Refuge in New York City, they were often simultaneously indentured to successful families to serve as field hands or domestic laborers. The Society for the Reformation of Juvenile Delinquents in New York City sent its wards to places like Sylvester Lusk’s farm in Enfield, Connecticut. Lusk took boys to learn “the trade and mystery of farming” and girls to learn “the trade and mystery of housewifery.” In exchange for “sufficient Meat, Drink, Apparel, Lodging, and Washing, fitting for an Apprentice,” and a rudimentary education, the apprentices promised obedience, morality, and loyalty. Poor children also found work in factories such as Samuel Slater’s textile mills in southern New England. Slater published a newspaper advertisement for “four or five active Lads, about 15 Years of Age to serve as Apprentices in the Cotton Factory.”

And so, during the early nineteenth century, opportunities for education and employment often depended on a given family’s class. In colonial America, nearly all children worked within their parent’s chosen profession, whether it be agricultural or artisanal. During the market revolution, however, more children were able to postpone employment. Americans aspired to provide a “Romantic Childhood”—a period in which boys and girls were sheltered within the home and nurtured through primary schooling. This ideal was available to families that could survive without their children’s labor. As these children matured, their early experiences often determined whether they entered respectable, well-paying positions or became dependent workers with little prospects for social mobility.

Just as children were expected to be sheltered from the adult world of work, American culture expected men and women to assume distinct gender roles as they prepared for marriage and family life. An ideology of “separate spheres” set the public realm—the world of economic production and political life—apart as a male domain, and the world of consumers and domestic life as a female one. (Even nonworking women labored by shopping for the household, producing food and clothing, cleaning, educating children, and performing similar activities. But these were considered “domestic” because they did not bring money into the household, although they too were essential to the household’s economic viability.) While reality muddied the ideal, the divide between a private, female world of home and a public, male world of business defined American gender hierarchy.

The idea of separate spheres also displayed a distinct class bias. Middle and upper classes reinforced their status by shielding “their” women from the harsh realities of wage labor. Women were to be mothers and educators, not partners in production. But lower-class women continued to contribute directly to the household economy. The middle- and upper-class ideal was feasible only in households where women did not need to engage in paid labor. In poorer households, women engaged in wage labor as factory workers, pieceworkers producing items for market consumption, tavern- and innkeepers, and domestic servants. While many of the fundamental tasks women performed remained the same—producing clothing, cultivating vegetables, overseeing dairy production, and performing any number of other domestic labors—the key difference was whether and when they performed these tasks for cash in a market economy.

Domestic expectations constantly changed and the market revolution transformed many women’s traditional domestic tasks. Cloth production, for instance, advanced throughout the market revolution as new mechanized production increased the volume and variety of fabrics available to ordinary people. This relieved many better-off women of a traditional labor obligation. As cloth production became commercialized, women’s home-based cloth production became less important to household economies. Purchasing cloth and, later, ready-made clothes began to transform women from producers to consumers. One woman from Maine, Martha Ballard, regularly referenced spinning, weaving, and knitting in the diary she kept from 1785 to 1812. Martha, her daughters, and her female neighbors spun and plied linen and woolen yarns and used them to produce a variety of fabrics to make clothing for her family. The production of cloth and clothing was a year-round, labor-intensive process, but it was for home consumption, not commercial markets.

In cities, where women could buy cheap imported cloth to turn into clothing, they became skilled consumers. They stewarded money earned by their husbands by comparing values and haggling over prices. In one typical experience, Mrs. Peter Simon, a captain’s wife, inspected twenty-six yards of Holland cloth to ensure that it was worth the £130 price. Even wealthy women shopped for high-value goods. While servants or enslaved people routinely made low-value purchases, the mistress of the household trusted her discriminating eye alone for expensive or specific purchases.

Women might also parlay their skills into businesses. In addition to working as seamstresses, milliners, or laundresses, women might undertake paid work for neighbors or acquaintances or combine clothing production with management of a boardinghouse. Even enslaved laborers with particular skill at producing clothing could be hired out for a higher price or might even negotiate to work part-time for themselves. Most enslaved people, however, continued to produce domestic items, including simpler cloths and clothing, for home consumption.

Thomas Horner, “Broadway, New York,” 1836. Smithsonian American Art Museum.

Similar domestic expectations played out in the slave states. Enslaved women labored in the fields. Whites argued that African American women were less delicate and womanly than white women and therefore perfectly suited for agricultural labor. The southern ideal meanwhile established that white plantation mistresses were shielded from manual labor because of their very whiteness. Throughout the slave states, however, aside from the minority of plantations with dozens of enslaved laborers, most white women by necessity continued to assist with planting, harvesting, and processing agricultural projects despite the cultural stigma attached to it. White southerners continued to produce large portions of their food and clothing at home. Even when they were market-oriented producers of cash crops, white southerners still insisted that their adherence to plantation slavery and racial hierarchy made them morally superior to greedy northerners and their callous, cutthroat commerce. Southerners and northerners increasingly saw their ways of life as incompatible.

While the market revolution remade many women’s economic roles, their legal status remained essentially unchanged. Upon marriage, women were rendered legally dead by the notion of coverture, the custom that counted married couples as a single unit represented by the husband. Without special precautions or interventions, women could not earn their own money, own their own property, sue, or be sued. Any money earned or spent belonged by law to their husbands. Women shopped on their husbands’ credit and at any time husbands could terminate their wives’ access to their credit. Although a handful of states made divorce available—divorce had before only been legal in Congregationalist states such as Massachusetts and Connecticut, where marriage was strictly a civil contract rather than a religious one—it remained extremely expensive, difficult, and rare. Marriage was typically a permanently binding legal contract.

Ideas of marriage, if not the legal realities, began to change. The late eighteenth and early nineteenth century marked the beginning of the shift from “institutional” to “companionate” marriage. Institutional marriages were primarily labor arrangements that maximized the couple’s and their children’s chances of surviving and thriving. Men and women assessed each other’s skills as they related to household production, although looks and personality certainly entered into the equation. But in the late eighteenth century, under the influence of Enlightenment thought, young people began to privilege character and compatibility in their potential partners. Money was still essential: marriages prompted the largest redistributions of property prior to the settling of estates at death. But the means of this redistribution was changing. Especially in the North, land became a less important foundation for matchmaking as wealthy young men became not only farmers and merchants but bankers, clerks, or professionals. The increased emphasis on affection and attraction that young people embraced was facilitated by an increasingly complex economy that offered new ways to store, move, and create wealth, which liberalized the criteria by which families evaluated potential in-laws.

To be considered a success in family life, a middle-class American man typically aspired to own a comfortable home and to marry a woman of strong morals and religious conviction who would take responsibility for raising virtuous, well-behaved children. The duties of the middle-class husband and wife would be clearly delineated into separate spheres. The husband alone was responsible for creating wealth and engaging in the commerce and politics—the public sphere. The wife was responsible for the private—keeping a good home, being careful with household expenses, and raising children, inculcating them with the middle-class virtues that would ensure their future success. But for poor families, sacrificing the potential economic contributions of wives and children was an impossibility.

 

More than five million immigrants arrived in the United States between 1820 and 1860. Irish, German, and Jewish immigrants sought new lives and economic opportunities. By the Civil War, nearly one out of every eight Americans had been born outside the United States. A series of push and pull factors drew immigrants to the United States.

In England, an economic slump prompted Parliament to modernize British agriculture by revoking common land rights for Irish farmers. These policies generally targeted Catholics in the southern counties of Ireland and motivated many to seek greater opportunity elsewhere. The booming American economy pulled Irish immigrants toward ports along the eastern United States. Between 1820 and 1840, over 250,000 Irish immigrants arrived in the United States. Without the capital and skills required to purchase and operate farms, Irish immigrants settled primarily in northeastern cities and towns and performed unskilled work. Irish men usually emigrated alone and, when possible, practiced what became known as chain migration. Chain migration allowed Irish men to send portions of their wages home, which would then be used either to support their families in Ireland or to purchase tickets for relatives to come to the United States. Irish immigration followed this pattern into the 1840s and 1850s, when the infamous Irish Famine sparked a massive exodus out of Ireland. Between 1840 and 1860, 1.7 million Irish fled starvation and the oppressive English policies that accompanied it. As they entered manual, unskilled labor positions in urban America’s dirtiest and most dangerous occupations, Irish workers in northern cities were compared to African Americans, and anti-immigrant newspapers portrayed them with apelike features. Despite hostility, Irish immigrants retained their social, cultural, and religious beliefs and left an indelible mark on American culture.

While the Irish settled mostly in coastal cities, most German immigrants used American ports and cities as temporary waypoints before settling in the rural countryside. Over 1.5 million immigrants from the various German states arrived in the United States during the antebellum era. Although some southern Germans fled declining agricultural conditions and repercussions of the failed revolutions of 1848, many Germans simply sought steadier economic opportunity. German immigrants tended to travel as families and carried with them skills and capital that enabled them to enter middle-class trades. Germans migrated to the Old Northwest to farm in rural areas and practiced trades in growing communities such as St. Louis, Cincinnati, and Milwaukee, three cities that formed what came to be called the German Triangle.

Catholic and Jewish Germans transformed regions of the republic. Although records are sparse, New York’s Jewish population rose from approximately five hundred in 1825 to forty thousand in 1860. Similar gains were seen in other American cities. Jewish immigrants hailing from southwestern Germany and parts of occupied Poland moved to the United States through chain migration and as family units. Unlike other Germans, Jewish immigrants rarely settled in rural areas. Once established, Jewish immigrants found work in retail, commerce, and artisanal occupations such as tailoring. They quickly found their footing and established themselves as an intrinsic part of the American market economy. Just as Irish immigrants shaped the urban landscape through the construction of churches and Catholic schools, Jewish immigrants erected synagogues and made their mark on American culture.

The sudden influx of immigration triggered a backlash among many native-born Anglo-Protestant Americans. This nativist movement, especially fearful of the growing Catholic presence, sought to limit European immigration and prevent Catholics from establishing churches and other institutions. Popular in northern cities such as Boston, Chicago, Philadelphia, and other cities with large Catholic populations, nativism even spawned its own political party in the 1850s. The American Party, more commonly known as the Know-Nothing Party, found success in local and state elections throughout the North. The party even nominated candidates for president in 1852 and 1856. The rapid rise of the Know-Nothings, reflecting widespread anti-Catholic and anti-immigrant sentiment, slowed European immigration. Immigration declined precipitously after 1855 as nativism, the Crimean War, and improving economic conditions in Europe discouraged potential migrants from traveling to the United States. Only after the American Civil War would immigration levels match and eventually surpass the levels seen in the 1840s and 1850s.

In industrial northern cities, Irish immigrants swelled the ranks of the working class and quickly encountered the politics of industrial labor. Many workers formed trade unions during the early republic. Organizations such as Philadelphia’s Federal Society of Journeymen Cordwainers or the Carpenters’ Union of Boston operated within specific industries in major American cities. These unions worked to protect the economic power of their members by creating closed shops—workplaces wherein employers could only hire union members—and striking to improve working conditions. Political leaders denounced these organizations as unlawful combinations and conspiracies to promote the narrow self-interest of workers above the rights of property holders and the interests of the common good. Unions did not become legally acceptable until 1842 when the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court ruled in favor of a union organized among Boston bootmakers, arguing that the workers were capable of acting “in such a manner as best to subserve their own interests.” Even after the case, unions remained in a precarious legal position.

This anti-Catholic print depicts Catholic priests arriving by boat and then threatening Uncle Sam and a young Protestant boy who holds out a Bible in resistance. An anti-Catholic cartoon, reflecting the nativist perception of the threat posed by the Roman Church’s influence in the United States through Irish immigration and Catholic education. N. Currier, “The Propagation Society, More Free than Welcome,” 1855. Library of Congress.

In the 1840s, labor activists organized to limit working hours and protect children in factories. The New England Association of Farmers, Mechanics and Other Workingmen (NEA) mobilized to establish a ten-hour workday across industries. They argued that the ten-hour day would improve the immediate conditions of laborers by allowing “time and opportunities for intellectual and moral improvement.” After a citywide strike in Boston in 1835, the Ten-Hour Movement quickly spread to other major cities such as Philadelphia. The campaign for leisure time was part of the male working-class effort to expose the hollowness of the paternalistic claims of employers and their rhetoric of moral superiority.

Women, a dominant labor source for factories since the early 1800s, launched some of the earliest strikes for better conditions. Textile operatives in Lowell, Massachusetts, “turned out” (walked off) their jobs in 1834 and 1836. During the Ten-Hour Movement of the 1840s, female operatives provided crucial support. Under the leadership of Sarah Bagley, the Lowell Female Labor Reform Association organized petition drives that drew thousands of signatures from “mill girls.” Like male activists, Bagley and her associates used the desire for mental improvement as a central argument for reform. An 1847 editorial in the Voice of Industry, a labor newspaper published by Bagley, asked, “who, after thirteen hours of steady application to monotonous work, can sit down and apply her mind to deep and long continued thought?” Despite the widespread support for a ten-hour day, the movement achieved only partial success. President Martin Van Buren established a ten-hour-day policy for laborers on federal public works projects. New Hampshire passed a statewide law in 1847, and Pennsylvania followed a year later. Both states, however, allowed workers to voluntarily consent to work more than ten hours per day.

In 1842, child labor became a dominant issue in the American labor movement. The protection of child laborers gained more middle-class support than the protection of adult workers. A petition from parents in Fall River, a southern Massachusetts mill town that employed a high portion of child workers, asked the legislature for a law “prohibiting the employment of children in manufacturing establishments at an age and for a number of hours which must be permanently injurious to their health and inconsistent with the education which is essential to their welfare.” Massachusetts quickly passed a law prohibiting children under age twelve from working more than ten hours a day. By the midnineteenth century, every state in New England had followed Massachusetts’s lead. Between the 1840s and 1860s, these statutes slowly extended the age of protection of labor and the assurance of schooling. Throughout the region, public officials agreed that young children (between ages nine and twelve) should be prevented from working in dangerous occupations, and older children (between ages twelve and fifteen) should balance their labor with education and time for leisure.

Male workers sought to improve their income and working conditions to create a household that kept women and children protected within the domestic sphere. But labor gains were limited, and the movement remained moderate. Despite its challenge to industrial working conditions, labor activism in antebellum America remained largely wedded to the free labor ideal. The labor movement later supported the northern free soil movement, which challenged the spread of slavery in the 1840s, simultaneously promoting the superiority of the northern system of commerce over the southern institution of slavery while trying, much less successfully, to reform capitalism.

 

During the early nineteenth century, southern agriculture produced by enslaved labor fueled northern industry produced by wage workers and managed by the new middle class. New transportation, new machinery, and new organizations of labor integrated the previously isolated pockets of the colonial economy into a national industrial operation. Industrialization and the cash economy tied diverse regions together at the same time that ideology drove Americans apart. By celebrating the freedom of contract that distinguished the wage worker from the indentured servant of previous generations or the enslaved laborer in the southern cotton field, political leaders claimed the American Revolution’s legacy for the North. But the rise of industrial child labor, the demands of workers to unionize, the economic vulnerability of women, and the influx of non-Anglo immigrants left many Americans questioning the meaning of liberty after the market revolution.

 

1. James Madison asks Congress to support internal improvements, 1815

After the War of 1812, Americans looked to strengthen their nation through government spending on infrastructure, or what were then called internal improvements. In his seventh annual address to congress, Madison called for public investment to create national roads, canals, and even a national seminary. He also called for a tariff, or tax on certain imports, designed to make foreign goods more expensive, giving American producers an advantage in domestic markets. 

2. A traveler describes life along the Erie Canal, 1829

Basil Hall, a British visitor traveled along the Erie Canal and took careful notes on what he found. In this excerpt, he described life in Rochester, New York. Rochester, and other small towns in upstate New York, grew rapidly as a result of the Erie Canal. 

3. Blacksmith apprentice contract, 1836

The factories and production of the Market Revolution eroded the wealth and power of skilled small business owners called artisans. This indenture contract illustrated the former way of doing things, where a young person would agree to serve for a number of years as an apprentice to a skilled artisan before venturing out on his own. 

4. Maria Stewart bemoans the consequences of racism, 1832

Maria Stewart electrified audiences in Boston with a number of powerful speeches. Her most common theme was the evil of slavery. However, here she attacks the soul-crushing consequences of racism in American capitalism, claiming that the lack of social and economic equality doomed Black Americans to a life of suffering and spiritual death.

5. Rebecca Burlend recalls her emigration from England to Illinois, 1848

Rebecca Burlend, her husband, and children emigrated to Illinois from England in 1831. These reflections describe her reaction to landing in New Orleans, sailing up the Mississippi to St. Louis, and finally arriving at her new home in Illinois. This was her first experience encountering American slavery, the American landscape, and the rugged living conditions of her new home. 

6. Harriet H. Robinson remembers a mill workers’ strike, 1836

The social upheavals of the Market Revolution created new tensions between rich and poor, particularly between the new class of workers and the new class of managers. Lowell, Massachusetts was the location of the first American factory. In this document, a woman reminisces about a strike that she participated in at a Lowell textile mill. 

7. Alexis de Toqueville, “How Americans Understand the Equality of the Sexes,” 1840

The French political thinker Alexis de Toqueville travelled extensively through the United States in gathering research for his book Democracy In America. In this excerpt, he described the belief that American men and women lived in “separate spheres:” men in public, women in the home. This expectation justified the denial of rights to women. All women were denied political rights in nineteenth century America, but only a small number of wealthy families could afford to remove women from economic production, like de Toqueville claimed.

8. Abolitionist sheet music cover page, 1844

The “transportation revolution” shaped economic change in the early 1800s, but the massive construction of railroads also had a profound impact on American politics and culture. This sheet music title page shows how abolitionists used railroad imagery to advocate for the immediate emancipation of enslaved people and to promote their political platform before the 1844 presidential election.

9. Anti-Catholic cartoon, 1855

Irish immigration transformed American cities. Yet many Americans greeted the new arrivals with suspicion or hostility. Nathanial Currier’s anti-Catholic cartoon reflected the popular American perception that Irish Catholic immigrants posed a threat to the United States. 

 

This chapter was edited by Jane Fiegen Green, with content contributions by Kelly Arehart, Myles Beaurpre, Kristin Condotta, Jane Fiegen Green, Nathan Jeremie-Brink, Lindsay Keiter, Brenden Kennedy, William Kerrigan, Christopher Sawula, David Schley, and Evgenia Shayder Shoop.

Recommended citation: Kelly Arehart et al., “Market Revolution,” Jane Fiegen Green, ed., in The American Yawp, eds. Joseph Locke and Ben Wright (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2018).

 

Recommended Reading

  • Balleisen, Edward J. Navigating Failure: Bankruptcy and Commercial Society in Antebellum America. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2001.
  • Blewett, Mary H. Men, Women, and Work: Class, Gender, and Protest in the New England Shoe Industry, 1780–1910. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1988.
  • Boydston, Jeanne. Home and Work: Housework, Wages, and the Ideology of Labor in the Early Republic. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990.
  • Dublin, Thomas. Transforming Women’s Work: New England Lives in the Industrial Revolution. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1994.
  • Faler, Paul G. Mechanics and Manufacturers in the Early Industrial Revolution: Lynn, Massachusetts, 1760–1860. Albany: SUNY Press, 1981.
  • Foner, Eric. Free Soil, Free Labor, Free Men: The Ideology of the Republican Party Before the Civil War. New York: Oxford University Press, 1970.
  • Greenberg, Joshua R. Advocating the Man: Masculinity, Organized Labor, and the Household in New York, 1800–1840. New York: Columbia University Press, 2008.
  • Halttunen, Karen. Confidence Men and Painted Women: A Study of Middle-Class Culture in America, 1830–1870. Yale University Press, 1982.
  • Hartigan-O’Connor, Ellen. The Ties That Buy: Women and Commerce in Revolutionary America. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2009.
  • Howe, Daniel Walker. What Hath God Wrought: The Transformation of America, 1815–1848. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007.
  • Innes, Stephen, ed. Work and Labor in Early America. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1988.
  • Jabour, Anya. Marriage in the Early Republic: Elizabeth and William Wirt and the Companionate Ideal. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1998.
  • Larson, John Lauritz. The Market Revolution in America: Liberty, Ambition, and the Eclipse of the Common Good. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2010.
  • Levy, Jonathan. Freaks of Fortune: The Emerging World of Capitalism and Risk in America. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2012.
  • Luskey, Brian P. On the Make: Clerks and the Quest for Capital in Nineteenth-Century America. New York: New York University Press, 2010.
  • Matson, Cathy, and Wendy A. Woloson. Risky Business: Winning and Losing in the Early American Economy, 1780–1850. Philadelphia: Library Company of Philadelphia, 2003.
  • McNeur, Catherine. Taming Manhattan: Environmental Battles in the Antebellum City. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2014.
  • Melish, Joanne Pope. Disowning Slavery: Gradual Emancipation and “Race” in New England, 1780–1860. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1998.
  • Mihm, Stephen. A Nation of Counterfeiters: Capitalists, Con Men, and the Making of the United States. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2009.
  • Murphy, Teresa Anne. Ten Hours’ Labor: Religion, Reform, and Gender in Early New England. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1992.
  • Rice, Stephen P. Minding the Machine: Languages of Class in Early Industrial America. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2004.
  • Rothenberg, Winifred Barr. From Market-Places to a Market Economy: The Transformation of Rural Massachusetts, 1750–1850. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992.
  • Ryan, Mary P. Cradle of the Middle Class: The Family in Oneida County, New York, 1790–1865. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1981.
  • Sellers, Charles Grier. The Market Revolution: Jacksonian America, 1815–1846. New York: Oxford University Press, 1991.
  • Tucker, Barbara M. Samuel Slater and the Origins of the American Textile Industry, 1790–1860. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1984.

Notes

69 Boyz – Tootsee roll Lyrics (Video)

Tootsee roll by 69 Boyz


The butterfly oo thats old

Let me see that tootse roll

Yeah 1994 69 boyz backed up by Quad City D.J.

One time

Cotten candy sweet and low let me see that tootsie roll

Yeah,tootsie roll

Let me see that tootsie roll

Get up and roll just make that tootsie roll

Cotton candy, sweet and low, let me see that tootsie roll

Come on, tootsie roll, just make that tootsie roll

Here we go, tootsie roll, just make that tootsie roll,

Yeah,tootsie roll

Let me see that tootsie roll

Get up and roll just make that tootsie roll

To the left, to the left, to the right, to the right

To the front, to the front, to the back, to the back

Now slide, slide baby slide, just slide baby slide

just slide baby slide, come on come on

To the left, to the left, to the right, to the right

To the front, to the front, to the back, to the back

Now dip baby dip, come on let’s dip baby dip baby

Dip baby just dip, baby dip baby dip

Just Dip, Cotton Candy sweet and low

let me see that tootsie roll

I don’t know what you’ve been told

It ain’t the butterfly it’s the tootsie roll

A brand new dance so,

Grab a partner get on the dance floor

And work them hips a little bit

and do that dip a little bit

Oh yeah, you got it, no ifs, ands,no buts about it

And you over there with the long hair

Keep workin that derriere, cause it ain’t hard

Just a brand new dance for the 1991

69 is the place to be, a yo Skee, what we came to see

Cotton candy,sweet and low, let me see your tootsie roll

Here we go, come on, tootsie roll, come on, tootsie roll

Let me see your tootsie roll

Come on, tootsie roll, just dip that tootsie roll and tootsie roll

Here we go tootsie roll

Just I feel a whoop comin up, a whoop comin up,

I just feel a whoop comin up, a whoop comin up,

Whoop, come on, whoop, come on

Whoop, yeah come on come on and,

Whoop whoop whoop, yeah baby

Cotton candy, sweet and low

Let me see that tootsie roll

Come on tootsie roll, just make that tootsie roll

Yeah tootsie roll, gotta go make your tootsie roll

Here we go tootsie roll, just make that tootsie roll

I want to see your tootsie roll, just make them tootsie roll

To the left, to the left, to the right, to the right

To the front, to the front, to the back, to the back

Now slide, slide, slide, slide

Now slide, slide, slide, slide

I feel a whoop comin on a whoop comin on

5, 4, 3, 2, 1

Come on whoop, whoop, whoop, whoop

Come on whoop, whoop, whoop, whoop

Cotton Candy sweet and low

Let me see that tootsie roll

I don’t know what you’ve been told

It ain’t the butterfly it’s the tootsie roll

A brand new dance so,

Grab a partner get on the dance floor

69 is the place to be, a yo Skee, what we came to see

Come on flow, oh oh let’s go, let me see that tootsie roll

Here we go, come on, tootsie roll, come on, tootsie roll

Let me see your tootsie roll

Come on, tootsie roll, just dip that tootsie roll and tootsie roll

Here we go tootsie roll, just tootsie roll

To the left, to the left, to the right, to the right

To the front, to the front, to the back, to the back

Now slide, slide, slide, slide

Now slide, slide, slide, slide, come on come on

To the left, to the left, to the right, to the right

To the front, to the front, to the back, to the back

Now dip baby dip, come on let’s dip baby dip

Dip baby dip, just dip baby dip baby dip just dip

I feel a whoop comin on, a whoop comin on,

I feel a whoop comin on, a whoop comin on,

Oh here we go

Now whoop, whoop, whoop, whoop

Come on let’s, whoop, whoop

Oh baby baby

Just roll, just roll, just roll

Bluegrass Lyrics – Ad-Free Lyrics for Traditional Bluegrass and Early Country Songs

Bluegrass Lyrics – Ad-Free Lyrics for Traditional Bluegrass and Early Country Songs

Skip to content

  • A Beautiful Life
  • A Broken Tie
  • A Dark Starless Night
  • A Distant Land To Roam
  • A Face In The Crowd
  • A Faded Red Ribbon
  • A Fallen Star
  • A Few More Seasons
  • A Few More Years
  • A Few Old Memories
  • A Flower Blooming in the Wildwood
  • A Fool Such As I
  • A Gift Of Love
  • A Good Woman’s Love
  • A Hundred Years From Now
  • A Letter To Tom
  • A Life Of Sorrow
  • A Little Boy Called Joe
  • A Lonesome Night
  • A Lonesome Road to Travel
  • A Man Of Constant Sorrow
  • A Memory Of You
  • A Pretty Wreath For Mother’s Grave
  • A Rose Among the Thorns
  • A Satisfied Mind
  • A Sweeter Love Than Yours I’ll Never Know
  • A Tiny Broken Heart
  • A Train Leaves Here This Mornin’
  • A Vision Of Mother
  • A Voice From On High
  • A White Cross Marks The Grave
  • A Year Ago Today
  • Abilene
  • Acony Bell
  • Across The Blue Sea
  • Across the Sea Blues
  • Adieu False Heart
  • After The Fire Is Gone
  • Age
  • Ages and Ages Ago
  • Ain’t Gonna Work Tomorrow
  • Ain’t I Been Good to You
  • Ain’t No Grave
  • Ain’t Nobody Gonna Miss Me
  • Air Mail Special
  • Alabama
  • Alabama Bound
  • Alabama Waltz
  • Alcatraz Blues
  • Alive And Alone
  • All I Ever Loved Was You
  • All I Have Is Just A Memory
  • All I Want is You
  • All In My Love For You
  • All My Ex’s Live In Texas
  • All The Good Times are Past and Gone
  • All The Good Times Are Past And Gone
  • All The Love I Had Is Gone
  • All The World Is Lonely Now
  • Along About Daybreak
  • Always Be Kind To Your Mother
  • Always Late With Your Kisses
  • Am I Born To Die
  • Amazing Grace
  • Amber Tresses Tied In Blue
  • Amelia Earhart
  • An Old Log Cabin For Sale
  • An Old Love Affair
  • An Old Rocking Chair
  • Anchored In Love
  • Anchored To The Shore
  • Angel Band
  • Angel From Montgomery
  • Angels Are Singing, The
  • Angels Rejoiced
  • Angels Rock Me To Sleep
  • Another Broken Heart
  • Another Day
  • Another Day Another Dollar
  • Another Night
  • Another Place Another Time
  • Another Saturday Night
  • Answer To Weeping Willow
  • Anywhere The Wind Blows
  • Aragon Mill
  • Are You Afraid To Die
  • Are You Alone
  • Are You Coming Back To Me?
  • Are You From Dixie
  • Are You Lonesome Tonight
  • Are You Missing Me
  • Are You Teasin’ Me
  • Are You Teasing Me
  • Are You Tired Of Me My Darling
  • Are You Waiting Just For Me
  • Are You Washed In The Blood
  • Arkansas Traveler
  • As Long As I Live
  • Ashes Of Love
  • At The End Of A Long Lonely Day
  • Aunt Dinah’s Quilting Party
  • Avery County
  • Away on a Lonely Dark Hill
  • Away Out On The Saint Sabbath
  • Baby Blue Eyes
  • Baby Girl
  • Baby We’re Really In Love
  • Back In The Saddle Again
  • Back To Dixie
  • Back To The Barrooms
  • Back To The Cross
  • Bald Knob Arkansas
  • Ballad Of Jed Clampett
  • Balo’s Song
  • Banks Of The Ohio
  • Banks Of The Ohio
  • Barbara Allen
  • Barbara Allen
  • Barefoot Nellie
  • Barroom Girls
  • Battle Of New Orleans
  • Be Good To My Little Baby Girl
  • Be Honest With Me
  • Be Proud Of The Grey In Your Hair
  • Be True To Yourself
  • Bear Creek Blues
  • Beautiful Beautiful Brown Eyes
  • Beautiful Bouquet
  • Beautiful Home
  • Beautiful Isle O’Er The Sea
  • Beautiful Moon Of Kentucky
  • Beautiful Star Of Bethlehem
  • Beauty Of My Dream
  • Bed By The Window
  • Bed On The Floor
  • Been All Round This World
  • Before I Met You
  • Before The Cold Winds Blow
  • Before The Sun Goes Down
  • Before You Go
  • Behind These Prison Walls Of Love
  • Behind These Prison Walls Of Love
  • Behind Those Stone Walls
  • Bellville Georgia
  • Better Days To Come
  • Better Late Than Never
  • Better Luck Next Time
  • Better Times A-Coming
  • Big Ball In Boston
  • Big Midnight Special
  • Big Rock Candy Mountain
  • Big Spike Hammer
  • Big Train From Memphis
  • Bile Them Cabbage Down
  • Billy Grey
  • Billy The Kid
  • Birds Were Singing Of You, The
  • Bitter Green
  • Black Eyed Susie
  • Black Jack County Chains
  • Black Jack Davey
  • Blackest Crow
  • Blackie’s Gunman
  • Blue Bonnet Lane
  • Blue Diamond Mines
  • Blue Eyed Boston Boy
  • Blue Eyed Darling
  • Blue Eyes Cryin’ In The Rain
  • Blue Eyes Crying in the Rain
  • Blue Is The Way That I Feel
  • Blue Moon Of Kentucky
  • Blue Night
  • Blue Railroad Train
  • Blue Ridge Cabin Home
  • Blue Ridge Mountain Blues
  • Blue Ridge Mountain Memories
  • Blue Skies And Teardrops
  • Blue Virginia Blues
  • Blue Yodel #4
  • Blue Yodel Number Three
  • Bluebirds Are Singing For Me
  • Bluegrass Express
  • Bluegrass Truck Driver
  • Blues For Your Own
  • Blues In My Mind
  • Blues Stay Away From Me
  • Body And Soul
  • Bonaparte’s Retreat
  • Bonnie Blue Eyes
  • Bootleg John
  • Born To Lose
  • Bound To Ride
  • Bouquet In Heaven
  • Bramble And The Rose, The
  • Brand New Broken Heart
  • Brand New Shoes
  • Brand New Tennessee Waltz
  • Bravest Cowboy
  • Bright Morning Stars
  • Brighter Mansions
  • Bring Back My Blue Eyed Boy
  • Bring Back My Blue-Eyed Boy To Me
  • Bring On The Blues
  • Bringing In The Georgia Mail
  • Bringing Mary Home
  • Broken Down Tramp
  • Broken Engagement
  • Broken Hearted Lover
  • Brother I’m Getting Ready To Go
  • Brown Eyed Kentucky Girl
  • Brown Mountain Light
  • Brown’s Ferry Blues
  • Bubbles In My Beer
  • Buddies In The Saddle
  • Buffalo Gals
  • Build My Mansion
  • Bully Of The Town
  • Bummin’ An Old Freight Train
  • Bury Me Beneath The Pines
  • Bury Me Beneath The Willow
  • Bury Me Not on the Lone Prairie
  • By The Mark
  • By The Side Of The Road
  • By The Touch Of Her Hand
  • Cabin Home On The Hill
  • Cabin In Caroline
  • Cabin Of Love
  • Cabin On A Mountain
  • Cabin On The Hill
  • California Blues
  • California Cotton Fields
  • Call Me Long Gone
  • Camping In Canaan’s Land
  • Can’t Stay Here Anymore
  • Can’t You Hear Me Calling
  • Cannonball Blues
  • Cannonball, The
  • Careless Love
  • Carolina Sunshine Girl
  • Carolina In The Pines
  • Carolina Pines
  • Carolina Star
  • Carry Me Back To The Bluegrass
  • Carry Me Back To The Mountains
  • Carter’s Blues
  • Casey Jones
  • Cash On The Barrelhead
  • Catfish John
  • Chalk Up Another One
  • Changing Partners
  • Charlie And Nellie
  • Charmin’ Betsy
  • Charming Beauty Bright
  • Chattanooga Dog
  • Chattanooga Dog
  • Cheap Love Affair
  • Chewing Gum
  • Childish Love
  • Children Are Crying And Calling Your Name
  • Children Go Where I Send Thee
  • Chittlin’ Cookin’ Time In Cheatham County
  • Christmas Time Back Home
  • Christmas Time Is Coming
  • Church In The Wildwood, The
  • Church Street Blues
  • Cindy
  • City Lights
  • City of Gold
  • Climbing Up The Mountain
  • Clinch Mountain Blues
  • Close By
  • Close The Door Lightly
  • Cloudy Days
  • Cluck Old Hen
  • Coal Miner’s Blues
  • Coat Of Many Colors
  • Cold Cheater’s Heart
  • Cold Cold Heart
  • Cold Gray Tomb of Stone
  • Cold Hard Rain
  • Cold On The Shoulder
  • Cold Wind
  • Colleen Malone
  • Columbus Stockade Blues
  • Come All Ye Fair And Tender Ladies
  • Come Back Darling
  • Come Back To Me In My Dreams
  • Come Go With Me
  • Come Walk With Me
  • Confessing
  • Cora Is Gone
  • Corina Corina
  • Cotton Eyed Joe
  • Could It Be
  • Could You Love Me One More Time
  • Count Me Out
  • Cowboy Jack
  • Cowboy’s Wild Song To His Herd
  • Crawdad
  • Crazy Heart
  • Cripple Creek
  • Crossroads Bar, The
  • Cry Cry Darling
  • Cry From The Cross
  • Cryin’ Heart Blues
  • Cryin’ Holy Unto The Lord
  • Cryin’ My Heart Out Over You
  • Crying Holy To The Lord
  • Cuban Soldier
  • Custom Made Woman Blues
  • Cyclone Of Rye Cove
  • D-18
  • Daddy Sang Bass
  • Daisy Mae
  • Daniel Prayed
  • Danville Girl
  • Darcy Farrow
  • Dark And Stormy Weather
  • Dark and Thorny
  • Dark and Thorny
  • Dark As A Dungeon
  • Dark As The Night
  • Dark Haired True Lover
  • Dark Hollow
  • Dark Road’s A Hard Road To Travel
  • Dark Skies
  • Darkest Hour Is Just Before Dawn, The
  • Darlin Do You Know Who Loves You
  • Darlin Nellie Gray
  • Darlin’ Brown Eyes
  • Darlin’ Corey
  • Darling Corey
  • Darling Daisies
  • Darling Nellie Across The Sea
  • Darling Nellie Across The Sea
  • Darling, I’m Living In The Past
  • Dawn The Day You Left Me, The
  • Dear Companion
  • Dear Old Mother
  • Dear One
  • Death Came Creeping In My Room
  • Death Is Only A Dream
  • Deep Blue Sea
  • Deep Elem Blues
  • Deep River
  • Deep River Blues
  • Deep Water
  • Delaware
  • Detour
  • Devil In Disguise
  • Diamonds In The Rough
  • Did You Ever Go Sailing
  • Didn’t Leave Nobody But The Baby
  • Died A Rounder At Twenty-One
  • Diesel On My Tail
  • Dig A Little Deeper In The Well
  • Dim Lights Thick Smoke
  • Distant Land To Roam
  • Dixieland For Me
  • Do You Wonder Why
  • Does It Have To End This Way
  • Dog Bite Your Hide
  • Dog Gone Shame
  • Dog House Blues
  • Doing My Time
  • Don’t Blame It All On Me
  • Don’t Bother To Cry
  • Don’t Cheat In Our Hometown
  • Don’t Close Your Eyes
  • Don’t Cry to Me
  • Don’t Do It
  • Don’t Drink From A Whiskey Bottle
  • Don’t Ever Leave Me Darlin’
  • Don’t Fence Me In
  • Don’t Forget Me Little Darling
  • Don’t Forget This Song
  • Don’t Get Above Your Raisin’
  • Don’t Give Your Heart To A Gambler
  • Don’t Give Your Heart To A Rambler
  • Don’t Go Out Tonight
  • Don’t Laugh
  • Don’t Let Smokey Mountain Smoke Get In Your Eyes
  • Don’t Let Your Deal Go Down
  • Don’t Let Your Sweet Love Die
  • Don’t Neglect the Rose
  • Don’t Our Love Look Natural
  • Don’t Put Off ’til Tomorrow
  • Don’t Say Goodbye If You Love Me
  • Don’t Sell The Land
  • Don’t Step Over An Old Love
  • Don’t This Road Look Rough And Rocky
  • Don’t Throw Your Life Away
  • Don’t Worry ’bout the Mule, Just Load the Wagon
  • Don’t You Call My Name
  • Don’t You See That Train
  • Dooley
  • Down Among The Budded Roses
  • Down At The End Of Memory Lane
  • Down Down Down
  • Down In Caroline
  • Down In The Valley
  • Down In The Willow Garden
  • Down the Line
  • Down The Road
  • Down To The River To Pray
  • Down To The Valley To Pray
  • Down Where The River Bends
  • Dream Of A Miner’s Child
  • Dream Of Me
  • Dreaming
  • Dreaming Of A Little Cabin
  • Dreams
  • Drifting Too Far From The Shore
  • Drifting With The Tide
  • Drink Up And Go Home
  • Driving Nails In My Coffin
  • Drowning Sailor
  • Drunkard’s Hell
  • Dust Bowl Children
  • Dust On The Bible
  • Dying A Sinner’s Death
  • Dying Californian
  • Dying Mother, The
  • Dying Soldier, The
  • Each Night I Dream of You Darling
  • Each Season Changes You
  • East Bound Freight Train
  • East Virginia Blues
  • Eating Out Of Your Hand
  • Eight More Miles To Louisville
  • Eight Thirty Blues
  • Eighteen Wheels
  • Emotions
  • End Of Memory Lane
  • End Of The Line
  • End of the Road
  • Endless Highway
  • Engine 143
  • Evening Bells Are Ringing
  • Evening Train, The
  • Every Time You Say Good-Bye
  • Everybody Wants To Go To Heaven
  • Face Lost In The Crowd
  • Faded Coat Of Blue
  • Faded Flowers
  • Faded Love
  • Faded Love and Winter Roses
  • Fair And Tender Ladies
  • Falling Leaves
  • Far Cry
  • Farewell Nellie
  • Farewell, Nellie
  • Farther Along
  • Fate Of Dewey Lee, The
  • Father Son and Holy Ghost
  • Fields Have Turned Brown, The
  • Fifty Miles of Elbow Room
  • Find ‘Em Fool ‘Em And Leave ‘Em Alone
  • Fireball Mail
  • First Whippoorwill, The
  • Flame in my Heart
  • Flowers Of Love
  • Fly Around My Blue-Eyed Gal
  • Fly Around My Pretty Little Miss
  • Foggy Mountain Top
  • Foggy River
  • Fond Affection
  • Foolish Pride
  • Footprints In The Snow
  • Footsteps So Near
  • Forest For The Trees
  • Forgive Me
  • Forsaken Love
  • Forty Four Gun
  • Forty Years Of Trouble
  • Four Walls Around Me
  • Four-Twenty Special
  • Fox On The Run
  • Francis Lee
  • Frankie And Johnnie
  • Free Born Man
  • Free Little Bird
  • Freeborn Man
  • Freigh Train
  • Freight Train Blues
  • Freight Train Boogie
  • Froggy Went A’ Courtin’
  • From Cotton To Satin
  • From Now On I Won’t Be Hanging Around
  • From The Manger To The Cross
  • From Your Heart To Mine
  • Fugitive Breakdown
  • Fugitive’s Lament
  • Funny When You Feel That Way
  • Galveston Flood
  • Gathering Flowers For The Master’s Bouquet
  • Gathering Flowers From The Hillside
  • Get On Up
  • Getting Over You
  • Ginsing Sullivan
  • Girl From The North Country
  • Girl In The Blue Velvet Band
  • Girl On The Greenbriar Shore
  • Give Him One More As He Goes
  • Give Me Flowers My While I’m Living
  • Give Me The Roses While I Live
  • Give Me Your Love And I’ll Give You Mine
  • Glory To The Lamb
  • Go Home
  • Go Out And Find Somebody New
  • Go Tell Aunt Rodie
  • God Gave Noah The Rainbow Sign
  • God Loves His Children
  • God’s Highway
  • Goin Where I’ve Never Been Before
  • Goin’ Up
  • Going ’round This World
  • Going Across the Mountain
  • Going Back To The Blue Ridge Mountains
  • Going Home To Stay
  • Going To The West
  • Going to Write Me a Letter
  • Gold Watch And Chain
  • Golden Rocket
  • Gone And Left Me Blues
  • Gone But Not Forgotten
  • Gone Home
  • Gonna Lay Down My Old Guitar
  • Gonna Settle Down
  • Good Bunch of Biscuits
  • Goodbye Old Pal
  • Goodbye To The Plains
  • Gospel Plow
  • Gospel Ship
  • Gotta Travel On
  • Grand Ole Opry Song
  • Grandpa’s Mandolin
  • Grapes On The Vine
  • Grave In The Valley
  • Grave On The Green Hillside
  • Green Pastures
  • Green Rollin Hills
  • Greenlight On The Southern
  • Groundhog
  • Gum Tree Canoe
  • Half As Much
  • Hallelujah I’m Ready
  • Handmade Cross
  • Handsome Molly
  • Hang Your Head In Shame
  • Happiest Days Of All, The
  • Happy I’ll Be
  • Happy In Prison
  • Happy On My Way
  • Happy Or Lonesome
  • Happy Sunny Side Of Life, The
  • Harbor Of Love
  • Hard Ain’t It Hard
  • Hard Game of Love
  • Hard Hearted
  • Hard Luck in Heaven
  • Hard Rocking Chair
  • Hard Times Come Again No More
  • Hard Traveling
  • Have A Feast Here Tonight
  • Have You Come To Say Goodbye
  • Have You Someone In Heaven Awaiting
  • He Delivered Me
  • He Never Came Back
  • He Took White Roses From Her Hair
  • He Took Your Place
  • He Will Set Your Fields On Fire
  • He’ll Take You In
  • Head Of The Holler
  • Head Over Heels
  • Heading Back to Arkansas
  • Hear Jerusalem Moan
  • Heart and Soul
  • Heart That Was Broken For Me, The
  • Heartstrings
  • Heaven’s Radio
  • Heavy Traffic Ahead
  • Hello Central, Give Me Heaven
  • Hello City Limits
  • Hello Stranger
  • Hemlocks And Primroses
  • Her Sweet Love’s Calling Me
  • Here Today
  • Hey Hey Bartender
  • Hey Hey Hey
  • Hide Me Oh Blessed Rock of Ages
  • Hideaway
  • High Lonesome Sound
  • High On A Hilltop
  • High On A Mountain
  • Highway Forty Blues
  • Highway Of Regret
  • Highway Of Sorrow
  • Hills and Home
  • Hills of Home
  • Hills Of Roane County
  • Hit Parade Of Love
  • Hobo Bill’s Last Ride
  • Hobo Blues
  • Hold Fast To The Right
  • Hold To God’s Unchanging Hand
  • Hold Watcha Got
  • Home
  • Home By The Sea
  • Home Far Away
  • Home From The Forest
  • Home In Tennessee
  • Home Town
  • Homestead On The Farm
  • Honey Babe Blues
  • Honey In The Rock
  • Honey You Don’t Know My Mind
  • Hop High My Lula Gal
  • Hoping That You’re Hoping
  • Hot Corn, Cold Corn
  • House Of Gold
  • How Could I Dream Such A Dream
  • How I Miss My Darling Mother
  • How I’ve Tried
  • How Lonely Can You Get
  • How Long Blues
  • How Many Times
  • How Mountain Girls Can Love
  • How Will I Explain About You
  • How’s The World Treating You
  • Hush Little Baby
  • I Ain’t Broke But I’m Badly Bent
  • I Ain’t Gonna Work Tomorrow
  • I Ain’t Holding On Any Longer
  • I Always Get Lonesome When It Rains
  • I Am A Pilgrim
  • I Am Going in the Morning
  • I Am The Man, Thomas
  • I Am Weary Let Me Rest
  • I Believed In You Darling
  • I Can Hear The Angels Singing
  • I Can’t Feel At Home In This World Anymore
  • I Can’t Go On Loving You
  • I Can’t Go On This Way
  • I Can’t Stand To Ramble
  • I Can’t Stop Calling Your Name
  • I Cannot Be Your Sweetheart
  • I Could Cry
  • I Couldn’t Win
  • I Cried Again
  • I Cried For Us
  • I Don’t Know Why
  • I Don’t Love Nobody
  • I Don’t Want Your Ramblin Letters
  • I Dreamed Of An Old Love Affair
  • I Feel Better Now
  • I Feel The Blues Moving In
  • I Found You Among The Roses
  • I Guess It’s Only Right That I Should Pay
  • I Have An Aged Mother
  • I Have No Mother Now
  • I Have No One To Love Me
  • I Haven’t Seen Mary In Years
  • I Hear A Choo Choo
  • I Hear A Sweet Voice Calling
  • I Hear A Voice Calling
  • I Hear My Savior Calling
  • I Heard My Mother Call My Name In Prayer
  • I Hope You’ve Learned
  • I Just Can’t Go On This Old Way
  • I Just Got Wise
  • I Just Think I’ll Go Away
  • I Know What It Means To Be Lonesome
  • I Left My Gal In The Mountains
  • I Like The Christian Life
  • I Live In The Past
  • I Long For The Hills
  • I Love No One But Your
  • I Loved This Better Than You Knew
  • I Might Take You Back Again
  • I Needed You
  • I Never Know
  • I Never Loved But One
  • I Never Will Marry
  • I Only Exist
  • I Saw a Man at the Close of Day
  • I Saw The Light
  • I Saw Your Face In The Moon
  • I Still Miss Someone
  • I Thought I Heard You Calling My Name
  • I Thought I Heard You Calling My Name
  • I Wanna Be A Christian Soldier
  • I Want the Lord to Protect My Soul
  • I Want To Be Loved
  • I Wasted My Tears When I Cried Over You
  • I Will Always Be Waiting For You
  • I Will Arise
  • I Wish You Knew
  • I Wonder How The Old Folks Are At Home
  • I Wonder Where You Are Tonight
  • I Wonder Why You Said Goodbye
  • I Worship You
  • I Wouldn’t Mind Dying
  • I’d Like to be a Train
  • I’d Rather Be Alone
  • I’d Rather Have It This Way
  • I’ll Be All Smiles Tonight
  • I’ll Be Alright Tomorrow
  • I’ll Be Home Someday
  • I’ll Be Satisfied
  • I’ll Break Out Again Tonight
  • I’ll Drink No More Wine
  • I’ll Find Another Woman
  • I’ll Fly Away
  • I’ll Get By
  • I’ll Go Stepping Too
  • I’ll Just Pretend
  • I’ll Just Take a Train and Ride
  • I’ll Love Nobody But You
  • I’ll Love Noone But You
  • I’ll Love You ’til The Day I Die
  • I’ll Love You Til the Day I Die
  • I’ll Meet You In Church Sunday Morning
  • I’ll Meet You In The Morning
  • I’ll Never Forsake You
  • I’ll Never Grow Tired Of You
  • I’ll Never Love Another
  • I’ll Never Make You Blue
  • I’ll Never See Your Face Again
  • I’ll Never Shed Another Tear
  • I’ll Not Be a Stranger
  • I’ll Remember You Love In My Prayers
  • I’ll Stay Around
  • I’ll Take The Blame
  • I’ll Talk It Over With Him
  • I’m Better Off Now That You’re Gone
  • I’m Blue, I’m Lonsome
  • I’m Coming Back But I Don’t Know When
  • I’m Going Across The Sea
  • I’m Going Back To Old Kentucky
  • I’m Going Back To The Old Home
  • I’m Gonna Love You Like There’s No Tomorrow
  • I’m Gonna Love You One More Time
  • I’m Gonna Sleep With One Eye Open
  • I’m Just A Ghost In This House
  • I’m Lonesome Without You
  • I’m Lost And I’ll Never Find The Way
  • I’m On My Way Back To The Old Home
  • I’m On My Way Somewhere
  • I’m Only Human
  • I’m Rolling On
  • I’m So Lonesome I Could Cry
  • I’m Still In Love You
  • I’m The Boss Of This Here House
  • I’m Thinking About You
  • I’m Thinking Tonight Of My Blue Eyes
  • I’m Traveling On And On
  • I’m Troubled I’m Troubled
  • I’m Waiting At The Gate
  • I’m Waiting For You
  • I’m Waiting To Hear You Call Me Darling
  • I’m Working On A Building
  • I’ve Always Been a Rambler
  • I’ve Been All Around This World
  • I’ve Endured
  • I’ve Found A Hiding Place
  • I’ve Got a Bulldog
  • I’ve Got Bluegrass On My Mind
  • I’ve Got That Old Feeling
  • I’ve Just Seen The Rock Of Ages
  • I’ve Lost You
  • I’ve Lost You Forever
  • I’ve Never Been So Lonesome In My Life
  • I’ve Still Got Ninety Nine
  • I’ve Waited As Long As I Can
  • Ice Cold Stone
  • If Blue Is The Color Of Lonesome
  • If I Could Hear My Mother Pray Again
  • If I Could Only Go Back Home Again
  • If I Could Only Win Your Love
  • If I Could Turn Back The Hands Of Time
  • If I Had My Life To Live Over
  • If I Lose
  • If I Needed You
  • If I Should Wander Back Tonight
  • If It Takes Me A Lifetime
  • If One Won’t The Other Will
  • If That’s The Way You Feel
  • If We Never Meet Again This Side Of Heaven
  • If You Need A Fool
  • If You’re Ever Gonna Love Me
  • In A Little Village Churchyard
  • In Despair
  • In Foggy Old London
  • In My Dear Old Southern Home
  • In My Tennessee Mountain Home
  • In The Gravelyard
  • In The Highways
  • In The Jailhouse Now
  • In The Pines
  • In The Room Over Mine
  • In The Shadow Of Clinch Mountain
  • In The Shadow Of The Pines
  • In The Valley Of The Shenandoah
  • Innocent Road
  • Iron Curtain
  • Is It Over Now
  • Is It Too Late Now?
  • Is It True
  • Is The Grass Any Bluer
  • Is There Hope For This Heartbreak
  • It Hurts To Know
  • It Takes One To Know One
  • It Won’t Work This Time
  • It’s A Long Long Road
  • It’s Good To See You
  • It’s Goodbye and So Long to You
  • It’s Grand To Have Someone To Love You
  • It’s Me Again Lord
  • It’s Mighty Dark To Travel
  • It’s Never Too Late
  • It’s Only The Wind
  • It’s Raining Here This Morning
  • It’s So Long And Goodbye To You
  • I’m Gonna Get My Picture Took
  • I’m too Old to Stand a Broken Heart
  • Jacob’s Ladder
  • Jealous Hearted Me
  • Jesus is a Rock
  • Jesus Savior Pilot Me
  • Jim Blake’s Message
  • Jimmie Brown The Newsboy
  • John Deere Tractor
  • John Hardy
  • John Henry
  • John Henry Blues
  • Johnson Boys
  • Jonah And The Whale
  • Jordan
  • Jordan Am A Hard Road To Travel
  • Journey’s End
  • Julianne
  • Just A Few More Days
  • Just A Little Talk With Jesus
  • Just a Rose Will Do
  • Just Ain’t
  • Just Another Broken Heart
  • Just Another Day
  • Just as the Sun Went Down
  • Just Lovin’ You
  • Just One Teardrop
  • Just Passin’ Through
  • Just When I Needed You
  • Just Wondering Why
  • Katie Dear
  • Katy Cline
  • Katy Daley
  • Keep A Memory
  • Keep On Going
  • Keep On The Firing Line
  • Keep On The Sunny Side
  • Keep The Lamp On Sadie
  • Kentucky
  • Kentucky Girl
  • Kentucky Mountain
  • Kentucky Waltz
  • Keys to the Kingdom
  • Kickin’ Mule
  • Kissing Is Crime
  • Kitty Waltz
  • Knee Deep In The Blues
  • Kneel At The Cross
  • Knoxville Girl
  • Lamplighting Time In The Valley
  • Land Of The Navajo
  • Last Letter, The
  • Last Move For Me, The
  • Last Train
  • Last Train From Poor Valley
  • Lay My Head Beneath The Rose
  • Lazarus
  • Lazy John
  • Leaf Of Love
  • Leaning On The Everlasting Arms
  • Leavin’
  • Let Me Be Your Friend
  • Let Me Love You One More Time
  • Let Me Rest
  • Let Me Walk Lord By Your Side
  • Let Me Whisper
  • Let The Church Roll On
  • Let The Harvest Go To Seed
  • Let Those Brown Eyes Smile At Me
  • Let Us Be Lover’s Again
  • Let’s Be Lovers Again
  • Let’s Go To The Fair
  • Let’s Live For Tonight
  • Let’s Part The Best Of Friends
  • Let’s Say Goodbye Like We Said Hello
  • Letter From My Darlin
  • Letters Have no Arms
  • Life Of Sorrow
  • Lights On The Hill
  • Like A Child In The Rain
  • Likes Of Me
  • Linda Lou
  • Listening To The Rain
  • Little Annie
  • Little Benny
  • Little Bessie
  • Little Birdie
  • Little Black Pony
  • Little Black Train, The
  • Little Cabin Home On The Hill
  • Little Community Church Yard
  • Little Country Preacher
  • Little Darling Pal Of Mine
  • Little Georgia Rose
  • Little Girl And The Dreadful Snake
  • Little Girl In Tennessee
  • Little Girl That Played Upon My Knee, The
  • Little Glass Of Wine
  • Little Gypsy Girl, The
  • Little Home In Tennessee
  • Little Joe
  • Little Liza Jane
  • Little Log Cabin By The Sea
  • Little Log Hut In The Lane
  • Little Maggie
  • Little Moses
  • Little Mountain Church House
  • Little Old Log Cabin In The Lane
  • Little Poplar Log House On The Hill
  • Little Rosewood Casket
  • Little Sadie
  • Little Satchel
  • Little White Church
  • Little White-Washed Chimney
  • Litttle Community Church House
  • Live And Let Live
  • Loafer’s Glory
  • Log Cabin In The Lane
  • Lone Pilgrim
  • Lonely Moon
  • Lonely Quit Knockin’ at My Door
  • Lonely Tombs
  • Lonesome
  • Lonesome And Blue
  • Lonesome Blues
  • Lonesome Depot
  • Lonesome For You
  • Lonesome For You Darling
  • Lonesome Here Without You
  • Lonesome Homesick Blues
  • Lonesome Night
  • Lonesome Old Home
  • Lonesome Old Homesick Blues
  • Lonesome Old Song
  • Lonesome Pine
  • Lonesome Pine Special
  • Lonesome Pines
  • Lonesome River, The
  • Lonesome Road Blues
  • Lonesome Town
  • Lonesome Truck Driver Blues
  • Lonesome Valley
  • Lonesome Without You – Delmore Brothers
  • Lonesome Without You – Stanleys
  • Long Black Veil
  • Long Gone
  • Long Gone
  • Long Journey Home
  • Long Long Road to Travel Alone
  • Long Time Gone
  • Long Time Travelin’
  • Longing for Love
  • Longing For Old Virginia
  • Look Away From The Cross
  • Look For Me (I’ll Be There)
  • Look How This World Has Made A Change
  • Look Up Look Down That Lonesome Road
  • Look Who’s Needin’ Who
  • Looking for the Stone
  • Lord Build Me A Cabin In Gloryland
  • Lord I’m In Your Care
  • Lord Lead Me On
  • Lord Protect My Soul
  • Lost
  • Lost and I’ll Never Find the Way
  • Lost Highway
  • Lost John
  • Lost Soldier Son
  • Lost To A Stranger
  • Love And Wealth
  • Love Grown Cold
  • Love Me Darlin’ Just Tonight
  • Love Me One More Time
  • Love Of The Mountains
  • Love Please Come Home
  • Love Someone Like Me
  • Love Will Roll the Clouds Away
  • Lover’s Farewell
  • Lover’s Lane
  • Lover’s Quarrel
  • Lover’s Return
  • Lovesick And Sorrow
  • Loving Sweethearts
  • Loving You Too Well
  • Low And Lonely
  • Lowest Valley, The
  • Lulu Walls
  • Make Room For The Blues
  • Making Plans
  • Mama Tried
  • Man In The Middle, The
  • Man Of Constant Sorrow
  • Man With The Blues
  • Mansion On The Hill
  • Mansions For Me
  • Mansions For Me
  • Maple On The Hill
  • Maple Sugar Sweetheart
  • March Winds Gonna Blow My Blues All Away
  • Martha White Theme
  • Mary Ann
  • Mary Anne
  • Matterhorn
  • Matty Groves
  • May You Never Be Alone
  • Medicine Springs
  • Meet Me By The Moonlight
  • Meeting In The Air
  • Memories Cover Everything I Own
  • Memories Of Mother – Stanleys
  • Memories Of Mother And Dad
  • Memories Of The Past
  • Memphis Special
  • Methodist Pie
  • Mid The Green Fields Of Virginia
  • Midnight Angel
  • Midnight Moonlight
  • Midnight On The Highway
  • Midnight On The Stormy Deep
  • Midnight Storm
  • Midnight Train
  • Midnight Train
  • Mighty Dark To Travel
  • Miller’s Cave
  • Miner’s Prayer
  • Misery Loves Company
  • Model Church
  • Molly And Tenbrooks
  • Mommy Please Stay Home With Me
  • Money, Marbles, And Chalk
  • Montana Cowboy
  • Moonshiner
  • More Often Than Once In A While
  • More Pretty Girls Than One
  • Mother And Daddy Are Gone
  • Mother Call My Name In Prayer
  • Mother No Longer Awaits Me At Home
  • Mother’s Footsteps Guide Me On
  • Mother’s Only Sleeping
  • Mother’s Prayer
  • Motherless Children
  • Mountain Dew
  • Mountain Laurel
  • Mountain Road
  • Mountain Rosa Lee
  • Mountains Of Tennessee, The
  • Mr Engineer
  • Muddy Water
  • Mule Skinner Blues
  • My Aching Heart
  • My Better Years
  • My Brother’s Bride
  • My Brown Eyed Darlin’
  • My Brown-Eyed Darling
  • My Cabin In Caroline
  • My Clinch Mountain Home
  • My Darlin’s In Heaven
  • My Darling You Know That I Love You
  • My Darling’s Last Goodbye
  • My Dear Companion
  • My Deceitful Heart
  • My Dixie Darling
  • My Dixie Home
  • My Get Up And Go Has Got Up And Went
  • My Heart Can’t Stop Loving You
  • My Heart Skips A Beat
  • My Heart’s Tonight In Texas
  • My Home Among The Hills
  • My Home’s Across The Blue Ridge Mountain
  • My Home’s Across The Blue Ridge Mountains
  • My Honey Lou
  • My Last Old Dollar
  • My Little Honeysuckle Rose
  • My Little Sweetheart Of The Mountain
  • My Lord Keeps a Record
  • My Love Lies in the Ground
  • My Love Lies in the Ground
  • My Main Trial Is Yet To Come
  • My Native Home
  • My Native Home
  • My Old Cottage Home
  • My Old Kentucky Home
  • My Old Log Cabin
  • My Old Virginia Home
  • My Own Sweet Time
  • My Rose Of Old Kentucky
  • My Sinful Past
  • My Sweet Blue Eyed Darling
  • My Sweet Love Ain’t Around
  • My Texas Girl
  • My Virginia Rose Is Blooming
  • Nashville Blues
  • Nellie Kane
  • Never Again
  • Never Get To Hold You In My Arms Anymore
  • Never Let The Devil Get The Upper Hand Of You
  • New Fool
  • New Highway
  • New John Henry Blues
  • New Patches
  • New River Train
  • New River Train
  • Night
  • Nine Pound Hammer
  • Ninety and Nine
  • Ninety Nine Years (And One Dark Day)
  • Ninety Nine Years is Almost For Life
  • No Ash Will Burn
  • No Burdens Pass Through
  • No Depression In Heaven
  • No Doubt About It
  • No Hiding Place Down Here
  • No Hiding Place Down Here
  • No Letter In The Mail
  • No More The Moon Shines On Lorena
  • No More To Be Lonesome
  • No Mother Or Dad
  • No One
  • No One But My Darlin’
  • No Other’s Bride I’ll Be
  • No Telephone In Heaven
  • Nobody Loves Me
  • Nobody’s Business
  • Nobody’s Darling On Earth
  • Nobody’s Love Is Like Mine
  • Not A Word From Home
  • Now My Flower’s Gone Away
  • Ocean Of Diamonds
  • Oh Death
  • Oh Lonesome Me
  • Oh Susanna
  • Oh Suzanna
  • Oh Take Me Back
  • Old Bill Jones
  • Old Bill Miner
  • Old Black Choo Choo
  • Old Black Joe
  • Old Black Mountain Saturday Night
  • Old Country Church
  • Old Crossroads, The
  • Old Dan Tucker
  • Old Devil’s Dream
  • Old Home Place
  • Old Home Place Of Mine
  • Old Joe Clark
  • Old Kentucky Hillside
  • Old Love Letters
  • Old Man and his Fiddle
  • Old Man At The Mill
  • Old Man Below
  • Old Memories Mean Nothing To Me
  • Old Old House
  • Old Old House
  • Old Railroad Track
  • Old Rattler
  • Old River
  • Old Satan
  • Old Swinging Bridge
  • Old Train
  • Old Village Churchyard
  • Ole Slew Foot
  • Omie Wise
  • On A Hill Lone And Gray
  • On And On
  • On My Mind
  • On My Way Back To The Old Home
  • On My Way To Canaan’s Land
  • On The Old Kentucky Shore
  • On The Sea Of Galilee
  • Once More
  • One Day I Will
  • One Day I Will
  • One I Love Is Gone, The
  • One Little Word
  • One More Dollar
  • One Morning in May
  • One Short Year
  • One Track Mind
  • Only A Matter Of Time
  • Only Girl I Ever Cared About, The
  • Only the Leading Role Will Do
  • Only Way Home
  • Only Way To Say Goodbye, The
  • Orphan Girl
  • Our Darlin’s Gone
  • Our Darling’s Gone
  • Our Last Goodbye
  • Out In The Cold World
  • Out on the Ocean
  • Over In The Glory Land
  • Over In The Gloryland
  • Over The Garden Wall
  • Over the Sunset Hill
  • Over Yonder in the Graveyard
  • Pain In My Heart
  • Pale Horse And His Rider, The
  • Pallet on Your Floor
  • Paradise
  • Pardon Me
  • Pass Me Not
  • Paul And Silas
  • Peg and Awl
  • Petals in my Pocket
  • Pick Me Up On Your Way Down
  • Picture On The Wall
  • Pig In A Pen
  • Pins And Needles
  • Plant Some Flowers
  • Please Come Back Little Pal
  • Please Don’t Wake Me
  • Please Remember That I Love You
  • Please Search Your Heart
  • Poison Lies
  • Poison Love
  • Police
  • Polly Vaughn
  • Poor Little Orphaned Boy
  • Poor Monroe
  • Poor Old Dirt Farmer
  • Poor Orphan Child, The
  • Poor Rebel Soldier
  • Prayer Bells Of Heaven
  • Precious Jewel
  • Precious Memories
  • Pretending
  • Pretending I Don’t Care
  • Prettiest Flowers
  • Pretty Little Miss
  • Pretty Polly
  • Pretty Saro
  • Prisoner’s Dream
  • Prisoner’s Farewell
  • Prisoner’s Song
  • Prisoner’s Song, The
  • Queen Anne’s Lace
  • Quiet Grave
  • Radio Boogie
  • Railroading On The Great Divide
  • Rain
  • Rain And Snow
  • Rain Rain Rain
  • Rambler’s Blues
  • Ramblin Away
  • Ramblin Boy
  • Ramblin Man
  • Ramblin’ Boy
  • Rambling Boy
  • Rambling Letters
  • Ramshackle Shack
  • Rank Strangers
  • Rebel Soldier
  • Reckless Motorman
  • Red Clay Halo
  • Red Rocking Chair
  • Red Rubber Ball
  • Red Sails In The Sunset
  • Remember I Feel Lonesome Too
  • Remember Me
  • Remember The Cross
  • Reunion In Heaven
  • Riding On That Midnight Train
  • Riley And Spencer
  • River Of Death
  • River Of Jordan
  • Roane County Prison
  • Rock About My Saro Jane
  • Rock Hearts
  • Rock Salt And Nails
  • Rocky Island
  • Rocky Road Blues
  • Rocky Top
  • Roll In My Sweet Baby’s Arms
  • Roll On Buddy
  • Room In Heaven For Me
  • Room Over Mine
  • Rose of Alabama
  • Rose Of My Heart
  • Rose Of Old Kentucky
  • Rose On God’s Shore
  • Roses In The Snow
  • Rough Edges
  • Roustabout
  • Rove Riley Rove
  • Roving Gambler
  • Ruination Line
  • Sad And Lonesome Day
  • Sad Prisoner’s Song
  • Sad Situation
  • Sailor Boy
  • Sailor On The Deep Blue Sea
  • Sailor’s Plea
  • Saint Regis Girl
  • Sal’s Got A Meatskin
  • Sally Jo
  • Salty Dog
  • San Antonio Rose
  • Sand Mountain Blues
  • Sante Fe Train
  • Satan’s Jewel Crown
  • Satisfied Mind
  • Save It ! Save It !
  • Sawin’ on the Strings
  • Say Darlin Say
  • Say Won’t You Be Mine
  • Say You’ll Take Me Back
  • Scarlet Purple Robe
  • School House On The Hill
  • Sea Of Regret
  • Searching for a Soldiers Grave
  • Seasons Of The Heart
  • Secret Of The Waterfall
  • See God’s Ark A’movin’
  • See That My Grave Is Kept Clean
  • See That My Grave Is Kept Green
  • Seeds My Daddy Sowed
  • Send Me Your Address
  • Seven Hillsides
  • Seven Years Blues
  • Shackles And Chains
  • Shady Grove
  • Shake My Mother’s Hand For Me
  • Sharecropper’s Son
  • She Appeared To Be Eighteen Or Nineteen Years Old
  • She Has Forgotten
  • She’s A Railroad Lady
  • She’s Just A Cute Thing
  • She’s More To Be Pitied
  • She’s My Curly Headed Baby
  • She’s No Angel
  • Shenandoah Waltz
  • Shield Of Faith
  • Short Life Of Trouble
  • Shouting On The Hills Of Glory
  • Shut Up In The Mines At Coal Creek
  • Side Of The Road
  • Silent Partner
  • Silver Ghost
  • Silver Threads And Golden Needles
  • Sin City
  • Since My Sweet Love Ain’t Around
  • Since The Day You Went Away
  • Sing Me a Song
  • Sing Sing Sing
  • Sing Song Kitty
  • Singing All Day And Dinner On The Ground
  • Single Girl
  • Sinking In The Lonesome Sea
  • Sit Down With The Lord And Pray
  • Sittin’ On Top Of The World
  • Sitting Alone In The Moonlight
  • Sitting On Top Of The World
  • Six Feet of Earth Makes Us All of One Size
  • Six Feet Under The Ground
  • Six More Miles
  • Sixteen Years
  • Slippin’ Away
  • Snow Covered Mound
  • Snow White Grave
  • So Lonesome
  • Some Day
  • Some Old Day
  • Some Things Does
  • Somebody Loves You
  • Somebody’s Waiting For Me
  • Someday You’ll Pay
  • Somehow Tonight
  • Someone Took My Place With You
  • Something Got A Hold Of Me
  • Something In My Heart
  • Sophronie
  • Southbound
  • Southern Moon
  • Southern Railroad Line
  • Sow ‘Em On The Mountain
  • Spirit Of Love Watches Over Me, The
  • Standing By The River
  • Standing In The Need Of Prayer
  • Standing On The Mountain
  • Stay Away From Me
  • Steal Away and Die
  • Steel Rails
  • Stern Old Bachelor
  • Stone Wall All Around Your Heart
  • Stone Walls And Steel Bars
  • Storms Are On The Ocean
  • Stormy Horizons
  • Stormy Waters
  • Streamline Cannonball
  • Sugar Coated Love
  • Summertime Is Past And Gone
  • Sun Of The Soul, The
  • Sundown And Sorrow
  • Sunny Side Of Life
  • Sunny Side Of The Mountain
  • Sunshine In The Shadows
  • Sweet As The Flowers In Maytime
  • Sweet Fern
  • Sweet Flowers
  • Sweet Heaven In My View
  • Sweet Little Miss Blue Eyes
  • Sweet Sunny South
  • Sweeter Than The Flowers
  • Sweetest Gift, The
  • Sweetest Love
  • Sweetheart, You’ve Done Me Wrong
  • Sweethearts Again
  • Sweethearts In Heaven
  • Swinging A Nine Pound Hammer All Day
  • Take Me Back To Tulsa
  • Take Me In Your Lifeboat
  • Take My Hand and Tell Me
  • Take My Hand and Tell Me
  • Take My Ring From Your Finger
  • Take This Hammer
  • Take Your Shoes Off Moses
  • Talk About Sufferin’
  • Talk Of The Town
  • Tall Pines
  • Tear My Stillhouse Down
  • Teardrops In My Eyes
  • Tears Of Regret
  • Tell Me Now Or Tell Me Never
  • Tell Me That You Love Me
  • Tell Me Why My Daddy Don’t Come Home
  • Ten Years
  • Tenderly Calling
  • Tennessee
  • Tennessee 1949
  • Tennessee Blues
  • Tennessee Hound Dog
  • Tennessee Mountain Home
  • Tennessee Truck Driving Man
  • Texas Bluebonnets
  • Texas Girl
  • Thanks A Lot
  • That Happy Night
  • That Home Above
  • The Angels Are Singing
  • The Beech Nut Tree
  • The Bird I Held In My Hand
  • The Bluebirds Are Singing For Me
  • The Blues Come Around
  • The Bluest Man In Town
  • The Boat Of Love
  • The Brakeman’s Blues
  • The Bramble And The Rose
  • The Butcher Boy
  • The Children Are Crying
  • The Church Back Home
  • The Cold Hard Facts
  • The Cuckoo Bird
  • The Day Has Passed
  • The Fiddler
  • The First Whipporwill
  • The Garden Wall
  • The Girl At The Crossroad Bar
  • The Girl Behind The Bar
  • The Girl I Love Don’t Pay Me No Mind
  • The God That Never Fails
  • The God That Never Fails
  • The Good Things Out Weigh The Bad
  • The Green Rolling Hills Of West Virginia
  • The Greenville Trestle
  • The Hills That I Call Home
  • The Key to Heaven
  • The L&N Don’t Stop Here Anymore
  • The Last Letter
  • The Last Thing On My Mind
  • The Legend Of The Rebel Soldier
  • The Letter That Never Came
  • The Little Old Church By The Road
  • The Lone Green Valley
  • The Lonely Years Belong To Me
  • The Longer You Wait
  • The Lost Soul
  • The Meeting in the Air
  • The Old Church Yard
  • The Old Fiddler
  • The Old Home Town
  • The Old Old House
  • The Pale Horse And His Rider
  • The Precious Jewel
  • The Race Is On
  • The Shining Path
  • The Shuffle Of My Feet
  • The Storms Are On The Ocean
  • The Sweetest Song I Sing
  • The Testing Time
  • The Touch Of The Master’s Hand
  • The Train Carrying Jimmie Rogers Home
  • The Train That Carried My Girl From Town
  • The Valley Of Peace
  • The Voice Of My Darling
  • The Waves On The Sea
  • There Is A Time
  • There Was Nothing We Could Do
  • There’ll Be Joy, Joy, Joy
  • There’ll Be No Distinction
  • There’s Another Baby Waiting For Me Down The Line
  • There’s Better Times A Coming
  • There’s No One Like Mother To Me
  • There’s Someone Awaiting For Me
  • These Blues
  • These Men Of God
  • These Old Blues
  • They Call Her Mother
  • Things In Life
  • Think Of What You’ve Done
  • Thinkin’ Of The Old Days
  • Thinking About You
  • Thinking of Home
  • Thinking Right
  • Thinking Tonight Of My Blue Eyes
  • Thirty Two Acres
  • This Is Heaven To Me
  • This Is The Girl I Love
  • This Little Sparrow
  • This Lonesome Old Feeling
  • This Morning At Nine
  • This Old Song
  • This Train
  • This Weary Heart You Stole Away
  • This World Is Not My Home
  • Those Brown Eyes
  • Those Memories
  • Those Two Blue Eyes
  • Three Men on a Mountain
  • Throw Down Your Earthly Crown
  • Thy Burdens Are Greater Than Mine
  • Til The End Of The World Rolls Round
  • Til You Love Me Again
  • Times Are Getting Hard
  • Tiny Broken Heart
  • To Prove My Love To You
  • Today I Started Loving You Again
  • Tom Dooley
  • Tomorrow I’ll Be Gone
  • Too Late To Cry
  • Too Late To Walk The Floor
  • Too Much Mountain Dew
  • Too Old To Die Young
  • Too Sweet To Last
  • Touch Of God’s Hand
  • Toy Heart
  • Tragic Love
  • Tragic Romance
  • Train on the Island
  • Train That I Ride
  • Train Wreck Of Emotion
  • Traveling On And On
  • Traveling This Lonesome Road
  • Trials Troubles Tribulations
  • Trouble In Mind
  • Troublesome Waters
  • Truck Driving Man
  • True Life Blues
  • True Life Blues
  • True True Love Never Dies
  • Turned You To Stone
  • Twenty One Years
  • Twenty Twenty Vision
  • Twenty Twenty Vision
  • Twilight is Stealing
  • Two Arms To Hold Me
  • Two Lonely Hearts
  • Two More Years
  • Two Sweethearts
  • Uncle Joe
  • Uncle Pen
  • Unclouded Day
  • Uncloudy Day
  • Under Your Spell Again
  • Unfaithful One
  • Unwanted Love
  • Used To Be
  • Victim To The Tomb
  • Virginia Waltz
  • Vision Of Mother
  • Voice Of My Savior
  • Wabash Cannonball
  • Wait A Little Longer Please Jesus
  • Wait a Minute
  • Wait A Minute
  • Waiting At The Gate
  • Waiting Tonight?
  • Walk On Boy
  • Walk Softly On This Heart Of Mine
  • Walk The Way The Wind Blows
  • Walkin Down The Line
  • Walking On The Blueridge Mountains
  • Walking The Dog
  • Walking The King’s Highway
  • Walls Of Time
  • Waltz Across Texas
  • Wanderlust
  • Washed My Hands in the Muddy Water
  • Water Bound
  • Water Underneath The Bridge
  • Waterbound
  • Watermelon On The Vine
  • Waves On The Sea
  • Way Downtown
  • Wayfaring Stranger
  • Wayworn Traveler, The
  • We Can’t Be Darlings Anymore
  • We Need A Whole Lot More Of Jesus
  • We Shall Meet Someday
  • We Shall Rise
  • We Will March Through The Streets Of The City
  • We’ll Meet Again Sweetheart
  • Weary Angel
  • Weary Blues From Waiting
  • Weary Day
  • Weary Lonesome Blues
  • Weary Prodigal Son
  • Weathered Gray Stone
  • Wedding Blues
  • Welcome Home
  • Western Hobo, The
  • What A Friend We Have In Mother
  • What a Way to Go
  • What About You
  • What Does The Deep Sea Say
  • What Was I Suppose To Do
  • What Would You Give
  • What’s Good For You
  • Wheeling
  • When Autumn Leaves Begin To Fall
  • When He Reached Down His Hand
  • When I Call Your Name
  • When I Can Read My Titles Clear
  • When I Get Home
  • When I Stop Dreaming
  • When I’m Gone
  • When It’s Time For The Whippoorwill To Sing
  • When its Lamplighting Time in the Valley
  • When Jesus Beckons Me Home
  • When My Blue Moon Turns To Gold Again
  • When My Savior Reached Down
  • When Silver Threads Are Gold Again
  • When The Angels Come To Get Me
  • When The Bees Are In The Hive
  • When The Bright Lights Grow Dim
  • When The Evening Sun Goes Down
  • When The Golden Leaves Begin To Fall
  • When The Mountain Dew Starts Falling
  • When The Nightbirds Cry
  • When The Roll Is Called Up Yonder
  • When The Roses Bloom In Dixieland
  • When The Roses Come Again
  • When The Sun Of My Life Goes Down
  • When The Wagon Was New
  • When The World’s On Fire
  • When You Are Lonely
  • When You Go Walking After Midnight
  • Where Did Our Young Years Go
  • Where Is My Wandering Boy Tonight
  • Where Shall I Be
  • Where the City Ends
  • Where The Dim Lights Are The Dimmest
  • Where The Old Red River Flows
  • Where The Silvery Colorado Wends Its Way
  • Where The Soul Of Man Never Dies
  • Where the Wild Flowers Grow
  • Where The Wild River Rolls
  • Where the Wild Wild Flowers Grow
  • Where We Never Shall Die
  • Where We’ll Never Grow Old
  • Where We’ll Never Say Farewell
  • Where Will I Shelter My Sheep Tonight
  • While I’m Reading Your Letter
  • Whiskey Deaf Whiskey Blind
  • White Dove
  • White Freightliner
  • White House Blues
  • Who Can Blame You
  • Who Done It
  • Who Killed Poor Robin
  • Who Needs You?
  • Who Will Call You Sweetheart
  • Who Will Sing For Me
  • Who Will Watch The Home Place
  • Who’s Calling You Sweetheart Tonight
  • Who’s Going Down To Town
  • Who’s Gonna Shoe Your Pretty Little Foot
  • Who’s That Knocking At My Door
  • Who’s That Knocking At My Window
  • Whose Shoulder Will You Cry On
  • Why Did You Wander
  • Why Do You Cry Little Darling
  • Why Don’t You Tell Me So
  • Why Don’t You Tell Me So?
  • Why Me Ralph
  • Why Must I Remain
  • Why There’s A Tear In My Eye
  • Why You Been Gone So Long
  • Wichita
  • Wicked Path Of Sin
  • Wild Bill Jones
  • Wild Mountain Flowers
  • Wild Mountain Honey
  • Wild Side Of Life
  • Wildwood Flower
  • Will He Wait A Little Longer
  • Will My Mother Know Me There
  • Will The Circle Be Unbroken
  • Will The Roses Bloom
  • Will The Roses Bloom Again
  • Will The Roses Bloom In Heaven
  • Will There Be Any Stars In My Crown
  • Will You Be Lonesome
  • Will You Be Loving Another Man
  • Will You Be Satisfied That Way
  • Will You Be Satisfied That Way
  • Will You Miss Me
  • Willie Moore
  • Willie Roy
  • Winding Stream, The
  • Windy Mountain
  • Wings Of Angels
  • Winter’s Night
  • Wishing Waltz
  • Won’t You Come And Sing For Me
  • Wonderful City, The
  • Worried Man Blues
  • Wouldn’t Change You If I Could
  • Wreck Of The C And O, The
  • Wreck Of The Old Ninety -Seven
  • Wreck on the Highway
  • Wrong Road Again
  • You Are My Flower
  • You Are My Sunshine
  • You Better Let That Liar Alone
  • You Broke Your Promise
  • You Can Have Her
  • You Can’t Do Wrong And Get By
  • You Could Never Be True
  • You Denied Your Love
  • You Don’t Have To Move That Mountain
  • You Don’t Miss Your Water
  • You Done Me Wrong
  • You Give Me Your Love And I’ll Give You Mine
  • You Go To Your Church
  • You Gotta Do What You Gotta Do
  • You Lead Me to the Wrong
  • You Left Me Alone
  • You Tied A Love Knot In My Heart
  • You Won’t Be Satisfied That Way
  • You’d Better Get Right Little Darling
  • You’ll Always Be My Blue Eyed Darling
  • You’ll Find Her Name Written There
  • You’ll Get No More Of Me
  • You’ll Never Leave Harlan Alive
  • You’re A Flower In The Wildwood
  • You’re Drifting Away
  • You’re Drifting On
  • You’re Gonna Be Sorry You Let Me Down
  • You’re Just What The Doctor Ordered
  • You’re No Longer A Sweetheart Of Mine
  • You’re Not Easy To Forget
  • You’re Nothing More To Me
  • You’re Still On My Mind
  • You’re The Best Of All Leading Brands
  • You’re The Girl Of My Dreams
  • You’ve Been A Friend To Me
  • You’ve Been Fooling Me Baby
  • You’ve Been That Friend To Me
  • You’ve Got The Look Of A Perfect Diamond
  • You’ve Got To Righten That Wrong
  • Young Freda Bolt
  • Your Greedy Heart
  • Your Lone Journey
  • Your Love Died Like The Rose
  • Your Love Is Like A Flower
  • Your Mother Still Prays For You Jack
  • Your Selfish Heart
  • Your Worries And Troubles Are Mine
  • You’re leaving me for the last time
  • You’re Running Wild
  • Zion’s Hill

90,000 A teenager and a man were killed in an explosion in Moscow

A cotton occurred in an apartment in a residential building on Malaya Naberezhnaya Street in Moscow. This was reported in the telegram channel of the capital’s prosecutor’s office.

Photo: “BUSINESS Online”

According to the department, one adult and a 12-year-old child were injured as a result of the emergency. The 14-year-old boy died on the spot. The prosecutor’s office is checking, and is at the scene of the incident. O. Tushino interdistrict prosecutor Mikhail Popik .

According to the telegram channel “112”, a training grenade exploded in the apartment. Izvestia claims that the grenade was combat and two people died. TASS also, citing a source, reports that this is a training grenade. There was no fire, no collapse or damage to the building. The telegram channel Mash adds that the teenagers found the grenade on the street and brought it home.

Updated at 18:40. A man injured in an explosion in Moscow died in an ambulance.This was reported in the press service of the metropolitan prosecutor’s office. 112 claims that the death toll has increased to three. According to the channel, my father brought the grenade and put it on the cabinet. The son took it and decided to pull out the ring. The explosion killed the man, his son and stepson.

Updated at 19:05. On the fact of what happened in Moscow, a criminal case was opened for causing death by negligence and illegal arms trafficking. This was reported on the website of the main investigation department of the RF IC for the city.According to the investigation, a technical device worked in the apartment of a residential building, as a result of which a teenager and a man died, and another boy was hospitalized. There was also a woman in the apartment, she was not injured. Presumably, it was established that the teenager brought this device home shortly before the incident. The emergency brigade of Mosgaz has confirmed that the cause of the incident was not household gas, the prosecutor’s office added. “Gas communications in the apartment are not damaged and are sealed, the gas stove is not damaged,” the gas workers said.

Photo at the announcement: “BUSINESS Online”

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90,000 “This is what the people wanted.” Was the collapse of the Soviet Union inevitable

https://ria.ru/20210108/sssr-1590433381.html

“This is what the people wanted.” Was the collapse of the Soviet Union inevitable

“The people wanted it this way.”Was the collapse of the Soviet Union inevitable – RIA Novosti, 08.01.2021

“The people wanted it this way.” Was the collapse of the Soviet Union inevitable

Thirty years ago, Mikhail Gorbachev became president of the Soviet Union, the CPSU lost its monopoly on power, but the reforms did not prevent it from collapsing. One thousand nine hundred … RIA Novosti, 08.01.2021

2021-01-08T08: 00

2021-01-08T08: 00

2021-01-08T08: 06

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MOSCOW, January 8 – RIA Novosti, Galiya Ibragimova. Thirty years ago, Mikhail Gorbachev became president of the Soviet Union, the CPSU lost its monopoly on power, but the reforms did not keep it from collapsing. One thousand nine hundred and ninetieth began with armed clashes between Azerbaijan and Armenia over Nagorno-Karabakh. Further – more: the Baltic States, Uzbekistan and Moldova announced their independence.The parade of sovereignties swept over the Russian regions as well. RIA Novosti recalls the last year of the existence of the USSR. The situation is hopeless On January 2, at a meeting of the Politburo, Mikhail Gorbachev put the question bluntly: “One thousand nine hundred and ninetieth must decide whether or not there will be perestroika.” The course on accelerated socio-economic development has been held for the fifth year already. But the situation did not improve. Formally, the incomes of the Soviet people grew, but there were no more goods in stores. The little that was on the shelves – bread, sugar, pasta – sold out at lightning speed.Gorbachev was accused of the deficit. “There is no grain, there is no currency, the situation is hopeless,” Nikolai Ryzhkov, chairman of the USSR Council of Ministers, reported to the Politburo. At the Congress of People’s Deputies, they called upon to change not only the political system, but also the economic one. But Gorbachev feared that market reforms would accelerate the country’s collapse. “The main gains of perestroika are democracy and glasnost,” the secretary general repeated when it came to problems in the economy. In May, food began to be dispensed by cards. People panicked.”How was it allowed?” In 1990, Article 6, on the leading role of the CPSU, was removed from the Constitution. There were new parties and the post of president, which was taken by Gorbachev. He hoped to strengthen the position, but it turned out differently. Following Moscow, the presidency was introduced by Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan. The leaders of the borderlands openly discussed the withdrawal from the Union. “How did you allow it? The president is elected in Uzbekistan without advice, consultations, without prior arrangement?” Gorbachev wondered. “This is what the people wanted,” said the head of the local Communist Party, Islam Karimov.Later, it was he who headed the republic. It was decided not to aggravate the situation. Moscow remembered the clashes in the Fergana region between Uzbeks and Meskhetian Turks in the summer of 1989. The instigators were not found, but it became obvious: the national borderlands require greater independence. In June 1990, an armed conflict between Uzbeks and Kyrgyz broke out in Osh. More than a thousand people died. But Central Asia is not the first Soviet region to experience national problems. They talked about leaving the USSR in the Caucasus and the Baltic states.In the Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Region (NKAO) within the Azerbaijan SSR, this led to a war. Karabakh Armenians believed that Baku pays little attention to the region. In 1987, calls were made to surrender the territory of Armenia. Yerevan insisted that Artsakh was historically an Armenian land. But Azerbaijan did not want to concede. In February 1988, a tragedy struck in Sumgait: local Armenians were robbed, killed, their houses were set on fire. In January 1990, ethnic clashes began in Baku. A war broke out between Azerbaijan and Armenia.”The first hot spot in the” Unbreakable Union “was Karabakh. The war launched the disintegration of the USSR,” Thomas de Waal, a researcher of the Karabakh conflict, writes in the book “Black Garden”. Secession has been persistently discussed in Georgia as well. This was preceded by the events of April 7, 1989. Residents of the republic went to the Government House and demanded independence. The military dispersed the rally by force, nineteen people were killed in a stampede. In June 1990, the Moldavian SSR declared sovereignty, taking a course of rapprochement with Romania.Transnistria opposed and announced its secession from the republic. The disagreements between the Moldovan authorities and Tiraspol in 1992 escalated into a war. The conflict was frozen, but the status of the region has not yet been determined. To do with Vilnius, as with Prague, Gorbachev realized that the USSR was bursting at the seams, but did not want to put up with it. In the winter of 1990, he arrived in Lithuania, where the authorities were preparing to declare sovereignty. At a meeting with residents of Vilnius, the “father of perestroika” proposed “to give a chance to the Soviet federation.” However, the people demanded “complete independence”.“Lithuania has become a developed country in a large Soviet family. Russia sells you cotton, oil, raw materials, and not for hard currency,” Gorbachev addressed the people. “Lithuania had a hard currency before the war. You took it away from us in 1940,” the worker retorted in the crowd. Gorbachev was offered to hold the Baltic by force. “Three regiments will block the leaders of the separatists, and the collaborators will invite our military,” Army General Valentin Varennikov assured. But Gorbachev reasoned: “The plan to deal with Vilnius as with Prague in 1968” will not work.In March, Lithuania declared independence and was the first to secede from the USSR. A month later, Latvia and Estonia declared their sovereignty. Moscow responded by cutting off oil and gas supplies to the Baltics. After three months of economic blockade, the Lithuanian authorities imposed a moratorium on the “Act of Independence”. But it was not possible to return the Baltic countries. In January 1991, the Soviet military entered Vilnius. Gorbachev issued an ultimatum to the Supreme Soviet of Lithuania: “to withdraw the anti-constitutional act on sovereignty.” The Alpha fighters occupied state institutions and stormed the TV tower.Fifteen people were killed in street riots. Events in Lithuania angered Western politicians. Many supporters at home also turned their backs on Gorbachev. He shifted responsibility to the military. But the point of no return was passed: the Baltics were lost. “Take sovereignty, how much you swallow” The parade of sovereignty was held not only in the union republics. Autonomous regions also thought about withdrawal. However, Russia itself set the fashion. On June 12, the Chairman of the Supreme Soviet, Boris Yeltsin, signed the Declaration of Russia’s Sovereignty.The document stipulated the priority of Russian legislation over the union one. The “war of laws” began. Gorbachev demanded strict adherence to the normative legal acts of the USSR. Yeltsin refused to obey and attracted the leaders of the outskirts to his side. “Take as much sovereignty as you can swallow,” he addressed the leaders of the autonomous republics. Karelian, Tatar, Udmurt, Yakutsk, Buryat, Bashkir, Mari, Chuvash autonomous Soviet socialist republics, Chukotka, Yamalo-Nenets, Gorno-Altai autonomous okrugs, Adygeya autonomous region and Komi declared independence.The Kremlin saw in this the threat of the collapse of not only the Union, but also Russia. The situation in the Tatar SSR caused serious concern. On August 30, the Supreme Soviet of the Autonomous Republic adopted the Declaration of Sovereignty. A referendum is scheduled for 1992. They started talking about their own constitution. “Tatarstan could create a dangerous precedent. Kazan put forward political demands related to a new understanding of federalism,” recalled a negotiator, former Deputy Minister of Economy and Finance Andrei Nechaev.They demanded to divide oil in a different way. Otherwise, they stressed, secession from Russia is inevitable. ” Boris Yeltsin, Stanislav Shushkevich and Leonid Kravchuk signed the Belovezhskaya Agreements on December 8, 1991. Fifteen independent states appeared on the political map of the world instead of a huge country called the Soviet Union.

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politics, Lithuania, Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Republic of Tatarstan (Tatarstan), Latvia, Estonia, Boris Yeltsin, Islam Karimov, Mikhail Gorbachev, Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Leonid Kravchuk, Osh, Stanislav Shushkevich

MOSCOW, January 8 – RIA Novosti, Galiya Ibragimova . Thirty years ago, Mikhail Gorbachev became president of the Soviet Union, the CPSU lost its monopoly on power, but the reforms did not keep it from collapsing. One thousand nine hundred and ninetieth began with armed clashes between Azerbaijan and Armenia over Nagorno-Karabakh.Further – more: the Baltic States, Uzbekistan and Moldova announced their independence. The parade of sovereignties swept over the Russian regions as well. RIA Novosti recalls the last year of the existence of the USSR.

The situation is hopeless

On January 2, at a meeting of the Politburo, Mikhail Gorbachev put the question bluntly: “One thousand nine hundred and ninetieth must decide whether or not there will be perestroika.” The course on accelerated socio-economic development has been held for the fifth year already. But the situation did not improve.

Formally, the incomes of the Soviet people grew, but there were no more goods in stores. The little that was on the shelves – bread, sugar, pasta – sold out at lightning speed. Gorbachev was accused of the deficit.

“There is no grain, no currency, the situation is hopeless,” Nikolai Ryzhkov, chairman of the USSR Council of Ministers, reported to the Politburo.

At the Congress of People’s Deputies, they called to change not only the political system, but also the economic one. But Gorbachev feared that market reforms would accelerate the country’s collapse.

“The main achievement of perestroika is democracy and glasnost,” the secretary general repeated when it came to problems in the economy.

In May, food cards began to be dispensed. People panicked.

March 26, 2019, 08:00

“Soviet Federation”. Who wanted to “reset” the USSR and what came of it

“How was it allowed?”

In 1990, Article 6, on the leading role of the CPSU, was excluded from the Constitution. There were new parties and the post of president, which was taken by Gorbachev.He hoped to strengthen the position, but it turned out differently.

Following Moscow, the presidency was introduced by Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan. The leaders of the borderlands openly discussed the withdrawal from the Union.

“How did you allow it? The president is elected in Uzbekistan without advice, consultations, without prior arrangement?” Gorbachev wondered.

“This is what the people wanted,” answered the head of the local Communist Party, Islam Karimov. Later it was he who headed the republic.

It was decided not to aggravate the situation.Moscow remembered the clashes in the Fergana region between Uzbeks and Meskhetian Turks in the summer of 1989. The instigators were not found, but it became obvious: the national borderlands require greater independence.

In June 1990, an armed conflict between Uzbeks and Kyrgyz broke out in Osh. More than a thousand people died.

But Central Asia is not the first Soviet region where national problems arose. They talked about leaving the USSR in the Caucasus and the Baltic states.

June 3, 2019, 08:00 Special report Fergana massacre.Why did the tragedy that shook the Soviet Union happened?

In the Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Region (NKAO) within the Azerbaijan SSR, this led to a war. Karabakh Armenians believed that Baku pays little attention to the region. In 1987, calls were made to surrender the territory of Armenia. Yerevan insisted that Artsakh was historically an Armenian land. But Azerbaijan did not want to concede.

In February 1988, a tragedy happened in Sumgait: local Armenians were robbed, killed, their houses were set on fire. In January 1990, ethnic clashes began in Baku.A war broke out between Azerbaijan and Armenia.

“The first hot spot in the” Unbreakable Union “was Karabakh. The war launched the disintegration of the USSR,” Thomas de Waal, a researcher of the Karabakh conflict, writes in the book “Black Garden”.

They also started talking about the department in Georgia. This was preceded by the events of April 7, 1989. Residents of the republic went to the Government House and demanded independence. The military dispersed the rally by force, nineteen people were killed in a stampede.

In June 1990, the Moldavian SSR declared sovereignty, taking a course of rapprochement with Romania.Transnistria opposed and announced its secession from the republic. The disagreements between the Moldovan authorities and Tiraspol in 1992 escalated into a war. The conflict was frozen, but the status of the region has not yet been determined.

Do with Vilnius as with Prague

Gorbachev realized that the USSR was bursting at the seams, but did not want to put up with it. In the winter of 1990, he arrived in Lithuania, where the authorities were preparing to declare sovereignty. At a meeting with residents of Vilnius, the “father of perestroika” proposed “to give a chance to the Soviet federation.”However, the people demanded “complete independence”.

“Lithuania has become a developed country in a large Soviet family. Russia sells you cotton, oil, raw materials and not for hard currency,” Gorbachev addressed the people.

“Lithuania had a hard currency before the war. You took it away from us in 1940,” the worker retorted in the crowd.

Gorbachev was offered to hold the Baltic by force. “Three regiments will block the leaders of the separatists, and the collaborators will invite our military,” Army General Valentin Varennikov assured.But Gorbachev reasoned: “The plan to deal with Vilnius as with Prague in 1968” will not work.

In March Lithuania declared independence and was the first to secede from the USSR. A month later, Latvia and Estonia declared their sovereignty. Moscow responded by cutting off oil and gas supplies to the Baltics. After three months of economic blockade, the Lithuanian authorities imposed a moratorium on the “Act of Independence”. But it was not possible to return the Baltic countries.

In January 1991, the Soviet military entered Vilnius.Gorbachev issued an ultimatum to the Supreme Soviet of Lithuania: “to withdraw the anti-constitutional act on sovereignty.” The Alpha fighters occupied state institutions and stormed the TV tower. Fifteen people were killed in street riots.

Events in Lithuania angered Western politicians. Many supporters at home also turned their backs on Gorbachev. He shifted responsibility to the military. But the point of no return was passed: the Baltics were lost.

April 9, 2019, 08:00

“When soldiers appear, sing!” Why did Georgia change 30 years ago

“Take sovereignty, how much you swallow”

The parade of sovereignty was held not only in the union republics.Autonomous regions also thought about withdrawal. However, Russia itself set the fashion.

On June 12, the Chairman of the Supreme Soviet Boris Yeltsin signed the Declaration on the Sovereignty of Russia. The document stipulated the priority of Russian legislation over the union one. The “war of laws” began. Gorbachev demanded strict adherence to the normative legal acts of the USSR. Yeltsin refused to obey and attracted the leaders of the outskirts to his side.

“Take as much sovereignty as you can swallow,” he addressed the leaders of the autonomous republics.

Karelian, Tatar, Udmurt, Yakutsk, Buryat, Bashkir, Mari, Chuvash autonomous Soviet socialist republics, Chukotka, Yamalo-Nenets, Gorno-Altai autonomous districts, Adygeya autonomous region and Komi declared independence. The Kremlin saw in this the threat of the collapse of not only the Union, but also Russia.

The situation in the Tatar SSR caused serious concern. On August 30, the Supreme Soviet of the Autonomous Republic adopted the Declaration of Sovereignty.A referendum is scheduled for 1992. They started talking about their own constitution.

July 1, 2020, 08:00

“Our man, we must take.” Who brought Yeltsin into big politics

“Tatarstan could create a dangerous precedent. Kazan put forward political demands related to a new understanding of federalism,” recalled a negotiator, former Deputy Minister of Economy and Finance Andrei Nechaev. They demanded that the oil be divided differently.Otherwise, they stressed, secession from Russia is inevitable. “

Tatarstan was persuaded to stay and promised not to take half of the oil produced from the region. Chechen war

Boris Yeltsin, Stanislav Shushkevich and Leonid Kravchuk signed the Belavezha Accords on December 8, 1991.

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