Copic sketch architecture: 600 Copic Sketch ideas | architecture sketch, architecture drawing, copic sketch


Top 10 Best Copic Markers for Beginners, Architecture, Skin tones & Anime of 2021

Typically, the Copic markers are known better than most other markers as they have a brush nib. Due to this, it can create a feathering effect that other markers can’t do. Not to mention, they’re highly portable. Hence, illustrators, designers, artists, and colorists prefer Copic marker for their eye-catching effect. So, the Copic marker set the standard for excellence. More to the point, picking up the best Copic markers is hard but could be a laborious task.

Thus, I thought, why bother you? Let me do this for you. To help your journey, I picked up 10 Best Copic Marker for your convenience. I researched the market very carefully as we understand how delightfully quirky you can be about your artwork. We also clearly added which Copic marker is best in which category. So, enjoy your ride with us and pick up the suitable one.

Let’s dig a little deeper, then.

What Are the Different Kinds of Copic Markers?

There are different types of Copic markers. To understand the difference, you have to be well-acquainted with them.

Copic Ciao Markers

  • The Ciao markers are entry-level markers. They are for beginners and first-timers. They are ideal for teens and kids. The price is also very reasonable than other kinds of markers.
  • The quality of the Copic ciao marker is excellent. It comes in fewer colors. However, usually, the brand provides 180 shades, which I believe is enough for beginners.
  • Furthermore, you can blend, re-work to finish your drawing and illustrations. The ciao Copic marker features double ends. However, you can’t fit any extra nib to the marker.
  • The super brush nib is pointed, plus it can bend to mix shades. The medium broad nib possesses a chisel-like tip that can fill big areas quickly. More importantly, you can use it for highlighting.
  • The Ciao marker is small. So, it’s easy to maneuver for beginners. It also fits into the smallest hands easily. One ink jar refills your marker up to 15 times.
  • The cap has small holes for air. However, rarely, these markers are compatible with Copic’s AirBrush system. The Ciao Copic markers are circular. So, they may roll off a table or a desk easily.

Copic Sketch markers

  • Copic Sketch markers are the top-notch product provided for artists, illustrators, cartoonists, and designers. They are exclusively designed for perfect blending and coloring.
  • Traditionally, they come in 358 colors so that the artists get plenty of options. This kind of marker is not suitable for amateurs.
  • Furthermore, the markers include a super brush plus a medium board nib. You can use a super brush as a paintbrush and the medium board nib for coloring.
  • Illustrators adore these markers as they can be applied for big coloring areas plus thorough work. They offer the best quality, shading, blending, and coloring. Most importantly, the Copic Sketch marker is compatible with Copic’s AirBrush system.
  • Copic Sketch markers are bigger than the Ciao marker. But it works just fine in small and large hands. The shape of the Copic sketch markers is oval. They don’t roll around flat surfaces like a table or desk. Furthermore, one ink jar fills the marker up to 12 times.

Copic Classic Marker

  • The Copic Classic markers are the genuine Copic markers. They provide the required balance between the sketch and Ciao markers. Copic Classic markers are versatile markers.
  • These colors come in 214 colors. So, the artist always finds their desired shade. The Copic Classic marker has some unique shades which are not available in sketch markers or ciao markers. However, you can blend shades in the sketch markers to find the desired shade. But you can’t do that with Ciao markers.
  • The Copic classic markers provide nine different nib options. They include standard fine tip plus standard broad chisel tip. The standard broad chisel tip is broader and bigger. On the other hand, the standard fine tip is firmer and smaller for detailed work.
  • What is more, the Copic classic marker is compatible with Copic’s AirBrush system. Interestingly enough, you may install nibs for calligraphy.
  • They’re compatible with Copic’s AirBrush System. These markers are more versatile than any other markers offered by Copic. You can install nibs for calligraphy.

Copic Wide markers

  • The Copic wide markers are suitable for the big color area. They are quite different from other models provided by Copic as they are shorter and wider. They possess a sing coloring end plus a large chisel tip.
  • They include 36 different shades, which is not a good option for artists. They are not easy to use for kids as they require larger hands to hold.

Copic Comic

  • a marker of the exclusive sale in Japan. With brush on one end and rounded fiber tip on the other. They can only be obtained by importing them through the Internet.

How Do Copic Markers Work?

Copic marker is a rich-quality alcohol-based marker. You can apply the ink smoothly. Furthermore, it is straightforward to blend with the other inks. You can re-adjust your work or re-wet the ink. The Copic marker is free of any acid. Most of the Copic markers are refillable. So,

“To purchase a Copic marker is actually an investment.

The nibs of the Copic markers are also replaceable. The Copic markers last for a long time. Some of them will last a lifetime. Copic markers do not ruin the fibers of the paper. However, it’s more compatible with the special Copic paper discussed in our previous article. I recommend you to use that.

Mixing Copic colors

An artist needs a range of colors to execute his or her work. But we all know that the Copic marker is a bit expensive. So, it’s not always possible to buy different Copic colors. However, the most striking fact about Copic color is you can blend colors to create a new shade. Most markers have a code.

How To pick up the Best Copic Markers to Start With?

Well, there are a few factors which you can keep in your mind to buy a Copic Marker.

  • Comfort: You need to be comfortable to hold your Copic marker. The Copic ciao marker possesses a round barrel, which makes it easy to carry. The wide marker maintains a flattened oval shape. The classic has a square shape. The sketch has an oval barrel shape. Each shape has its benefits and problem. However, the consumer may require a bit of practice to use the last three shapes.
  • Color Range: The Copic wide markers come in 36 colors. The sketch Copic marker comes in 358 colors. The Ciao and Classics markers come in 180 and 214 colors, respectively. Even though the sketch Copic marker seems an excellent choice, keep in mind that you may not need so many Copic Markers if you are not a prolific artist. Also, you can create new colors by blending.
  • Available nibs: Usually, Copic Marker two different nibs. They can have a huge influence on your venture. For example, a wide nib is excellent to fill in big areas. But it doesn’t do an excellent job in detailed work. Luckily enough, most of the Copic markers provide the opportunity of changing the nibs. This allows you to apply the same marker for an array of different ventures. The Copic Classic marker can work with 9 different types of ink. The sketch Copic marker can function with 3 different dibs. What is more, the wide and Ciao Copic marker provides you the option between 2 different nibs.

Top 10 best Copic Markers

1. Copic Premium Artist Markers

Copic makes one of the top-notch quality alcohol markers in the world. The Japanese manga industry develops it. Copic markers are suitable for all styles of design, illustration, crafts, and art.

PROS (What we liked)

  • This ciao set is packaged in a clear plastic case.
  • It’s compatible with the airbrush system.
  • They are well saturated.
  • They blend enchantingly.
  • The colors are vivid and vibrant.

CONS (What we didn’t like)

  • A few consumers complain about color variation. They think that the color selection should be more varied. However, most of the consumers seem more than pleased about the collection.

Key features:

  • Vibrant, smooth color: You can use Copic ink smoothly. It is easy to blend. What is more, alcohol-based ink dries acid-free. The alcohol-based ink does not ruin paper fibers the way water-based ink does. Furthermore, the open time on uncoated paper is unlimited. As a result, you can re-wet the ink later, even after years.
  • Permanent & non-toxic: This Copic marker set is free of harmful chemicals. It does not have any overwhelming odors. So, you can enjoy them without any hassle.
  • Refillable: This set is refillable. It will last a lifetime. You have to refill the marker plus replace the damaged nibs; that’ all you have to do. So, it’s an investment, not just a purchase.
  • Super brush-nib: The durable brush supports smooth blend plus paint like applications. It has the best quality and feel of the super brush nib.

Product specification:

  • Product dimension: the dimension of the product is 5 x 2.5 x 6.1 inches.
  • Shipping Weight: The shipping weight of the product is 45 pounds

Conclusion Ideas:

This is the perfect set to start your work. They can be used for all sorts of art purposes. More importantly, this set will be a lovely addition to your collection. It will serve you your lifetime.

2. Copic Marker C72A Classic 

This Copic marker classic set is exclusively designed for product rendering, architectural, and other industrial design firms. They are also perfect for use with ceramics, models, and similar ventures.

PROS (What we liked)

  • It is packaged in a clear plastic bag.
  • Markers have an array of nib options.
  • Color selection is expandable.
  • The set consists of 72 colors.

CONS (What we didn’t like)

Key Features:

  • Ideal for: this Copic marker is suitable for airbrushing, calligraphy, and graphic art needs.
  • Nib: The broad nib provides compatible, smooth coverage for larger areas. On the other hand, the fine nib agrees to easy detail work.
  • Compatible with: They are entirely compatible with the Copic airbrush system.
  • Refillable: The markers are refillable.

Product Specification:

  • Product dimension: The dimension of the product is 8 x 3 x 5.9 inches.
  • Shipping Weight: The shipping weight is 4.08lb.

Conclusion Ideas:

This is an excellent product for professional people. But it’s a bit expensive. So, if you have a reasonable budget, you can try this one.

3. Copic Marker Montana Rainbow 

This rainbow kit is a handy product. It features a handful of things you need. It contains seven markers – 5 colorful ciao markers plus two multiline pens.

PROS (What we liked)

  • They are Ethanol-based ink.
  • They are archival and photocopy safe.
  • They dry fast.
  • The colors are lighter.
  • This set is kid-friendly.

CONS (What we didn’t like)

Key Features:

  • Compatible with: 5 pieces are compatible with the Copic airbrush system.
  • Refillable: The markers are double-ended refillable markers.
  • Non-toxic: It contains non-toxic ink.
  • Waterproof: The multi liners are waterproof, permanent pigment pens that will not bleed into Copic markers.

Product specification:

  • Product dimension: the dimension of the product is 6 x 3. 8 x 0.6 inches.
  • Shipping Weight: The weight of the product is 3.2 ounces.

Conclusion Ideas:

This set has a reasonable price, and the colors are also vibrant. The caliber of this product is quite rich.

4. Copic Marker CNG12

This 12-piece neutral gray set is ideal for artists, fashion designers, comic artists, etc.

PROS (What we liked)

  • Alcohol-based ink is permanent.
  • Low odor.
  • The markers never bleed.
  • Easy to use.
  • Refillable as well as replaceable.

CONS (What we didn’t like)

Key Features:

  • Packaged: It is packaged in a clear plastic case for storage.
  • Compatible with: This set is compatible with the Copic airbrush system.
  • Markers and nibs: It has refillable markers plus replaceable nibs.
  • Safety: This alcohol-based ink is non-toxic and acid-free. So, it’s very safe to use.

Product Specification:

  • Product dimension: The dimension of the product is 3 x 1.6 x 5.8 inches.
  • Shipping Weight: The weight of the product is 12.8 ounces.

Conclusion Ideas:

This is a perfect budget-priced Copic marker for everyone. You will be delightfully happy with this set.

5. Copic Markers GL12ASET 

This 12-piece Copic marker glitter set could be a perfect way to start or add to a marker collection. It features a no-clog tip.

PROS (What we liked)

  • The ink is archival.
  • It comes in a clear plastic case for portability.
  • The glitter is sparkly. They twinkle like stars.
  • The markers lay down a semi-opaque color.
  • The colors are vibrant.
  • They (the pens) enhanced your coloring or crafting venture.

CONS (What we didn’t like)

  • Sometimes they can bleed.

Key features:

  • Safety: The ink is non-toxic plus acid-free.
  • Writes for: It writes for over 360-yards-twice the measurement of other glitter pens.
  • Glitter: The glitter is made of micro-glass flakes that are more reflective than glass beads applied or used by other brands.

Product specification:

  • Product dimension: The dimension of the product is 6 x 5 x 0.6 inches.
  • Shipping Weight: The product weight is around 2 ounces.

Conclusion Ideas:

If you love a gorgeous glitter accent, these are a suitable pen for you.

6. Copic IB12 Ciao Markers

This is the perfect set for beginners, affordable, and provides 12 colors, which lets you create your coloring collection. You can use these vibrant and smooth colors in different designs, illustrations, crafts, and art.

PROS (What we liked)

  • The colors dry fast.
  • It comes in a plastic cover.
  • Comfortable to hold.
  • Easy to maneuver.

CONS (What we didn’t like)

  • Two nib options are available.

Key Features:

  • Permanent: The colors are permanent. The markers don’t ruin paper fibers as they are alcohol-based markers.
  • Lasting: You can use these markers for a long time.
  • Dual end: You can use the dual ends to paint, color, and highlight.
  • Refillable and replaceable: The markers are refillable. They also have replaceable nibs. What is more, it’s compatible with the Copic airbrush system.
  • Suitable for: The colors are non-toxic. So, they are an excellent pick-up for kids and teens.

Product specification:

  • Product dimension: The dimension of the product is 6 x 1. 4 x 6 inches.
  • Shipping Weight: The weight of the product is 7 ounces.

Conclusion Ideas:

This is the best Copic marker for beginners as the price is very much affordable, plus the quality of the product is top-notch.

7. Copic Markers 9-Piece Multiliner 

Copic multi-liner inking pen is a must-have item for artists, designers, and illustrators as they have consistent line flow plus precision.

PROS (What we liked)

  • The colors are archival.
  • These pigment-based inks are fade resistant.
  • They are long-lasting.
  • They dry fast.
  • They don’t bleed.
  • You can write a journal with these pens.
  • It comes with two brush tip markers.

CONS (What we didn’t like)

Key Features:

  • Waterproof: The multi liners are waterproof on papers. Frequently, they are used with watercolors as they don’t bleed.
  • Copic-proof: Once the multi liners’ ink dry, they will not bleed when colored over with Copic markers.
  • Available in: this set is available in 8 colors. The colors are olive, warm gray, brown, sepia, wine, pink, cobalt, and gray.
  • Sizes: Wine, olive, and cobalt available in 4 nib sizes; 0.3mm, 0.5mm, and 0.5 mm.

Product Specification:

  • Product dimension: The dimension of the product is 5 x 0.5 x 6 inches.
  • Item Weight: The weight of the product is around 0.8 ounces.

Conclusion Ideas:

It’s a pretty great product, and customers adore that.

8. Copic Marker SB12 

This Copic marker 12 pieces sketch basic set packaged in a clear plastic case.

PROS (What we liked)

  • They have refillable markers plus replaceable nibs.
  • They are compatible with the c airbrush system.
  • They are acid-free and dries fast.
  • The colors are smooth and vibrant.

CONS (What we didn’t like)

Key Features:

  • Nibs: The sketch marker comes with two nibs. It also comes with a super brush. These two selections let you metamorphose between covering larger areas and precision coloring successfully.
  • Permanent: The colors are permanent. They will not fade with time. It will not affect the paper also as it’s alcohol-based ink.
  • Decoration: you can add more color, re-wet the ink, or adjust your writing.
  • Shape: They don’t roll over the desk or table as they are oval.
  • Blending: The markers assist you to blend amazing colors.

Product specification:

  • Product dimension: The dimension of the product is 4 x 1.3 x 6 inches.
  • Shipping Weight: The weight of the product is 10.1 ounces.

Conclusion Ideas:

Thee markers are the topmost choice for a Japanese manga artist. They will last for a long time.

9.Copic Markers 6-Piece Sketch Set

Copic marker is suitable for all kinds of styles of crafts, illustration, design, and art. This skin tone set is very great to create varied tones in your pictures, which makes the images enchanting.

PROS (What we liked)

  • It’s packaged in a clear plastic case.
  • They have an oval shape.
  • They dry fast.
  • The set is compatible with the Copic airbrush system.
  • They have better tips.

CONS (What we didn’t like)

  • Not yet found. A few consumers complained about the price. However, the price decreases a bit. So, that’s not a problem now.

Key features:

  • Refillable: You can refill the marker again and again. However, you can also replace the damaged nibs.
  • Super brush nib: It comes with a flexible brush nib for paint-like applications.
  • Permanent: The colors are permanent.
  • Safety: The Copic ink is acid-free.
  • Vibrant, smooth color: You can use Copic ink smoothly. It is easy to blend. What is more, the alcohol-based ink dries acid-free. The alcohol-based ink does not ruin paper fibers the way water-based ink does. Furthermore, the open time on uncoated paper is unlimited. As a result, you can re-wet the ink later, even after years.

Product specification:

  • Product dimension: the dimension of the product is 8 x 0.5 x 3.9 inches.
  • Shipping weight: The weight of the product is around 3.52 ounces.

Conclusion Ideas:

This skin tone set consists of E00 Cotton Pearl, E11 Barley Beige, E13 Light Suntan, E15 Dark Suntan, E18 Copper, and R20 Blush. It will enhance your painting on a different level.

10. Copic Marker Sketch Color Fusion Markers

This Copic marker is suitable for fine art design, crafting paper, and more. It has three markers in different shades.

PROS (What we liked)

  • It’s quite safe for people.
  • Best quality.
  • Great for design, paper crafting, and more.

CONS (What we didn’t like)

Key features:

  • Available in: It is available in a range of different color options.
  • Safety: it’s nontoxic. It conforms to ASTM D 4236. So, it’s quite safe for people.

Product Specification:

  • Product dimension: The dimension of the product is 9 x 0.5 x 2 inches.
  • Shipping Weight: the weight of the product is 0.32 ounces.

Conclusion Ideas:

It’s a must-try product for artists.

Overall Ideas

These are our top 10 best Copic markers. So, understand your requirements and choose wisely. However, if I need to recommend any paper, I will select Copic Premium Artist Markers – 72 colors. The reason for picking up is this the quality and the price. Copic Marker C72A Classic 72 Color Marker Sketch Set is more resourceful than the previous one. But it’s a bit pricey.

The final call is yours. So, whatever decision you make, best luck with that. I hope your adventure will allow us to enjoy some best artworks; if you would like to share anything, comment below.

Frequently Asked Questions About Copic Marker

What are Copic Markers exactly?

Copics are professional designer felt-tip pens. These are based on alcohol. Like all alcohol-based sticks, they have the property of drying quite quickly. This may not always be an advantage, but the fast drying causes them to blur less often than other pens. Designers, architects, and comic artists use the Copic Markers to create their sketches and storyboards and make them more lively. Gradually, however, the Copic markers also prevailed in the manga and anime area, as they are ideal for full-fledged artwork work. Using Copics, it is possible to achieve nearly uniform and streak-free color applications. Optionally, there are the pens with a comprehensive and highlighter similar and with a fine brush-like tip to buy. Of the various brands, there are approximately pens in almost 150 different colors and designs. So your imagination will not be limited in any way.

Which Copic is the best?

It’s best to try them out and decide for yourself which pen suits you best. Many drafters prefer a marker because they can create quite fine and exact lines with them. Others favor the sketch because you can paint very soft transitions and contours with this pen. And still, others like to draw with a Ciao because this pen is quite inexpensive.

Which colors do I need exactly?

What colors you need to paint is always heavily dependent on what exactly you want to represent. In principle, your choice of color depends on your taste. Specifically, the different nuances of each hue are highly dependent on personal taste. Simultaneously, drafting technicians may find a darker red tone more beautiful, while others may see a lighter shade more pleasing. Fortunately, a lot of paper is always left out in most stores for drawing supplies, so you can calmly search for your very own favorite color. If you are one of the persons who can only order their markers online, it is advisable to get a dealer’s catalog. These are usually the different color codes to decide based on the color tables, which colors you want to work on later. From time to time, though, the tables are not 100 percent authentic, and when you paint, you’ll end up with little “surprises.” However, this does not have to be the rule. In such a case, it makes sense to mix your colors. One possibility would be, for example, in such a case, the color palette of Transotype the company Neopiko view. However, do not spend too much effort on your first steps with the Copic markers. First, a set with a total of 12 markers should be entirely sufficient. This includes a basic palette of colors like yellow, red, green, etc., and black. If you are a bit more experienced with the pens’ handling, it certainly makes sense to increase your color assortment a bit. However, in most cases, this happens from artwork to artwork by itself. If you want to draw portraits primarily, then it is recommended, as it is quite difficult for most artists to draw skin color to have always a “Milky While (E 51)” or a “Skin White (E 00)” in its range. Alternatively, a “Barely Beige (E 11)” or the darker “Brick Beige (E 31)” is perfect for skin color.

Bookmark model Ink refill Initial load (empty marker pen) Bottle duration
Copic Sketch 1.8 ml 3 ml 13 refills approx.
Copic Ciao 1.8 ml not available 17 refills approx.
Copic Classic 2.5 ml 4 ml 10 refills approx.
Copic Wide 3.5 ml 6 ml 10 refills approx.

What are the differences between the Copic markers?

model characteristics handling
Copic markers a classic – it is available with a broad and thin tip, angular shape, 214 colors, refillable, different accessories is similar to the Maloptik, a little known Edding, with it can be both coarse and fine paint.
Copic Sketch a marker in brush shape with a broad and thin tip, oval shape, available in a total of 144 colors, different accessories. Using this Copic, strikingly soft brushstrokes can be created. For this reason, he is also more popular with one or the other cartoonist than the standard Copic markers.
Copic Ciao A reasonably priced entry-level Copic has a round brush shape and is available in a total of 144 different colors. A marker in brush shape with a broad and thin tip, oval shape, available in a total of 144 colors, different accessories.
Copic Wide It has a full top and is available in a total of 35 colors. An advantage: it is refillable. This pen is perfect for coloring large areas.
Copic Various Ink There are also refill bottles for this pen. Matching the system, there are refill bottles and empty markers to create your mixed colors. The bottles are refillable at least six times.

What prices do I have to expect for Copic markers?

Of course, the prices vary according to the quality of the different Copic markers. Almost all are available in various sign and art supply stores. You can buy your Copics individually or in a set. You are just faced with the agony of choosing between one of the corresponding online shops. Enclosed a small price list so that you can estimate the resulting cost factor a little better.

model Price/pen in Dollar comment
Copic Marker Copic Sketch about 3,50 – 6, – Dollars per pen Some dealers also offer appropriate volume discounts.
Copic Ciao about 2,50 – 4, – Dollars per pen
Copic Wide about 5.50 – 8 – Dollars per pen
Various Ink about 6, – – 9, – Dollars
Copic Multiliner: Line widths (0.05 to 1.0 mm): between 2. 30 to 3, – Dollars per pen, Brush widths (Brush M and S): approx. 2.80 – 3.50 Dollars
Copic paper DIN A4 block about 5, – Dollars, Din A3 block about 10, –

Copic Original Marker Architecture Wallet Set of 12 | Cass Art

The Copic Marker Architecture Wallet Set of 12 contains Copic Original Markers, one of the highest quality markers:

  • Used by professionals worldwide, they contain blendable ink and are exported from Japan.
  • Choose from a stunning palette Square barrel, includes a Broad Chisel nib and a Fine Point nib Refillable
  • The Copic colour system contains useful information that can help you decide on the best option. 
  • They contain the colour family, saturation and brightness information.

Colours Included

Light Orange
Dull Ivory

Lipstick Natural
Light Mahogany
Burnt Sienna
Cool Grey No 2
Cool Grey No 4

We have temporarily paused orders to International destinations whilst we upgrade our systems to meet the new export rules. We are working hard to keep this break as short as possible so we can be back up and running as soon as possible.

Thank you for your patience.

Our delivery partners are now operating contact-free delivery so that you can still receive your parcels safely without requiring a signature.

For more details about the steps we are taking during the COVID-19 pandemic, please click here

Delivery Method

Delivery Time


Standard UK


3-5 Working Days After Date of Dispatch

Mon – Fri

£4.95 – £6.95
FREE over £50


Next Day UK

1 Working Day
Mon – Fri

£6. 95
Up to £50

Between £50 – £100

Over £100

Exclusions apply.


Highlands & Islands

3-5 Working Days
Mon – Fri

FREE over £50


Click and Collect

2 Working Days
Mon – Fri

FREE over £15
Unavailable for orders under £15



3-5 Working Days
Mon – Fri

FREE over £50

Currently unavailable for Northern Ireland


5-8 Working Days
Mon – Fri

10€ & 15€ – FREE over 75€

Currently unavailable

To return items, please follow the instructions on our return page

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Source: pinterest. com

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How to Use Copic Markers

Copic Markers For Anime Drawings

When we recommended you get a set of 12 Copic markers, we were aiming to give you as much art range as possible. With a combination of tones, primary colors, family colors, and greys, you can create almost anything you want to, including anime or manga illustrations.

Even if you need to find a shade of a color that you don’t have a variety of, grey markers can be used as a substitute.

For anime or manga illustration, we recommend the following Copic art markers for the skin:

Color Code Guide

  • E00 as a base.
  • R12 as your shading color.
  • E04 for shadows around the neck and hair.

As well as these three marker colors, using some whiteout fluid corrector along with a pencil is going to help you add reflections and detail to your art, particularly around the eyes. Alternatively, you could use a brush nib Copic Sketch marker for this.

When you’re blending, you ideally want two markers that are in the same color family and between one and three intensities of each other.

Start off with your base color and color in the area that you’re working on. Given that Copic Sketch markers are alcohol markers, you’re going to want to start blending before the ink has dried. For that, use a darker shade from the blending group and apply quick strokes to the area you’re looking to add shadow to. Use circles and avoid the use of zig zag strokes to ensure a smooth finish. Once you’ve done that, go back over it with the lighter base shade and drag the dark ink out to get a gradient.

You should also consider using the Copic colorless blender marker. This colorless blender has white ink and is great for both adding details as well as fixing mistakes and adding textures to your paper. If you do use the colorless blender marker, you have a few different techniques that you can use.

Ideally, though, you should go over the entire area with it before you go in with your Copic Sketch marker. Then, while the alcohol-based markers and ink are still damp, go in with your darker color making sure you’re using markers that are in the same color family. Following that, you can use your Copic Classic markers, Copic Wide, Copic Ciao markers, or Copic Sketch markers to add the lighter details to your page.

That’s how to use Copics in general. For anime art, there are a few general tips that we can give you.

First, light is very important. The difference between professionally colored manga work and that of an amateur is that the professional knows how to use it. Copic markers are built to help you with stuff like this, so make sure you’re taking advantage of your tools.

When you’re coloring, recognize where the lighting source is for the character or background on the page. Use a Copic color that compliments the style that you’re working with, and make sure you have the markers needed to add shadows.

When you’re applying your base marker color, keep areas of the picture white to reflect the direction and intensity of the light, particularly on the hair of your character.

Lastly, you don’t just have to use your Copic art markers for shading. Don’t be afraid to use some light pinks to add some blush.

Young Architect Guide: 12 Essential Drawing Tools for Architects

Sign up to be informed when the next One Drawing Challenge competition opens for submissions. Be sure to check out the rest of this year’s extraordinary Winners and Commended Entries. 

“The pencil and computer are, if left to their own devices, equally dumb and only as good as the person driving them.”

Sir Norman Foster’s classic quote is as true now as ever. Great drawings are born from creative ideas, rather than the tools used to create them. That said, high quality tools — both digital and analog — are undeniably essential in bringing a great idea to life. Whether looking to render the perfect shot with Photoshop, set the scene with watercolors, or simply sketch out an idea in pen, these tools are vital in communicating architectural visions to our clients, professors or a wider audience.

Architizer’s One Drawing Challenge — a summer drawing competition with prizes valued at more than $5,000 — challenges entrants to tell a story with a single drawing. As such, the drawing tools used will be a key factor for entrants in deciding how best to create their submission. Drawing tools are not created equal — some tools are best suited for particular methods and techniques, and in turn, help establish a more coherent picture of our concept.

Rounding up some tools of the trade, the following products are designed to bring drawings to life. Featuring a range of tools for measuring, ideation and technical execution, the products each provide a different means by which to realize an idea. No singular tool can accomplish everything, so combine tools and processes to create the perfect illustration for your project.

Digital Tools

Best digital illustration app for architects

This multi‑award winning creative application gives you the power to create beautiful sketches, inspiring paintings, and stunning illustrations wherever you are. With Procreate, say the makers, “the world is your studio”. Behind an easy-to-use, intuitive interface lies a professional drawing with a wide range of functionality for designers. The app allows you to export layers in PDF, PNG and GIF formats, and boasts full PSD support for masks, blend modes and groups. The most recent iteration of the app includes seven new blend modes and more than 130 handcrafted brushes to provide you with hug amounts of versatility.

See more and buy

Apple iPad Pro
Best drawing tablet for architects

What pairs perfectly with Procreate? The iPad Pro. The iPad isn’t a dedicated drawing tablet, but that doesn’t mean it can’t be used that way. The new 12.9″ iPad Pro features an advanced, edge-to-edge Liquid Retina display, and face ID means you can securely unlock iPad Pro, log in to apps and pay with just a glance. The A12X Bionic chip is faster than many PC laptops and easily runs pro apps, and the latest iPad features “all-day” battery life. Over a million apps are now available on the App Store, including augmented reality experiences. The Smart Keyboard Folio can help you be even more creative and productive.

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Apple Pencil 2; image via Apple

Apple Pencil 2
Best drawing stylus for architects

There are a plethora of tablets and styluses now available for designers, but nothing beats the Apple Pencil 2 when it comes to responsiveness and functionality. The new Pencil attaches magnetically with a satisfying snap onto the side of your iPad Pro, and once attached, it pairs and charges wirelessly. According to the tech giant, the Apple Pencil 2 is the best tool to achieve pixel‑perfect precision in a digital environment. You simply press harder for thicker lines, lighter for thinner ones, and create shading simply by tilting your stylus — all with virtually no lag between what you draw and what you see. The latest version also allows you to change between tools, like a pencil to an eraser, with a simple double-tap.

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Digital drawing glove
Best accessory for digital artists

While Apple boasts that its iPad will not leave you tearing your hair out as your resting hand leaves a mark on your drawing, users of some other (cheaper) tablets suffer from this problem. There’s a “handy” solution though: A drawing tablet glove covers just two fingers and is specially designed for artists who use graphic tablets and light boxes for their creative work. Made of high elastic lycra fibre, this particular glove features great air permeability and strong tensile resistance, effectively improving the work efficiency. It reduces the friction between your hand and the tablet surface, providing you with greater comfort when drawing on a tablet for long periods.

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Analog Tools

Sakura Pigma Micron Pens; image via Sakura

Sakura Pigma Micron Pens
Best ink pens for architects

Architects and artists alike reach for Pigma Micron pens to convey their personal drawing style, and to safeguard their work with the lasting quality of Pigma ink, invented by Sakura over 25 years ago. Pigma Micron pens come in seven point sizes, making them ideal for any application requiring precision and permanence. Unlike dye-based ink found in most pens and markers, Pigma ink will not feather or bleed, even through the thinnest paper. Pigma ink is derived from a single pigment to ensure color consistency, is fade-proof against sunlight or UV light, and will not clog or dry out like most mechanical pens.

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Copic marker sketch; image via ArtStation

Copic Markers
Best marker pens for architects

Copic makes one of the highest quality alcohol markers in the world. Developed for — and widely adopted by — the Japanese manga industry, Copic markers are ideal for all styles of architectural sketching, art, design, illustration and crafts. Durable, refillable and featuring replaceable nibs, you only need to buy a Copic marker once. Copic ink applies smoothly, with the unique, flexible brush allowing for smooth blends and a paint-like application.. The alcohol based ink dries acid free and does not destroy paper fibers the way water based inks do. Also, the open time on uncoated papers is limitless, so you can go back and re-wet the ink years later.

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Pentel Sign Pen

Pentel Sign Pen
Best sketching pen for architects

Felt tip pens are the go-to tool for speed sketching in many architecture and design firms. Perfect for general writing, drawing, doodling and adding character to a signature, the sign pen uses a bright & intense water-based ink and comes with a snap-fit cap that prevents the tip from drying out when not in use. Lately, these pens have been made as part of Pentel’s Recycology line of products and are made of 80% recycled plastic. These are great for sketching and marking up, and they have great strength and flow while allowing for different line sizes to be drawn.

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Beginner’s Drafting Architects’ Kit; image via Alvin

Beginner’s Drafting Architects’ Kit
Best basic drafting set for architects

If you’re brand new to drawing (or drawing like an architect), you can start with a tool like this drafting kit from Alvin. It comes with a 7×5 inch sketch pad, several rulers, mechanical pencil and lead, compass, eraser, stencil, and a carrying case. All pieces are standard sized and standard grade. This is truly a combination of tools that can be used as a great way for beginners to start drawing. You can eliminate guesswork, save time, and work with consistent equipment. Also, the replacement of missing or broken items is easy because they are standard stock.

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Alvin Trace Paper

Alvin Trace Paper
Best value trace paper for architects

Trace paper is used by many architects on a daily basis when designing and sketching by hand — Bob Borson of Life of an Architect swears by it. It’s very useful to be able to overlay plans, sections and elevational compositions on top of each other. Trace paper is great for detail or rough sketch work. The type of paper can vary, but most accept pencil, ink and charcoal, as well as felt tip markers without bleed through. High transparency permits several overlays while retaining legibility.

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Moleskin Sktechbook

Moleskin Sketchbook
Best sketchbook for architects

Moleskins are prolific in architecture, and for good reason. The Classic Collection notebooks feature rounded corners, ivory-colored pages, an elastic closure and a bookmark ribbon. The expandable back pocket makes space for cards, tickets and other ideas you have. They also come in many styles, from lined to unlined, dotted to graph paper, as well as hardcover or softcover. You can sketch, take notes and let your ideas flow through a sturdy, well made book.

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Arteza Triangular Architect Scale

Arteza Scale Rule
Best aluminum scale rule for architects

An architect’s scale typically has three sides, with each side displaying two different scales. These are the six scales most commonly used for architectural drawings. The Arteza Triangular Architect Scale provides three different color grooves so you can quickly and accurately select the desired scale. It’s made from anodized aluminum for a lightweight and durable feel. For technical drawings and accuracy, be sure to note whether you’re in metric or imperial scales.

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Architectural Graphics by Francis Ching

Architectural Graphics by Francis Ching
Best architectural graphics book for architects

Francis Ching’s books have become a staple of architecture schools and firms. The guides are known for describing architectural techniques and methods. This one in particular lays out architectural graphics and hand drawn techniques. The guide offers a comprehensive introduction to using graphic tools and drafting conventions to translate architectural ideas into effective visual presentations, using hundreds of the author’s distinctive drawings to illustrate the topic effectively. It includes explanations of line weights, scale and dimensioning, and perspective drawing to clarify concepts. Architectural graphics are key tools for conveying design through representation on paper or on screen, and this book is one of the ultimate guides.

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Sign up to be informed when the next One Drawing Challenge competition opens for submissions. Be sure to check out the rest of this year’s extraordinary Winners and Commended Entries. 

All photographs courtesy of the manufacturers.

The Complete Beginner’s Guide to Copic Markers

So you want to get into Copic art markers? Well, this beginner’s guide is a great place to start! You’ve probably drawn with Crayola markers before but now it’s time to join the big leagues.

If art markers are a completely brand new type of art medium for you, you might want to first check out my complete beginner’s guide to art markers. If you need inspiration, try checking out this list of 12 amazing Copic artists to follow on Instagram. 

Here’s a list of what’s covered in this guide.

1. Introduction
2. Copic Marker Features
3. Different Types of Markers
4. Copic Color Theory
5. Copic Coloring Tips
6. Copic Colorless Blender
7. Replacing Copic Marker Nibs
8. Refilling Ink in Copic Markers
9. Choosing the Right Paper

This post contains Amazon affiliate links. Don’t worry! Your price stays the same. I just receive a small percentage of the sale which helps cover the costs of maintaining this website. I only link to products I highly recommend. Check out my privacy policy for more info. 


Copic is a Japanese brand of art markers (and other art supplies) whose popularity has rocketed among artists in the United States for the past few years. Copic is made by a Japanese company called Too but is distributed by Imagination International and Notions Marketing in the US and Canada, respectively. These markers were developed with the Japanese manga industry in mind but their popularity quickly caught on for artists in all different styles of art, design, and crafts.

Copic Marker Features

Copic markers are known as being one of the highest quality alcohol-based markers available. These markers feature a permanent, non-toxic, acid-free ink that produces pretty smooth and easy-to-blend colors. These are also available in 358 different colors and 4 different types of markers–Original, Sketch, Ciao, Wide, and Comic. Another great thing about Copic markers is that the ink is refillable and can even be mixed to create unique colors. In addition to that, the nibs of the markers are also replaceable should they become used or damaged. Even with all these great features, Copic guarantees a 3-year shelf-life for their markers.

Copic markers have a pretty hefty price tag on them though, with markers ranging from $3-$9 depending on how and where you purchase them. Many consider the price worth it due to Copic’s high quality and ability to refill ink and replace nibs. Before investing in an entire set, it’s always advisable that you try them out. Thankfully, Copic markers are also sold individually so you can buy 1 or 2 colors to try out first. At your local crafts store, you might find these individual packs locked up behind some fancy gates due to the high price and quality.

Copic markers also have their own color labeling system that is extremely useful to know as an artist. Copic also sells an airbrush system that you can use with their markers to produce an airbrush-like effect for your artwork. No worries though, we’ll cover all of this in this beginner’s guide.

What are the Different Types of Copic Markers?

Copic Original

As the name would suggest, the Copic Original marker is considered their original. It’s available as a double-sided square barrel marker with a broad tip on one side and a fine tip on the other. It holds the most ink out of the five types of markers and has 9 different nib options. These are typically used for basic crafts rather than professional high-quality artwork. They’re also available in 214 colors and compatible with the Copic airbrushing system.

Copic Sketch

Copic Sketch is the ideal marker for high-quality artwork and is available double-sided with a broad tip on one side and a brush tip on the other. The tips on these oval-barreled markers can also be changed but only 1 other nib options are available. Copic Sketch markers are available in all 358 colors and are typically the ideal choice for professional artists. Like the Copic Original, these markers can also be used by Copic’s airbrushing system.

Copic Ciao

Copic Ciao is similar to the Copic Sketch markers but cheaper and of lesser quality. Unlike the other markers, they are cylindrical in shape and do not have their color name printed on the caps. They’re also only available in 156 colors. The Copic Ciao markers are also double-sided with a broad chisel nib on one side and a brush on the other. Lastly, the cap on these markers is actually child-safe with little air holes to allow for breathing room if it were to accidentally be swallowed.

Copic Wide

Copic Wide has an extremely wide tip, as you could probably predict from the name –3/4″ inch to be exact.. They’re ideal if you need to color a larger surface area but are only available in 36 different colors. They aren’t double-sided but the wide nib can be changed out for 1 other nib option.

Copic Color Theory

Copic markers can be identified by their color code which is a combination of letters or numbers that can be found printed on both ends of the marker. The letters identify the color family, the first digit represents the blending group and the last digit refers to the intensity of the color. To determine if a color will blend easily with another, you want to match the color code as close as possible. For a complete chart of all 358 colors available, check out this chart from Copic.

Color Family

The letters of the color code identify the color family. Markers with the same letters will be in the same color family. The chart below outlines what color family the letters represent. If you check out this from Copic, you’ll see the complete list of colors for each family. The colors shown below are by no means an accurate representation since the fluorescent family also has yellow, green, violet, etc. Copic also has 4 gray families with Cool Gray being the coolest family followed by Neutral Gray, Toner Gray, and Warm Gray.

Blending Group

The first digit of the color code indicates the level of saturation. The numbers range from 0 to 9 where 0 indicates the highest level of saturated color available and 9 indicates a desaturated color. Matching this number for different Copic markers will keep the blending group the same.

Specific Value

The last number refers to the intensity or specific value of the color. The numbers also range from 0 to 9 where 0 indicates the lightest color and 9 indicates the darkest color available. If you desire highlights, choose a color where the last numbers range from 0-4. If you’re looking for mid-tones, select colors where the last digits are 4, 5, or 6. For shadows, you’ll want to select colors where the last digits are 7, 8, or 9. For the best results when choosing colors to blend well, select ones where the last digit is within the 2-3 digit range.

Copic Marker Coloring Tips

  • Before you color on any paper, you should test the markers on it to see if you’ll get any bleeding. Make sure that you have a few more layers of paper underneath to see how severe the bleed might be.
  • If you are using a variety of mediums on your artwork, make sure all other artwork is completely dry before coloring with the markers. If you are laying down lines of ink before coloring, you definitely want to avoid smudging these lines.
  • Make sure you use the lightest colors first and gradually work towards your darker shadows. If you color with darker colors first, it will be difficult to fix mistakes.
  • To blend, first color the desired area evenly with the lighter color. Next, you want to color the desired area with a darker color. Use the lighter color to blend the area where the two colors meet by applying to color over this area multiple times until the colors blend together.
  • You can also blend color by treating the marker ink sort of like watercolor paints. Use the marker to color on a piece of plastic. The ink shouldn’t absorb into the plastic and will leave a small puddle. Take the marker of the second color you want to blend it with and touch the nib to this puddle. It will pick up a small amount of the color on the tip of the nib. Use the marker like a paintbrush and you’ll see the blended color result on the paper.

Colorless Blender

A colorless blender has the same ink that’s found in all other Copic markers but without the color. A colorless blender can also be used to help blend. Saturate your desired area with the colorless blender first. Add the color you want over that layer while it’s still damp. This will result in a much smoother, blending effect due to the colorless blender ink moving the color on paper.

Colorless blenders are great for adding highlights when you need to add lighter colors to a darker area. Although it isn’t recommended to use darker colors before light, you may find that you want to add highlights to a certain area that you have already colored. Colorless blenders can also be used to fade an area. Make sure you try out the colorless blenders and the effects they can have on a particular color by testing them out on a different sheet of paper. You can also use colorless blenders if you color outside of the desired space by using the marker to push the color back into the right area. If you repeat this step, the color will appear lighter and lighter. Listed below are all the great things you can do with a colorless blender: Check this guide out for detailed info on how to get all these results.

  • Adding highlights
  • Fading to white
  • Coloring transparent objects
  • Pre-soaking paper
  • Fixing mistakes
  • Adding texture & patterns
  • Blending colors together
  • Muting colors
  • Cleaning up edges

Replacing Nibs on Copic Markers

As mentioned previously, Copic markers have this neat feature of having replaceable nibs. Whenever they become too worn out or damaged, you can buy nibs to replace them. You can also change out nibs if you are looking for a different stroke line or weight when applying color. Not all of the types of nibs are available for each type of marker.

The Copic Classic marker has the most options with 9 different nibs –brush, calligraphy (3mm and 5mm), round, soft broad,  standard broad, semi broad, super fine, and standard fine. The Copic Sketch marker has 3 different options –super brush, medium broad, and medium round. The Copic Ciao has the super brush and medium broad nibs as options. The Copic Wide also has 2 options –broad calligraphy and extra broad.

To replace them, use a tweezer to gently pull out the existing nib by gripping firmly on the base. Use the tweezer to insert a new nib. The ink will start flowing through the nib by itself. Copic sells special tweezers that have small teeth on the end to help grip the nibs but a good sturdy flat tweezer should do the trick.

Refilling Ink in Copic Markers

All Copic markers can be refilled. Copic sells 25 milliliters (mL) bottles of “Various Ink” in all 358 of their colors. How long each bottle of ink will last will depend on the type of marker you are refilling. For one bottle of ink, the Classic markers can be refilled 9 times, Sketch refilled 12 times, Ciao refilled 15 times, and Wide refilled 7 times.

Not only can they be refilled, but you can also create your own custom colors by mixing inks. They even sell empty markers to allow you to do this without using your existing markers. Copic markers can be refilled using 2 different methods, the booster method, and the drip method.

Booster Method

  • For Copic Classic markers, attach the booster needle to the ink bottle. Insert the needle into the nib of the marker and squeeze in 2-3 milliliters (mL) of ink.
  • For the Copic Sketch, Ciao, or Wide markers, you’ll need to remove the nib and drip the ink directly into the marker body using the booster needle.
  • For Copic Wide,  you’ll need to drip up to 5 mL of ink into the nib while holding the markers at a 45-degree angle. The ink will sit in the little circular notch until it absorbs through.

Drip Method

The drip method can be used for all marker types. Using the dropper on the bottle, drip ink on the nib while holding the angle of the marker. Let the drop be absorbed through the nib before adding the next drop. For Copic Wide markers,  you’ll need to drip up to 5 mL of ink into the nib while holding the markers at a 45-degree angle. The ink will sit in the little circular notch until it absorbs through.

Using the Copic Airbrushing System

Another great feature of Copic markers is that they can also be used with an airbrush system. The Copic Airbrush System (ABS) is compatible with only 2 marker types –Copic Classic and Copic Sketch. You can use your markers to color on various surfaces without worrying about causing any damage to your nibs. They’re REALLY easy to use and switch colors too! You just snap your desired marker into the ABS and you’re good to go!

Copic has 3 different types of airbrushing systems available, all of which are lightweight and portable. The airbrushing system you decide to buy will ultimately depend on what you’re trying to do with it. Since the Copic Airbrushing System is for more advanced users, I won’t cover it here. However, if you want more info, Copic has a great brochure you should check out here.

Choosing the Right Paper

Like any art medium, Copic markers are going to work great on some papers and not so well on others. On uncoated paper, Copic makers will feather pretty easily while coated papers will vary. On glossy paper, you’ll have to use darker colors since colors don’t absorb as easily on this coated paper like this. Layers are a little more difficult to apply and stick. On vellum or tracing papers, the paper does not absorb the ink. This allows you to erase the artwork if needed. This paper is also transparent so you can utilize this feature by coloring on both sides to create your artwork.

For general illustration, you should work with an uncoated paper like stamping illustration, mange illustration, or natural white sketchbook. Since Copics were designed for the Japanese manga industry in mind, you might want to first consider manga illustration paper. On thicker illustration paper, the markers won’t bleed and appear pretty smooth. On thinner paper, you might find the color to bleed through.

For paper crafting, you should use thick, opaque card stock with an uncoated, smooth surface. Usually, only card stock that is 120lb weight will not bleed out. If you are using paper of a lighter weight, you should work with another paper underneath.

For black and white comic art, use something with a smooth surface like manga manuscript paper.

For product design and architectural illustrations, use an alcohol marker pad or vellum or tracing paper. Alcohol marker pad paper is pretty thin and coated. It’s really good for tracing and it typically doesn’t bleed through.

You definitely should try out different papers to see what works for you best because it’s going to depend on the amount of layering and blending you desire. Test out your paper before you decide to use it for artwork to determine if it’s right for you.

Copic markers can be intimidating if you’re a beginner but once you get use to it, you can REALLY produce some great art! If you need inspiration, try checking out this list of 12 amazing Copic marker artists to follow on Instagram. 

11 Of The Best Copic Markers Alternatives

Why do people choose Copic Markers alternatives in the first place?🤔  The Copic marker is useful, provides you with ample artwork, and is reliable. Well, the main reason most of them give is they are expensive. 

That happens when you make use of expensive materials like alcohol. When you belong to those people who want to search for cheap alternatives, then we have you covered.

We understand that purchasing 50 pieces of Copic markers can leave a big dent in your bank account. 

Some of you might be beginners who do not want to make an investment in Copic markers. We completely respect that. We highly recommend beginners and learners to make use of these Copic alternatives and then move on to the real thing. 

In case you were not aware, a single Copic marker can take you back by $10. Now, that is expensive. Why do you want to spend so much money when you aspire to become an illustrator or artist when you can do it for a cheaper cost? 

You will be glad to know that several Copic alternatives are available in the market just for people like you. Using the review, you can read about some of the best Copic alternatives that should be a good fit for your drawing cause. 

Best Copic Markers Alternatives: Our Top Pick 👌

We have selected the best Copic alternatives for your convenience. With the help of some research and time spent carefully on the internet; we were able to compile this list. We understand that our budding and professional artists are very particular about the brand. 

Unless you have the right kind of markers in your hands, you may not be able to give your best at your artwork and impress your family as well as clients.

You will be glad to know that we have also mentioned some of the main features, pros, and cons for each of the 10 Copic alternatives.  

1. Art-n-Fly 48 Professional Brush Markers Set

The Art-n-Fly 48 Professional Brush Markers Set comes with a set of 48 professional brush markers. The marker is incredibly suitable for drawing and painting. Of course, they are ideal for illustrators. 

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You will love the fact that they are made in Japan. The brush nibs are very high quality and come in vibrant colors. Some of the colors include skin and portrait based markers. Your drawings will be praiseworthy. 

Not to mention, the tips and the ink are both replaceable. Therefore, when you want to change them, you need just to replace them. Another feature to note here would be that the markers come with dual tips. 

There is a chisel tip that is broad and a bush marker on the other side. Excellent outlines can be created and designed. It just weighs around 1.95 pounds and can be carried around with ease. This is an ideal gift for kids and adults too. 

Below is the summary of the main Pros and Cons of the Art-n-Fly 48 Brush Markers Set that earned it a spot in our list of the Best Copic Markers Alternatives to get in 2021.


  • The marker has a solid grip and is very convenient to hold for you. 
  • The marker is smooth to draw and suitable for artwork. 
  • The layers of your illustration blend nicely. 
  • They are easy and comfortable to use. 
  • These markers come in a barrage of colors for your drawing purpose. 


  • The choice of colors gets slightly limited due to the fact that some of them look almost the same. 

The Art-n-Fly 48 Professional Brush Markers Set comes with under 50 brush markers that are decent enough for amateur and professional artists. They are replaceable and come in vibrant colors for artists. 



2. Caliart 100 Colors Dual Tip Alcohol Based Art Markers

The Caliart 100 Colors Dual Tip Alcohol Based Art Markers is another excellent alternative. You would be delighted to know that the set comes with a massive 100 color options. The markers can be used on paper and ceramic. 

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The markers are 100 in the set and come with a color blender and remaining colors. The qualities of the alternative are excellent because they are waterproof as well as smudge-proof, making it suitable for illustrators. 

You can use them on many surfaces, including ceramic, paper, and plastic. They come with a pen holder and dual tips for a better grip. The highlighting and drawing are flawless when you make use of these. 

They also come with caps that are coded with the color for natural segregation. Most of these colors are able to blend in the canvas, offering you the enhanced direction of your artwork.

It is exceptionally suitable for several tasks like architectural landscapes, highlighting, advertising, comical purpose, and other forms of artistic work. This is an ideal gift for budding artists or amateurs. 

Below is the summary of the main Pros and Cons of the Caliart 100 Art Markers that earned it a spot in our list of the Best Copic Markers Alternatives to get in 2021.


  • The markers come with a solid grip for your enhanced comfort when you are drawing and highlighting your artwork. 
  • The black carry case offers you a comfortable way of transporting the set. 
  • Most of the colors are different from each other, and some of them offer you a sensitive color range. 
  • The fiber of the marker provides you with a smooth manner of drawings and colorings.
  • The market can be used on all surfaces for drawing. 
  • The set is priced at slightly above $50, which makes it affordable. 


  • Unfortunately, they can carry over the ink to the other side on coloring paper. You will need to use thick paper that can be expensive. 

The Caliart 100 Colors Dual Tip Alcohol Based Art Markers come with 100 color options for you to choose from. The pricing is also another reason why you can consider using them or also gifting them to your friend or family member. 



3. Colorona 24 Alcohol Markers Professional Art Set

The Colorona 24 Alcohol Markers Professional Art Set has 24 markers that are alcohol-made and are suitable for both adults and kids as well. As a beginner, you will be delighted to know that the art set comes with a 100% satisfaction guarantee.

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The colors offered on the set are vibrant and do not fade that quickly. They also blend with the colors and the shade of the background paper. The tips are broad and come twin-shaped for precise underlining and highlighting. 

You can draw both thick and thin lines using them. You can design and create different styles, images, and pictures using them. They come in code of colors for easy identification. Of course, there are only 24 colors. 

It also comes with a beautiful-looking carry case for travel purposes. You can also store the colors easily in them. You can use them on a wide range of surfaces like wood, ceramic, metal, fabric, wood, and glass. 

The marker set weighs only 1.2 pounds, making it one of the lightweight products on our Copic alternative list. 

Below is the summary of the main Pros and Cons of the Colorona 24 Alcohol Markers that earned it a spot in our list of the Best Copic Markers Alternatives to get in 2021.


  • These markers are light to grip and draw.
  • They come with double-sided capability. 
  • Though the market set comes in 24 colors, they are different and of high quality. 
  • The tones are ideal for skin-level drawings. 
  • You will like the fact that it has a colorless blender.


  • The marker set does not come with a brush for enhanced drawing. 

The Colorona 24 Alcohol Markers Professional Art Set is an excellent option for amateur artists as well as professionals. The double-sided ability of the marker and the different surfaces to draw on give you a new dimension in the artwork. 


At the time of our research on Best Copic Markers Alternatives, we found a video about “What If You Damaged Something in a Museum by Accident?” which is worth watching. 🏆🤴


4. Shuttle Art 51 Colors Dual Tip Alcohol Based Art Markers

The Shuttle Art 51 Colors Dual Tip Alcohol Based Art Markers consist of 50 markers. They have the ability of drawings for more than 4 months on regular use. It provides you with massive amounts of acid-free ink for your illustrations.

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The barrels are shaped in a triangle for ample grip when you draw and color. Not to mention, they are fantastic on smooth surfaces too. The case comes zippered for easy portability and storage. 

The markers come with 7mm dual tips for immediate coverage on the surface. Apart from that, the 1mm tip can be used to highlight bullet points, shadow, and writing. The good news is that the ink does not bleed or carry over to the other sheet. 

The ink is simple to use and blends easily on the paper when you draw on them. The lining is just too good. When you want to ensure that the marker does not dry fast, you may want to recap it immediately. The weight of the market set is only 2.1 pounds.

Below is the summary of the main Pros and Cons of the Shuttle Art 51 Art Markers that earned it a spot in our list of the Best Copic Markers Alternatives to get in 2021.


  • The carrying case makes it easy to carry around for travel. 
  • It layers well on the surface and dries quickly for you to decide on the next layer. 
  • It blends easily with the colors at hand. 
  • Most of the colors on the set are suitable for skin tone. 
  • They can be used for a wide range of coloring and drawing. 
  • The marker does not leave marks behind. 


  • If you use thin paper, then the chances of bleeding are higher. 

The Shuttle Art 51 Colors Dual Tip Alcohol Based Art Markers come with 50 markers that are excellent and offer you high-quality drawing. 


5. UGUI Markers, 80 Colors Art Marker Set

The UGUI Markers 80 Colors Art Marker Set comes in a set of 80 markers that are ideal and offer you drawings of another kind. Some of them include sketching, underlining, drawing, coloring, and others. 

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The markers are dual tips. They come with elegant and broad tips that are 6mm and 1mm. This set offers you 80 colors that are sufficient for coming up with your creativity. Ideal for beginners as well as professional artists. 

The design of the body is in a triangle shape for better handling and drawing effects. They are numbered for a quick search. The set comes in a carry case that is lightweight and portable and one that you can take around with you anywhere you want. 

The weight of the product is 3.53 pounds, which is light enough for kids to take around with them to school or college. 

Below is the summary of the main Pros and Cons of the UGUI Markers that earned it a spot in our list of the Best Copic Markers Alternatives to get in 2021.


  • They do not fade quickly. 
  • These blend with your artwork and surrounding. 
  • The set is excellent and the layer offered is fantastic. 
  • It comes with plenty of skin tones for you to decide on your drawings. 
  • The nibs are replaceable as and when you want to. 


  • When you make use of regular papers that are slim, the chances of carryover or bleeding is high. 

The UGUI Markers, 80 Colors Art Marker Set, is a cheap marker set coming with vibrant colors and ample features in them. 


6. MILO 24 Art Marker Set Dual-Tip Artist Markers

The MILO 24 Art Marker Set Dual-Tip Artist Markers comes from the maker of MILO, who is known to produce reliable and durable painting sets. They are suitable for coloring books, adult coloring, as well as calligraphy.

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The nibs are of good quality, coming with a chisel tip for precise design and stroke. Inks used for the set are alcohol and hence work well for you. The marker set is suitable for a wide range of coloring purposes for architecture, coloring, blending, sketching, and the like. 

You have a color set of 24 colors with two tips. The set is ideal for professionals, beginners, as well as adults. The product weighs only 1.05 pounds that makes it perfect for just about anybody to carry it around with them.

Below is the summary of the main Pros and Cons of the MILO 24 Art Marker Set that earned it a spot in our list of the Best Copic Markers Alternatives to get in 2021. 


  • The markers blend with the color, design, and, more importantly, surface easily. 
  • They are right on coloring books, suitable for beginners. 
  • The set comes in 24 colors that are different from each other and unique. 
  • The marker set is reusable and convenient for several purposes. 


  • The markers can bleed on your regular paper at times if placed for a long time. 

The MILO 24 Art Marker Set Dual-Tip Artist Markers comes with few setbacks like the nibs are stiff and not flexible, but for this price and decent features, it is a good buy. 


7. Arrtx 24 Colors Skin Tone Marker Set Dual Tip Twin

The Arrtx 24 Colors Skin Tone Marker Set Dual Tip Twin, Alcohol Based Art Markers comes with 24 colors made from alcohol to make your drawings realistic and practical. They can be used for the sketch, illustrating, portrait, and others. 

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The pen cap is slightly larger, ensuring that the ink does not dry up at all. The tips, like most of the markers seen in this list of Copic alternatives, are dual for better highlighting. You can find mixed colors for your refinement. The product weighs around 14.4 ounces. 

Below is the summary of the main Pros and Cons of the Arrtx 24 Colors Skin Tone Marker that earned it a spot in our list of the Best Copic Markers Alternatives to get in 2021.


  • The drawing offered is vibrant and original. 
  • You will find a seamless flow when writing. 
  • The consistency of the ink is beautiful. 
  • The marker set is ideal for beginners. 
  • It comes with a travel case. 


  • The marker set is not opaque like claimed by the makers. 

The Arrtx 24 Colors Skin Tone Marker Set Dual Tip Twin, Alcohol Based Art Markers have the tendency to bleed on regular papers. But, when you want a high-performance marker, then you are looking at them. 


8. Ohuhu 40-color Alcohol Marker

The Ohuhu 40-color Alcohol Marker is 40 set markers that offer you pigmentation. These markers are suitable for kids as well as beginners. They come with 40 vibrant colors for your drawing options. 

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The markers blend well with the surface that you use them upon. Not to mention, they provide your artwork with a new dimension. It comes with high-quality ink because you can draw for more than 900 feet, which is one of the best achieved in the category. 

The drawings dry fast, meaning; you do not have to worry about those smudges and accidental touches that can ruin the painting. The caps of the markers are based on the color for easy identification. 

The product just weighs 1 pound, making it the lightest around in the market. 

Below is the summary of the main Pros and Cons of the Ohuhu 40-color Alcohol Marker that earned it a spot in our list of the Best Copic Markers Alternatives to get in 2021.


  • The carry case is beautiful and gentle to use. 
  • The tips are broad and beautiful for highlighting.
  • The marker set can help you to last for a lengthy time. 
  • It is cheaply priced. 


  • The marker set is not tipped for brushing. 

The Ohuhu 40-color Alcohol Marker is an excellent alternative for Copic because they come suitable for drawing, sketching, and underlining. 



9. Bianyo Classic Series Dual Tip Art Markers 

The Bianyo Classic Series Alcohol-Based Dual Tip Art Markers is a marker set with alcohol-based markers. They do not come with much odor and are permanent. The markers are waterproof and smudge-proof. 

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The markers come with dual tips: the broad chisel and the fine print. The penholder is square in shape that enables you to grip it finely. It comes with more than 70 colors ideal for drawing, underlining, highlighting, and design. It weighs only 2.9 pounds.

Below is the summary of the main Pros and Cons of the Bianyo Classic Series Art Markers  that earned it a spot in our list of the Best Copic Markers Alternatives to get in 2021.


  • The design is shaped in a square that provides you with a sufficient grip on the marker. 
  • The marker comes with a blender that has no color. 
  • The bag is black in color and is durable. You can place 72 pieces easily in there. 
  • The marker set consists of non-toxic colors. Hence, they are safe for use. 


  • Unfortunately, the markers have the tendency to bleed when drawn on slim papers.

The Bianyo Classic Series Alcohol-Based Dual Tip Art Markers is ideal for both professionals and beginners. You can practice on them as, and when you want, apart from that, the markers are affordable. 


10. Prismacolor 3620 Premier Double-Ended Art Markers

The Prismacolor 3620 Premier Double-Ended Art Markers is a global brand that is popular for producing quality, excellent art products. They help you to draw subtle highlights and underlining on the surface. 

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When you have this kind of design work in your hands, you are able to provide precise work for your clients. Your family will be genuinely impressed. The ink set of the make is good. They make use of the dye along with premium alcohol. 

It not only gives a deep color but a vibrant look. They offer you 12 colors that may not be much but are ideal and suitable for detailed drawing. 

Below is the summary of the main Pros and Cons of the Prismacolor 3620 Art Markers that earned it a spot in our list of the Best Copic Markers Alternatives to get in 2021.


  • The markers can blend on any surface that you use them. 
  • They are suitable for coloring projects. 
  • The markers do not bleed. 
  • The marker is resistant to fading. 
  • The caps of the markers are tight-fitting and good. 


  • Sadly, it comes with no case, and you have to carry them around with you just like that. 

The Prismacolor 3620 Premier Double-Ended Art Markers come with intensely rich and vibrant colors.


How to pick up the best Copic marker alternatives?

We have listed a few factors that you would want to know before making your Copic alternative choice for yourself. 

The tip is the main thing to take note of. Most of them come with a dual tip. They offer you greater flexibility when drawing lines and images. The ink is the next factor to take note of. Quality-based inks that make use of alcohol are required and best for your purpose.

The colors that are on offer should also be taken into consideration. If you are a professional artist, then you would want to choose 50 pieces at the most. Lastly, the refilling capacity of the marker. 

Most of them come with this feature. You may want to take note of this ability of your marker in the market. If you are able to get hold of this kind of marker, then you can make use of it forever. 

📗FAQ’s on Best Copic Markers Alternatives

Below are a couple of queries on Best Copic Markers Alternatives that everyone is expecting to answer and I did include the same for my readers.

The Copic marker alternative is not anything new. There are artists all over the world looking out for affordable options. Hence, we decided to make an elaborate FAQ for them and hobbyists. We have listed some of the most commonly asked queries on the internet. 

Hope we have answered most of your queries based on our knowledge. If not, please do get in touch with us in the comments section, we will try our best to provide you with the most suitable answer. 

(Q) Why are the Copic markers very high priced?

The Copic markers are high priced because quality materials are used in producing them. Not to mention, they are durable, free from chemicals, and odorless. The sizes of the nibs and their shapes are different. 

They come in a wide range of colors that are suitable for amateur as well as professional artists. These nibs can be replaced, and you can also blend the colors as and when you want. You can also make use of the other types of markers. 

They are also refillable. Each of them costs about $5, and the refill is also the same price. Since you can get almost 9 refills, it more or less seems like you are getting 10 pens for $10. 

(Q) Are Copic markers made from alcohol?

Copic markers are made from alcohol. This is another reason why they are quite expensive too. You see, alcohol is more expensive than the usual watercolors that are available in the market. 

Though the watercolors are cheap and durable, they may not provide you with suitable artwork and finish that you desire. If you are a professional artist, then you would be encouraged to use Copic markers or their alternative, as discussed in the review. 

(Q) What is the difference between the Copic ciao and Copic sketch?

The Copic ciao and the Copic sketch are refillable. However, the Copic design is more significant in size when compared to the Copic ciao. That is because they have larger ink tanks. You will want to know that the ink cartridges come sold in one size. 

To replace the ink cartridges, you will need to refill the Copic sketch more than 11 times and the Copic ciao more than 12 times. It comes down to your usage. When you want to use more ink, then go for the Copic sketch. 

(Q) Why do many people use the Copic marker?

The Copic markers come with several benefits and are popular among schools and colleges. As much surprising as it is, individual trainers and artists lookout for Copic marker alternatives. The Copic markers are cheap as they come in refillable ink tanks. 

You can avail of the Copic refill cartridges in the marker itself. You see, the pen can last you for a lifetime, and the need to purchase pens is not required. Once you buy them, you need to refill them when the ink gets over, so the Copic marker is cheap to keep after all. 

(Q) Can you blend Copic markers with other makes?

It is possible. The make of one Copic marker can be used to refill another make. Since the models are more or less the same, you can do so. However, you need to make use of the same color as the ink. 

As you know, Copic markers are based on alcohol. Most of the alternate brands do not come made with alcohol. When both the ink is made from alcohol, then the need to worry about them blending with each other is not there. 

(Q) What is the size of the markers that you must purchase?

The size of the markers depends on your requirements. It does not necessarily mean you have to be an artists or hobbyists. You can anybody with a taste and have a tendency for drawing. For amateurs, you will want to begin with 2-6 pieces. 

When you gain expertise or become a professional artist, you can make use of 40-50 pieces. Likewise, those of you working on a project and want to enhance your work can make use of any number of pieces you feel that are adequate for your painting. 

(Q) What is the duration of the marker? 

The markers last depending on your usage. If you are somebody who regularly uses them, then they will last 3 months at least. At the same time, when you do not use the marker regularly, then it can last for 1 year. 

On the whole

These were some of the best Copic alternatives in the market as of 2021. Whether you are a budding artist or a student, they are excellent choices for you to make use of to learn and enhance your drawings. 

Like we said in the earlier paragraphs, the drawings can only come to life when the right blend of color and mix is used. As an artist, you would probably know that by now. Each of the above-listed markers come with the features that we have briefly discussed. 

Your skill or talent levels do not matter when you use them because you are sure to improvise on them easily. An artist needs some creativity and what better way than to use high-quality ink on their canvas. 

We would like to suggest to our readers to be on the lookout for updates. The brands keep coming up with their own blend of colors and ink almost on a monthly basis. It is a very competitive industry, unlike what you think. 

We came to know that the reputed brand Ohuhu is releasing 200 packs in their set. This is going to see a significant increase in their color range. Thanks to these markers, artists all over the world are able to bond and gel with their skills. 

Since you know what the best Copic alternatives are, what are you waiting for?

Go ahead, pick the marker pack that blends with your skill, and pocket level. 

90,000 Ship to Heaven: Key Features of Gothic Architecture

The Goths are ancient Germanic tribes who, at the beginning of the new era, settled throughout Europe. “Gothic” in the highly spiritual era of the Renaissance began to scornfully call everything barbaric, “low”. But at the same time, almost any Gothic cathedral always makes a stunning impression, and it cannot be called “low” in any sense. The press service of the Glavgosexpertiza of Russia talks about the features of Gothic architecture.

The date of her birth is known for sure – it is 1144. Then Abbot Suger, adviser to the French kings Louis VI and Louis VII, having lost his influence at court after the latter’s death, decided to rebuild the basilica of the Abbey of Saint-Denis in the northern suburbs of Paris. He “canceled” the spherical dome, ordered to build not round, but pointed arches and buttresses – vertical structures that represent a protruding part of the wall. The buttresses took on the horizontal thrust from the vaults, and since then they have become an indispensable element of Gothic architecture, just like the round rose window on the facade.

Suger built a strange angular cathedral for a reason, he was guided by a beautiful concept: the church is a ship that takes believers to heaven, so the outlines of the temple resembled masts and blown sails. “Fashion” for a new architectural style during the XIII century spread throughout France, and then – in Germany, Spain, England, northern and eastern Europe.

The architects quickly improved the new method of construction, which was radically different from the previous one used in the construction of buildings in the Romanesque style (which, by the way, was also the most important stage in the development of medieval architecture).In general, I must say that Gothic architecture is the pinnacle of engineering thought of that time. Take at least the fact that now the pressure of the masonry was not distributed along the entire perimeter, as it was before, but concentrated at certain points. Accordingly, in other parts of the building, this load was minimal, which made it possible to build light “airy” buildings.

If Romanesque churches have thick, solid walls, then Gothic churches seem to have none at all, these buildings consist of solid windows.Unlike the semicircular Romanesque apses and chapels, the Gothic ones are faceted: it was more convenient to make huge windows in cathedrals, it was easier to install them on a flat rather than a rounded wall. In addition, the shape of the walls of Gothic cathedrals is associated with the shape of the vaults.

Recall that in the Romanesque church, the supporting structures are the walls, and in the Gothic church – the pillars: they support the vaults that soar above the heads of the parishioners at an unimaginable height, reaching more than 50 meters.The Gothic vault is a frame, and the structure on which it rests (the very rows of pillars tied with arches) is also a frame. A huge piece of the wall could be cut between the pillars, replacing it with a window. So, by its construction, the Gothic cathedral resembles a giant stone greenhouse. The already mentioned massive buttresses, which took on the expansion pressure from the vaults, were located outside the building. And if the outwardly Gothic cathedral is a fairly solid structure, then its inner space is as cleaned as possible – it is light, filled with air and light.

In the Middle Ages, the cathedral was the main building of the city. And, of course, the tallest: some Gothic churches are higher in height than the pyramid of Cheops. Cathedrals were intended not only for church services: lessons for children were held here, beggars found shelter here, sometimes the city government sat under the church vaults and theatrical performances were played. It is known that when archaeologists excavate ancient cities, they determine their population by how many places the local theater was designed for.The same principle can be applied to Gothic cathedrals: when designing them, the architects calculated the dimensions of the building so that it could accommodate all the inhabitants of the city under their vaults.

Gothic architecture is divided into three types – as the style develops.

Early or lancet Gothic, which is not quite Gothic yet but rather a hybrid with the Romanesque style, developed between 1140 and 1250. This period is characterized by powerful walls, majestic portals and high arches.A typical example of the style is Notre Dame Cathedral, built in 1160.

The period of high or mature Gothic takes about 200 years – from 1194 to 1400. At this time, the frame structure of cathedrals becomes more complicated, the number of stained-glass windows and sculptures increases, buildings become taller and more airy, and their roofs are made “openwork”. The best example of this period is the famous cathedral in Reims, where all French monarchs were crowned.By the way, Marc Chagall made several late stained glass windows for the cathedral.

Late or fiery Gothic covers the period from 1350 to 1550. At this time, great attention was paid to the external design of cathedrals. They are covered with a huge amount of decorative details, so from a distance it seems as if the building is engulfed in flames. First of all, the flaming Gothic is the Milan Cathedral. Other famous examples of the style are the beautiful cathedral in Seville, where the remains of Christopher Columbus are located, the graceful and sophisticated cathedral of St.Anna in Vilnius; cathedral of st. Stephen’s Cathedral in Vienna, which, although it was founded at the beginning of the 12th century during the early Gothic period, acquired its present “flaming” appearance at the beginning of the 16th century.

Concise Gothic Dictionary

Arkbutan – external stone semi-arch, transmitting the horizontal thrust force from the vaults to the support pillar-buttress located behind the walls of the building. You can learn more about this and other structures from the previous material prepared by the Press Service of the Glavgosexpertiza of Russia.

Wimperg – a high, pointed decorative pediment that completes the portals and window openings of Gothic buildings.

Gargoyles – stone or metal gutter outlets, made in the form of grotesque characters. It is difficult to find two identical gargoyles in the design of a Gothic cathedral. And if gargoyles play a completely functional role – they drain rainwater from the walls of the cathedral, then chimeras, which can also be seen in abundance on the facades of many cathedrals, are exclusively decorative elements, and their images are symbolic.

Ribs – protruding ribs of the frame cross vault. It was they who made it possible to lighten the vault, reduce its vertical pressure and lateral strut and, accordingly, expand the window openings.

Pinnacle – decorative lance-shaped turret. They were often crowned with buttresses and towers, as well as pillars of walls.

Triforium is a low decorative gallery located in the thickness of the wall above the arches separating the side aisles from the middle.

Rose – a large round window decorated with stained-glass windows in a stone frame on the main facade of the cathedral. The Gothic “rose” comes from the Roman oculus, a circular hole (usually in the ceiling of a building) made to let light and air through. The most famous oculus is located in the Roman Pantheon. The rose window is dismembered by a figured binding into parts in the form of a blossoming flower. At the beginning of the development of the style, the drawing of the rose was quite simple, and in the late Gothic era it became extremely intricate.Amiens, Chartres, Rouen and Orleans cathedrals in France are famous for the most beautiful “roses”.


Tattoo architecture (69 photos)

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Gothic architecture: expressive and mystical style of the Middle Ages

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Let’s move mentally to the amazing era of the Middle Ages, when valiant knights protected beautiful ladies who were waiting for them behind the powerful walls of impregnable castles.Everything seemed to be fine, but building skills in those days were extremely limited, so they had to spend a lot of time in dark, damp and cold rooms.

Some of these annoying circumstances were resolved with the advent of Gothic architecture, when craftsmen began to create bright, spacious and spacious buildings. If before the Gothic period architecture was almost exclusively functional, now it has also become extraordinarily beautiful.

The Gothic style originated in northern France in the middle of the 12th century and reached its peak in the 13th century. Gothic is most evident in the architecture of cathedrals, temples and monasteries. However, this is not surprising, because during the Late Middle Ages, religion and the church played a dominant role in public life, exerting a strong influence on the consciousness of the population.

It is difficult not to notice one very characteristic feature of the Gothic buildings, which immediately catches the eye – the dizzying height and upward aspiration. It looks especially contrasting in comparison with the early buildings, when, fearing that nothing would collapse, they erected even much lower towers.

Thanks to new building technologies during the Gothic period, buildings could literally reach new heights.

The discovery of Gothic architecture was the frame system of the supporting structure of the building, which took over all the load and redistributed it. The basis of this system is the rib vault, it is also called the fan vault.

To “lighten” the vault, in addition to ribs, external support pillars were used – buttresses, pleasing to the eye with their graceful openwork structure with intricate decorative patterns.

Pointed pointed arches are another distinctive feature of Gothic architecture, which was not only decorative, but also practical. Thanks to these arches, the load was distributed in such a way that the thickness of the walls now did not affect the load-bearing capacity of the building.

If you look closely at the roofs of buildings and castles, you can see monstrous little creatures with a frightening appearance – these are gargoyles, which are perhaps the most recognizable element of the Gothic.Their main task was to instill terror in the hearts of poorly educated medieval peasants, so that in search of consolation they would go to cathedrals that promised to protect them from all evil spirits. In addition, gargoyles were used to drain water from roofs, and rainwater, pouring out through the mouth, made a spectacular gurgling sound, which could have a very definite effect on the consciousness of citizens.

In addition to gargoyles, the facades of buildings were also decorated with all kinds of statues depicting people and mythological creatures, and in considerable quantities.

England was the first to borrow this style from the French, but retained elongated rectangular shapes in its buildings. Perhaps the most striking example of English Gothic architecture is the striking World Heritage Site of Westminster Abbey.

Author: Elena Eller

Gothic architectural style in Russia

In the Catherine era, the Gothic architectural style came to Russia.It combines elements of European Gothic and Russian Baroque. The portal “Culture.RF” introduces architectural structures in this style .

The Admiralty and the Hermitage Kitchen in Tsarskoe Selo

Photo: Alexander Shchepin / Lori photo bank

Vasily Neelov was the first Russian architect to transfer the features of the Gothic style to Russian soil. In 1771, he returned from a trip to England, where he went on the orders of Catherine II to study local architecture.In 1772, the architect began building small pavilions for Tsarskoye Selo Park – the Admiralty and the Hermitage Kitchen. The kitchen, where dinner was prepared for receptions in the Hermitage pavilion, was built in the style of a knight’s castle and resembled a medieval fortification. It was decorated with battlements and turrets – however, they coexisted with vases and flower garlands in the Rococo style. The Admiralty consisted of three buildings: a central two-story building for storing boats and two turrets on the sides – poultry houses.Both the Hermitage Kitchen and the Admiralty were made of red brick with white decorative details.

Chesme Palace in St. Petersburg

Photo: Alexander Shchepin / Lori photo bank

After the success of the Tsarskoye Selo pavilions, other architects also began to erect Gothic buildings. Yuri Felten created the La Grenouillere Palace (from French “the abode of green frogs”), which was later renamed Chesme. On the sides of the triangular building there were two turrets – as in a medieval castle, the impression was enhanced by a moat dug along the perimeter of the palace.It is believed that Felten’s inspiration may have come from the Scottish castle of Inverari by Roger Morris, Robert Miley and James Adam.

Yuri Felten also built the so-called Chesme Church – the Gothic Church of the Nativity of St. John the Baptist. The building, forming a quatrefoil, was richly decorated and ended with Gothic pinnacle turrets.

Babolovsky Palace in Tsarskoye Selo

Initially, this palace in Babolovsky Park in Tsarskoye Selo was built by Ilya Neelov (son of the architect Vasily Neelov) for Catherine II.In 1785, the empress granted the palace to her favorite Grigory Potemkin. It was an asymmetrical one-story building with Gothic crenellated windows and a hipped roof tower. The room consisted of eight rooms. In one of them, a round hall, a bathhouse was arranged – later, already under Alexander I, who instructed Vasily Stasov to reconstruct the palace, the so-called “king’s bath” by Samson Sukhanov was installed there. It was a bowl made from a single piece of granite – its diameter was 5.33 meters and its depth was 1.52 meters.Unfortunately, this building was badly damaged during the Great Patriotic War and turned into ruins.

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Church of the Vladimir Icon of the Mother of God in Bykovo

Photo: David Mzareulyan / Lori photo bank

One of the most unusual Russian churches was built by order of Mikhail Izmailov, the owner of the Bykovo estate. According to researchers, the architect of the building was Vasily Bazhenov, who erected a new Gothic temple on the site of an old wooden church.The building was built of white stone, it was crowned with Gothic turrets, and the facades were decorated with sculptures. Only the upper summer church was dedicated to the very Vladimir Icon of the Mother of God. The lower one was consecrated in honor of the Nativity of Christ.

Ensemble on Khodynskoye Pole in Moscow

The architectural ensemble, erected in honor of the conclusion of the Kuchuk-Kainardzhiyskiy peace treaty that ended the Russian-Turkish war, was the first experience of Vasily Bazhenov in Gothic. All buildings were built of wood and painted in the color of stone, so to this day they have survived only in the drawings of the architect Matvey Kazakov.They depict pavilions surrounded by columns, rostral columns with statues of Neptune and an obelisk. Each of the pavilions was dedicated to a specific city associated with the Russian-Turkish war. Services were held in the Azov pavilion, festive feasts in Azov-Kalanchi, a fair of colonial goods in Taganrog, and balls and masquerades in Kerch and Yenikal.

Petrovsky Stopover Palace in Moscow

Photo: Denis Larkin / photobank “Lori”

This palace was built by Matvey Kazakov on the order of Catherine II after the erection of the ensemble on Khodynskoye Pole.The eclectic building combined features of Old Russian and Baroque architecture, but the Gothic style was dominant. Pointed windows, pinnacles (lance-shaped turrets) above the entrance to the palace were reminiscent of the style of medieval castles, but the structure of the building was a typical classicist manor house – the main house with outbuildings and a ceremonial courtyard.

Tsaritsyno estate in Moscow

Photo: Elena Koromyslova / Lori photo bank

Initially, the architectural ensemble in Tsaritsyno was commissioned by Catherine II to Vasily Bazhenov, and he designed a grandiose park and palace complex in the Gothic style.It was also planned to build a separate palace for Grand Duke Pavel Petrovich and numerous buildings for eminent guests. However, the building that has survived to this day was not the work of Bazhenov, but his main competitor, Matvey Kazakov. The empress did not appreciate Bazhenov’s efforts (the architect even sold his house to invest in this construction). She told the once beloved architect that she was dissatisfied with the insufficiently high ceilings and narrow doors. But in reality, according to the researchers, she did not like the fact that a separate palace was intended for Paul.By this time, the empress’s relationship with her son was cold, so she did not want to emphasize his hereditary position with a separate palace. But the version of one building, invented by Kazakov, consisted of two parts, the Empress liked. The Gothic style of the buildings was preserved – the buildings were decorated with pointed arches and pointed pinnacles.

Author: Lidiya Utemova

Gothic style in architecture (examples in the photo)

Gothic style in architecture became the final stage in the development of medieval art before the beginning of the Renaissance.Gothic ruled Europe from the 12th to 16th centuries, replacing the Romanesque style. The name was given to the style by the barbarian Germanic tribes who invaded the Roman Empire from the north (3-5 centuries AD), which the Romans called “Goths”. The term itself appeared already in the Renaissance, it was used as a derisive designation for medieval culture. It is believed that the first name “Gothic” was used by Giorgio Vasari.

Roman Catholic Gothic Cathedral of Our Lady and St. Peter (Kölner Dom).1248-1437; 1842-1880 Built on the model of the French cathedral in Amiens.

Giorgio Vasari. 1511-1574 Italian artist, architect, founder of art history.

The Gothic style originated in the middle of the 12th century in the north of France, a century later it was already spread throughout almost the entire territory of Central Europe. Somewhat later, he penetrated into Italy and the countries of Eastern Europe. This style was developed in countries where the Catholic Church was strong, which supported the religious ideology of the Gothic.Gothic art was cult, its purpose was to appeal to the Higher powers, to eternity. And therefore, the main building in the Gothic style was the cathedral – a temple structure that provided a synthesis of architecture, sculpture, painting, stained glass art. The emergence of the Gothic style coincided with changes in medieval society: centralized states began to form, cities grew, and urban planning developed. A large cathedral was being erected in the center of the city; the main social life was concentrated here.In cathedrals, meetings of residents were held, sermons, debates of theologians, and festive mysteries were held. The temple structure itself became the focus of the universe, which was emphasized by the Gothic architecture, expressing the idea of ​​the power of divine forces. Mountain stone with carefully hewn horizontal surfaces was used as a building material. Some of the masonry was reinforced by the builders with iron brackets, which were reinforced with molten lead. In North and East Germany, they were often built from fired bricks, using bricks of different shapes and various masonry.

Gothic and Romanesque styles

The Gothic style replaced the Romanesque style. The Romanesque and Gothic styles seem to be completely different in their architectural expression, however, the Gothic inherited a lot from the Romanesque style. A feature of Gothic architecture was the frame system – this constructive technique was adopted by the builders from the Romanesque cross vault. The basis of the vaulted structure is ribs – ribs.

Ribs in the Gothic vault.

Thanks to this design, the pressure on the walls was reduced, since the ribs rested on the pillars (and not on the walls, as in the buildings of the Romanesque style). In addition, soil shrinkage was reduced, which was dangerous for massive Romanesque buildings. Another advantage of the framing vault is the ability to cover irregularly shaped buildings.

Thanks to the frame system in Gothic cathedrals, the load on the walls was significantly reduced.

Sredokrestie — the intersection of the main nave and the transept of the cathedral, forming a cross in plan.The nave is a rectangular internal space of the cathedral, enclosed by external walls. The trasept is a transverse nave in cross-shaped cathedrals, crossing the main nave at right angles.

Thanks to a new approach to building construction, Romanesque and Gothic architecture are very different in appearance. Romanesque buildings had smooth thick walls that created a feeling of protection and strength, isolation, alienation. Gothic buildings are an example of the complex interaction of environment and interior space.This effect is achieved with the help of large windows, seemingly airy and light towers, stone decor.

Romanesque and Gothic styles are distinguished by the decoration of buildings thanks to stained glass windows, thousands of sculptures, statues, stucco with natural motifs, which became characteristic elements of the Gothic and were practically absent (or were used in small quantities) on the facades of Romanesque buildings.

Abtei Maria Laach is a Romanesque German monastery on the southwestern shore of Lake Laach in the Eifel mountains.The monastery was founded in 1093. Count palatine Henry II von Laach Completion of construction – 1216.

In the photo there is the Gothic Ulm Cathedral. Ulm in Germany at a height of 161.5 m. (1377-1890) 90 330

Gothic sculptural compositions differ from Romanesque ones in greater expression, dynamics, tension of figures. Sculpture becomes an integral part of the cathedral, part of the architectural idea, together with other architectural techniques, it conveys the aspiration of the structure upward.In addition, the sculpture enlivens and inspires the building. The walls of Gothic buildings were decorated with figures of apostles, saints, prophets, angels, sometimes they created scenes from biblical stories. The Gothic architectural style reflected the world in the focus of the religious views of society, however, scenes from the lives of ordinary people also interfered with religious motives. The central portal of the facade was usually dedicated to the image of Christ or the Virgin Mary, on the base of the portal they often depicted a month, symbols of the seasons – they depicted the theme of human labor, the walls were decorated with figures of biblical kings, saints, apostles, prophets and ordinary people.

Sculptures in the Cathedral of Saints Mauritius and Catharina in Magdeburg – the first Gothic building in Germany. (1209 – 1520)

If we look at the Gothic style in architecture in the photo from different angles, one can imagine the majestic scope of the idea of ​​medieval architects, displaying sublime religiosity, glorification and worship of the Higher Powers. The majesty of the cathedrals, their size, incommensurate with the size of a person, had a strong emotional impact on the believer.An example of the Gothic style in architecture, a photo of which is presented below:

Gothic style. Cathedral in Chartres – Cathédrale Notre-Dame de Chartres – Catholic cathedral in the city of Chartres (1194-1260)

Stages of development of the Gothic style in architecture

There are several stages of development in Gothic architecture: early, mature – high Gothic and late, the so-called “flaming” Gothic.

Early Gothic falls on the beginning of the 12th century and the first quarter of the 13th century.Examples of the Gothic style of the early period: Notre Dame Cathedral, cathedrals at Noyon, Lana. The earliest work with a new design of the vault is considered the church of the Abbey of Saint Denis near Paris. The old church was rebuilt under the abbot of Sugeria by architects from southern France. Despite the resistance of the monastery architects, the church was built in the Gothic style (example in the photo). First, the facade and the western part of the building were rebuilt, three portals with wide doors were arranged on the facade in order to make it easier for people to enter the building, in 1151.towers were erected. Suger wrote a book describing the construction that took place at Saint Denis in 1137-1150.

Saint Denis Abbey near Paris. France. 1137-1150

Mature Gothic.

The buildings of the mature Gothic were erected from the 20s of the 13th century to its end. Examples are the cathedrals at Chartres, Reims and Amiens. Mature (high) Gothic is characterized by a frame structure, rich architectural compositions, a large number of sculptures and stained glass windows.

Cathedral in Reims (Notre-Dame de Reims) in the French province of Champagne. Archbishop Aubry de Humbert of Reims founded the Cathedral of Our Lady in 1211. Architects Jean d’Orbais 1211, Jean-le-Loup 1231-1237, Gaucher de Reims 1247-1255, Bernard de Soissons 1255- 1285 BC

Late Gothic covers the 14th and 15th centuries.

Sometimes the late Gothic art of the 15th century is distinguished in a special period of the so-called “flaming” Gothic.This period was characterized by the development of sculptural art. Sculptural compositions not only brought up religious feelings in people, depicting scenes from the Bible, but also reflected the life of ordinary people.

Sculpture on the facade of Milan Cathedral

Unlike Germany and England, late Gothic in France, ravaged by the Hundred Years War, did not develop widely and did not create a large number of significant works. The most significant structures of the late Gothic include: the Church of Saint-Maclou (Saint-Malo), Rouen, the Moulins Cathedral, Milan Cathedral, Seville Cathedral, Nantes Cathedral.

Milan Cathedral. height from the ground (with a spire) – 108, 50 m; height of the central facade -56, 50 m; length of the main facade: 67, 90 m; width: 93 m.; area: 11.700 sq. m; spiers: 135; 2245 statues on the facades

Structures of Gothic architecture were built and rebuilt over many decades, and sometimes much longer. In the architecture of one building, features of different stages of the development of the Gothic are intertwined. Therefore, it is difficult to attribute this or that building to a specific period of the Gothic style.By the 15th century, a new class appeared in Europe – the bourgeoisie, centralized states began to develop, and secular sentiments in society strengthened. Feudalism began to decline, and with it, the Gothic style began to gradually lose its significance.

author of the text: Marina Kalabukhova

Liberties of Gothic Taste – Vedomosti

Exhibition “Gothic of Enlightenment. The anniversary year of Vasily Bazhenov ”has a genre of scientific reflection that is difficult to perceive. Its curator Sergei Khachaturov believes, however, that its topic is relevant, that “meanings and ideas associated with Russian Gothic help to better understand the dialogue between the Age of Enlightenment and the age of today”.And he resolutely opposes the accepted designation of stylistically complex architectural projects, born during the triumph of clear plans and symmetry of neoclassicism, as “pseudo-gothic”. Khachaturov, let’s say right away, interprets the addiction to the free and fantasy Gothic style as a manifestation of personal freedom in the age of establishing strict norms and rules. A kind of freethinking expressed in architecture.

It is difficult to say to what extent these curatorial thoughts are read in the large exhibition, which occupies six halls in the Museum of Architecture and the entire exhibition space of the In Artibus Foundation, without talking to their author.But the material shown is so interesting that even without scholarly explanations it tends to be thought-provoking. They are caused primarily by the extraordinary beauty and sophistication of the “Gothic” projects of the era of the Russian Enlightenment, that is, the heyday of the reign of Catherine II.

For science

An international conference “Vasily Bazhenov and Greco-Gothic Taste” was timed to the exhibition, as well as a scientific catalog with a detailed description of all exhibits and several research articles.

The complex relationship between the empress and the architect is essentially the whole exhibition.Formally, materials about these two historical figures are collected in the halls of the foundation, but the Model of the Grand Kremlin Palace – Bazhenov’s unrealized project – is part of the permanent exhibition of the Museum of Architecture. Although he is not of “Gothic taste”, the scope of Bazhenov’s ambitions is ideal, and also reminds that in the confrontation between the artist and the authorities, the creators do not always turn out to be right. A small “Masonic corner” in the first part of the exhibition also directly refers to the relationship between the architect who accepted the ideas of free masons and the empress.

These relationships between the great Russian architect, who built almost nothing (the authorship of the Pashkov house has long been questioned, just like the previously reliably attributed church of the Vladimir Icon of the Mother of God in Bykovo), with the empress, who ordered the destruction of his palace in Tsaritsyno, have been described many times. But such close attention to the very concept of “Gothic”, which developed in the era of the Enlightenment, seems to have never been paid. The exhibition allows you to look differently at such wonderful architectural graphics, as, for example, Bazhenov’s “Design of the canopy over the relics of Metropolitan Jonah in the Assumption Cathedral of the Moscow Kremlin”, or to see the details of his “Panorama of the Tsaritsyno Ensemble”, which has become the adornment of the exhibition.

The Gothic theme made it possible to show a variety of things at the exhibition: not only the design sheets of Bazhenov and his contemporaries, but also architectural painting and graphics, theatrical sketches and materials about the coronation festival, portraits of Catherine II and a large family portrait of Bazhenov himself. And also such charming fragments of antiquity as a wooden park “Minerva” in a woman’s height (164 cm) or a model of the Ivan the Great bell tower, which got on the exhibition because all old, barbaric, eclectic architecture was called Gothic during the Enlightenment, and not just knightly castles and medieval cathedrals.

Gothic windows | Architecture and Design

Most of the Romanesque windows were simple openings that were glazed at the end of the building. But there are few Gothic windows that were not glazed from the very beginning. Romanesque windows were by necessity narrow: the absence of binding forced them to be reduced in size.

The stability of the building demanded this even more imperatively: after all, the cylindrical vaults of the large naves had only the walls of the building as buttresses, and these walls had to have extremely high resistance; The cross vaults, which had elevated profiles, also required solidly constructed cheek walls.In view of this, the Romanesque walls were supporting massifs, and in order not to weaken them, it was necessary to bring the window openings to the minimum size that was only allowed by the lighting requirements.

The rib construction system is introduced. Since that time, the thrust forces are concentrated on the abutments, and in order to contain the pressure of the vaults, isolated buttresses become enough; the mass of the wall loses its importance for stability, nothing prevents you from making any holes in it. And we see the body of the wall disappear.It is replaced by a stone lattice, fastened with iron bars, which prevent it from squinting; the cells of this lattice are glazed.

Binding and method of its strengthening; profiles of window sills and window sashes

Glazing construction and reinforcement. – In the middle of the century, they did not know how to make glass in the form of large sheets. The glazing consisted of small pieces of glass embedded in a lead frame ( fig. 261 ). Then the glass was installed in the groove and attached to the iron lattice of the opening by means of wedges C and lead straps.

Fig. 261

Window sill profile. – The binding arranged in this way represents a solid plane, but not waterproof enough. Therefore, it became necessary to divert outside not only the water that floods the windows from the outside during the rain, but also the water that can seep into the cracks of the glazing and drain along the inner surface of the walls.

Profile of the window sill shown on fig. 262 provides such water removal. At one glance at the drawing of the inner side of the window sill ( Fig. 262, R ), it is easy to understand what guarantees such a device provides against the inflow of external waters (f) and against internal waters formed by seepage or as a result of cooling vapors.


Profile of window sashes. – The stone binding, dismembering the opening of the opening, whatever the pattern of the binding, consists of stone, more and more branching bars.

At fig. 263 shows the main rod a, from which branch b departs, then an even smaller branch c departs from this branch b, etc. It is necessary that the profiles of all these branches are consistent with each other; their section shows how this agreement was made.For the original take the profile of the last branch with; in its simplest form, it can be a rectangle with cut corners and a slot for inserting a binding; this profile is accepted.

Fig. 263

To go from this profile to the profile of the larger branch b, element c is included in the total mass, so to speak. The new profile retains the elements of the previous one plus two new shaft-shaped elements.Then, by a similar addition, they move from the second profile to the third – a.

And so gradually the elements not only gather in a bundle, but also penetrate each other, which allows you to give the binding extraordinary lightness. Example A (Amiens) can be seen as typical for window glazing in the 13th century. In the XIV century. details are being clarified and their number is increasing. In the XV century they receive a broken outline, shown in drawing B.

XVI century, reacting against these excesses, abruptly moves from extreme complexity to absolute simplicity and replaces profiled bindings with columns devoid of any decorations, except for a small cut of the ribs in the form of grooves; but the method of sequential cutting of elements is preserved.

The solution is flawless in terms of profiling; but the choice of details at the beginning was not always perfect: in the horizontal parts of the network (w), in the grooves separating the rollers, water accumulates, which forms cracks when frozen. XV century, apparently, precisely to eliminate this danger, he stopped at profiles without rollers, type B.

General drawing and construction of bindings

XII century and early XIII century. – In the XII century. the window does not yet occupy the entire field outlined by the cheek arch of the vault – it retains the appearance of the opening made in the wall, and the window binding is reduced to the middle pillar, two pointed arches and the final rose ( fig.264 ). Until 1220, the racks are usually made in rows of masonry. Since that time, a monolithic column with vertical layering has come into use. In the era of the construction of Notre Dame Cathedral, the crowning rose still looks like a stone ring. To prevent it from breaking, place this ring loosely in the folds, and simple segments of the circle serve as the wedges of the masonry that support it, as shown in fig. 264, A .


Mid-13th century. – Soon they notice that segments A are withdrawn; it is felt that it would be advisable to strengthen the concave part of them with a protrusion similar to B; this reinforcement can be obtained without a large expenditure of stone, by extruding it from the same part of the slab that would have to be chopped off. Hence the variant adopted in Amiens ( fig. 264 ): R shows the axes, B and X ‘specify the details. We observe the same techniques in the Reims Cathedral ( fig.265, A.M. N ).

Fig. 265

End of XIII century and XIV century. – During the reign of Louis IX, the large crowning ring of the window gives way to a group of small roses ( Sainte-Chapelle , choir in Amiens , etc.); example for Fig. 265 borrowed from Saint-Germain en Laye ).

Then it is noticed that the smaller the arrow, the stronger the arches of this pattern.Then round roses are replaced by curved triangles (Fig. 265, C), in which the arch approaches a straight line more and more. In the Church of Sainte-Urbain in Troyes (1260), we already find these patterns with curved triangles. In the XIV century. they become the rule ( Saint-Nazaire and Carcassonne -C, transept at Meaux , Saint-Ouen church at Rouen).

XV and XVI centuries. – Finally, in the 15th century. the outline of the window is obtained using the following technique: vertical posts are combined with the arches that they support.Just as the columns merge with the ribs, so they tend to make the arch of the icon binding as a continuation of the racks.

Then the binding takes on a new look. Instead of being crowned with a group of roses, it blooms in a bunch of twisting and top-directed lines that fill the upper part of the window opening.

Let us imagine ( fig. 266 ) the simplest case, a single vertical stand, and let B be the top of this stand, A and A – the heels of the archivolt.The ARA lancet arch can be split into parts by the AM and BM curves. Adding to each concave part ab the reinforcement with I ( Fig. 266, S ), which has been used since the 13th century, one obtains the general scheme N. The combinations can be varied indefinitely.

Fig. 266

By increasing the number of branches and observing the rule to strengthen the concave parts of the arches with reinforcements, they come to those interweaving of curved lines that resemble a flame shaking by the wind; therefore, the decorations of the last period of Gothic art were called “flaming” *.

Note: “Flaming” decorations (German terminology calls the “flaming” curved element of the pattern incomparably less poetic – “fish bubble”), which served as a pretext for highlighting the late Gothic style in a special stylistic chapter of “flaming art”, in their sum they reveal decorative and manneristic degeneration of the Gothic formal language; the earliest examples can be found in the cathedrals of southern France, the system most widely used in England.

Example shown on fig. 267 (Saint-Gervais), shows the complexity and, admittedly, the great showiness of such undulating plexuses. From the point of view of the severity of the forms, one can still doubt whether there are achievements here, but from the point of view of the safety of the structure, the achievements are beyond doubt. Due to the alignment of the branches with the vertical bars, the water can no longer stagnate anywhere, and as an additional precaution, the rejection of the profiles that trapped the water should be noted.

Fig. 267

Anglo-Norman variants. – Norman architecture, inclined to simple outlines, is usually limited to the construction of window sashes by a system of arches described by only one radius ( Fig. 268, A ). For the compartments of all the wedge-shaped stones of such a pointed arch, one template A is sufficient. At the beginning of the XIV century.England borrows this Norman trick. In the XV century. They simplify the geometric outlines of the binding elements even more, bringing them to samples B and C: vertical posts are crossed at different heights by transverse bars and end with pointed arches, sometimes lanceolate, sometimes lowered.

Fig. 268

Gothic rose details. – Large roses, sometimes occupying an entire façade, give an idea of ​​how lightness can be achieved in stone structures.In the XII century. and until the middle of the XIII century. (Montreal) made roses composed of openwork rings, which were placed one inside the other.

In the XIII century. these concentric rings are replaced by a radial net, the ingenious structure of which is shown in Fig. , fig. 269 : the outer border of the rose is built of wedge-shaped stones and holds itself, so that the inner part of the rose is reduced by the size of this border.

At fig. 269, A ( Chartres ), the wedge border and the internal net are shown separately.At fig. 269, B (transept in Notre Dame ) only the curb is shown in detail, from the rest are the axes of the bars and the cutting of stones.

Fig. 269 ​​

Particularly striking here is the art with which the designer performed the cutting: no loss of stone, and the seams of the masonry are located almost everywhere normally to the lines of curvature of the pattern.In general, the pattern of an openwork rose is like a wheel with spokes *: the main spokes are interconnected by arcs, from the tops of which smaller spokes extend.

Note: The spoked wheel is the basic structural form of the frame and frame of the large round windows of the Gothic façade; this gave rise to German Gothic, instead of the French name for such windows “rose” to use the expression “wheel”, “Catherine’s wheel” (“Katharinenrad” is an attribute of a popular saint). The symbolic meaning of the wheel, however, was different: it was believed that it contained an allusion to the “wheel of fortune”, to the “last judgment”; the idea of ​​turning the wheel, when “the last will be the first”, was the reason why we meet the wheel as a symbol of social order on.the banner of the peasants in revolt in 1525

Despite this technique, which allows increasing the number of radii towards the circle of the rose, it was difficult to achieve equality of the individual cells of the rose. This resulted in the modification shown in Fig. . 269, C (Mo).

In order to expand the central part of the rose, the binding bars are no longer directed towards the center, and the radial pattern turns into a lattice pattern characteristic of the 14th century. In the XV and XVI centuries. for this lattice, the outlines that we described when it came to window sashes are used: the radial bars end in the form of “flaming” lines (roses of transepts in Beauvais and in the portal of the Church of Saint-Germain d’Auxerrois; rose in Sainte-Chapelle, altered at Charles VIII).

As a special feature, it should be noted that in the buildings of Ile de France and Burgundy, a rose is inserted into a completely circular opening. On the other hand, in Champagne and Soissons, this opening usually has a lancet shape; such are the roses in the Cathedral of Saint-Nicaise in Reims, in the old church of Saint-Jean de Vigne in Soissons, etc. *.

Note: The shape of the Gothic window opening varies greatly from location to location. In Germanic countries, as a rule, the opening is crowned with a sharply-terminated triangle, which bears the name of a wimperg (from Windberg – protection from the wind).See Lefevre-Pontalis E., Les origines des gables, “Bull. Mon. ” 1907.

General windowing system. The role of sill walls

At fig. 270 presents a general view of the main Gothic window systems and shows how these systems were adapted to the massive supporting arches (A) or to the thinner arches (B and C), which were common in the 13th century.

The binding plane is rarely located in the middle of the wall thickness; usually it is closer to the outer, then to its inner surface.A well-known rule, apparently, is observed in relation to the upper windows of large naves: their cover is placed as close as possible to the inner surface of the walls in order to protect it from the blows of the wind.

When one massive supporting arch is replaced by two independent parallel ones, one or the other arch is chosen for the plane of the stained-glass window (Fig. 192, D). In Noyon, in the Church of Sainte-Urbain in Troyes, the stained glass window is located in the inner arch ( fig. 270, D ). In the nave of the church Saint-Urbain , in the chapel of Saint-Germain en Laye and in the church of Saint-Sulpice in Favier, it is placed in the outer arch and, in addition, it presents a remarkable feature: the window is not limited by the outline of the arch, but occupies the entire quadrangular space between buttresses.

Fig. 270

On drawing B fig. 270 ( Saint-Germain en Laye ) shows such an extension of the window surface; images 265 , R specifies the diagram of the window device and its details. Such a completely glazed wall, thrown from one buttress to another, gives the impression of a kind of elegance, but creates serious complications, as a result of which it does not enjoy the attention of architects for long: having appeared around the middle of the 13th century., it is no longer applied at the threshold of the XIV century.

It remains to note the contradiction inherent in most buildings of the 13th century, which at first glance seems incomprehensible. It would seem that under these openwork windows, the window-sill wall should be as thin as the window frame itself. In fact, in most buildings ( Fig. 270 ), instead of a thin wall, there is a massive wall, and sometimes even a semblance of a parapet (A, B, C) is built between this wall and the frame.

This is explained by the fact that the window-sill wall was supposed to serve as a fortress fence: only under it could digging be carried out.To dig under the buttresses meant to expose oneself to the danger of being crushed by the collapse; there was much less risk in attacking the gap between the buttresses. This is the reason for the excessive massiveness of the window-sill wall, the reason for its height and the device of the parapet that crowns it. Here we are dealing with a defensive precaution that has nothing to do with considerations of stability or beauty. The appearance of this massive window-sill wall would be out of harmony with the overall lightness of the structure; harmony was achieved by decorating the wall with arcatures.

Auguste Choisy. History of architecture. Auguste Choisy. Histoire De L’Architecture


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