Colored leads: Amazon.com : Eno Color Mechanical 0.7mm Pencil Set Lead Refill 8-Box Full Set : Office Products

June Gold 2mm Colored Leads

 

2/8/21 Northgate neighborhood

We all knew I wouldn’t last long with the few colors I gave
myself in my ultra-minimalist kit (in fact, I was impressed that I
lasted two weeks). I like the one Caran d’Ache Bicolor, of course, but the
blue and red ballpoint inks in the Bic 4-Color 3+1 weren’t getting much
use. I was going to stick it out a bit longer, but an idea came to me serendipitously.
Someone I follow on Instagram who usually shows only fountain pens had a
mechanical pencil with a bright orange lead. It looked more vibrant than most
colored leads I’ve tried, so I inquired, and he said it was a June Gold lead.
The 2mm leads come in a pack of 36 colors for 7 bucks! Typically, I would stay
away from a “bargain” like that, but reviewers seemed to approve.

While I waited for the leads to come, I looked at my 2mm lead
holder options and remembered an old toy: The Pentel Multi 8. Purchased
early in my urban sketching career when I was enchanted with all things compact
(as you can see, not much has changed), it was a promising concept – one body
containing slots for eight lead colors. Unfortunately, the leads it came with were
terrible.

A few years ago when I reviewed the Koh-i-Noor Drawing Pencils for the Well-Appointed Desk, I liked those 2mm leads much better,
so I swapped them in for some colors in the Multi 8. I even noted in my own
blog post that those leads in the Multi 8 could be a good solution for a minimalism
challenge – then promptly forgot about it.

Now, three years later, I dug it out and filled it with a
carefully considered selection of eight urban colors from the June Gold set.
For 2mm colored leads, they are softer and more saturated than any I’ve used
(well, except for the Caran d’Ache 2mm leads, also reviewed at the
Well-Appointed Desk, but they come in only four colors). Certainly not like Prismacolors,
Polychromos or any other woodcased favorites; I think it’s not possible
for a mechanical lead to compete with a woodcased pencil. Without the structure
and support of wood, it must have materials other than binders to keep them
from breaking. But for a set of 36 colors that can fit in a tube about the size
of the Multi 8, they are pretty darn good. Ideal, actually, for a short-term
minimalism challenge.

Pentel Multi 8 and June Gold 2mm leads

The only downside to these compact, budget-minded colors is that the leads are
too long to fit in the Multi 8. There’s an easy solution, though: Just snap
them in half.

My June Gold urban palette

Compact!

The Caran d’Ache Bicolor has come out of my bag. Although I’m
using it only for the graphite component, the Bic 4-Color 3+1 is staying in for
now. And June Gold leads contained in my Multi 8 are my only coloring agent. They
ought to keep me happy for the duration of the challenge.

Colored Leads 0.5mm at Rs 42/piece | पेंसिल की लीड – Dent Smart

Colored Leads 0.5mm at Rs 42/piece | पेंसिल की लीड – Dent Smart | ID: 18149591555

Product Description

Very good Quality Colored Leads Now make your presentations colourful, without the hassle of carrying different coloured pencils, sharpner Etc.

Assorted Leads: 2 Leads each of Voilet, Rose Pink, Red, Orange, Green & Mint Blue

Interested in this product?Get Latest Price from the seller

Contact Seller

Product Image


About the Company

Year of Establishment2015

Legal Status of FirmPartnership Firm

Nature of BusinessWholesaler

Number of EmployeesUpto 10 People

IndiaMART Member SinceOct 2013

GST04AALFD6256A1ZS

Year of establishment 2015, Dent Smart is the leading wholesaler and trader of Dental Handpiece, Buccal Tube, Metal Bracket, Arch Turret, etc. These products are procured from reliable vendors of industry who have rich industry skill and experience. Our presented products are enormously admired for their top features. Furthermore, our reasonable price, honest dealing and ethical business strategy has assisted us in upholding prominent position in the market.

Company Video

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10 Colored Pencil Lead Refills

Home » Colored Pencil Guides » Top 10 Best Colored Pencil Lead Refills (2020 reviews)

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Are you looking for collection of best colored pencil lead refills for your daily usage ? you have come to the right page.

After deeply exploring almost several dozens of colored pencil lead refills, we have arrived at these products. Our final set has reliable products and we also worked hard to maintain variety within our picks to accommodate personal preferences.

Best Pick

June Gold has been making feature-packed colored pencil lead refill for years, thanks to a combination of clever design and high-end materials. The June Gold Colored Pencil Lead Refill includes the following items and features!includes:. Make sure this fits by entering your model number. These bulk lead refills are great for both schools & offices. Lastly, the june gold colored pencil lead refill is manufactured with uniform & smooth lead for long lasting writing.


In This Article:


Top 5 Best Colored Pencil Lead Refills


1. June Gold Colored Pencil Lead Refill – Best Pick

The June Gold Colored Pencil Lead Refill should be able to handle its purpose and duties with ease. 440 lead (graphite) refills 0.7 mm 2b 60 mm tall. And, the colored pencil lead refill is designed with convenience and simplicity resulting in effortless dispensing. To sum up, with 4.6 rating and more than 34560 buyers, the june gold colored pencil lead refill stands as the best choice.

Most buyers opine that the colored pencil lead refill is good product for the cost and would definitely buy again. Further, they say that the tube that the 2mm lead is in is really sturdy.

Top Customer Quotes:

  • 4 lead (black) dispensers with 110 refills each
  • Pencils are all about personal preference
  • Manufacturer says: they are a perfect match with our 72 pack of mechanical pencils
  • The cost of this refill lead is such a good deal!

2. Bild Colored Pencil Lead Refill – Best Runner Up

Best Runner Up

Bild line of colored pencil lead refill come in a pretty wide variety of styles, so you can definitely find one that suits your individual preferences and needs. The Bild Colored Pencil Lead Refill is available in 0.3mm, 0.5mm, 0.7mm, 0.9mm, 1.3mm, 2.0mm both hb & 2b. Make sure this fits by entering your model number. In addition, it come with 1 tube of color leads.

Lastly, the bild colored pencil lead refill is designed to provide a great writing experience, smooth not scratchy!

Almost all buyers agree that the colored pencil lead refill does not tear into the paper with first starting out. Further, they also found that the colored pencil lead is very fragile and really cannot be used. Overall, most buyers agree that the colored pencil lead refill suits best, and no one question it.

Top Customer Quotes:

  • The normal led pieces seem to work fine
  • Would have liked an additional set of color leads
  • This works with any 0.7 mm lead mechanical pencil
  • Works with any 0.7 mm lead mechanical pencil

3. Pilot Colored Pencil Lead Refill – Best Premium

Best Premium

Next on the list, we’ve got yet another colored pencil lead refill that manages to win our hearts. It’s the Pilot Colored Pencil Lead Refill and it’s widely considered as one of the best premium colored pencil lead refill you can buy. Make sure this fits by entering your model number. Also, the colored pencil lead refill is the extra lead of 「eno color mechanical 0.7mm pencil set lead refill 8-box full set. In conclusion, with 4.6 rating and more than 992 buyers, the pilot colored pencil lead refill stands as the best choice.

Almost all customers opine that the colored pencil lead refill is easy to load in the pens. Moreover, a few say that the colored pencil lead refill has made drawing quite a bit more interesting. In addition, a few strongly agree that the colored pencil lead refill is great value for the money. Also, the eno lead seems a tad bit harder but the breakage is comparable (both break easily).

Top Customer Quotes:

  • The cases stay closed well and open with a quick flick of the thumb
  • This is easier to see, however, by itself it’s quite difficult to notice
  • Good brand reputation

4. Pentel Colored Pencil Lead Refill

The Pentel Colored Pencil Lead Refill is the best suitable coloredpencil leadrefill on the market today. Also, the colored pencillead refill is ideal for highlighting and underlining high cotton, linen fiber and lightweight papers such as, bibles, encyclopedias, dictionaries, etc. Make sure this fits by entering your model number. Above all, the pentel colored pencil lead refill has the red, blue, yellow, brown, light green, orange, pink and sky blue.

Most customers quickly discovered that the colored pencil lead refill is the perfect complement to the pentel arts 8 automatic pencil. Also, they also found that the colored pencil lead refill should make them slightly bigger and put 4 in each. Moreover, they also found that the colored pencil lead refill come with 2 leads in each tube of color. In addition, the mechanical color pencil is a great tool for journaling because of the multi colors of the lead. Overall, the tone of buyers is very positive and we believe that the colored pencil lead refill suits the purpose.

Top Customer Quotes:

  • 2.0mm lead diameter produces extra-bold lines of consistent density
  • Colors included: red; blue; brown; yellow; orange; lime green; pink; sky blue
  • This has come down in cost over the years
  • These leads are refills for a pentel arts 8-color mechanical pencil

5. Visit The Jovitec Store Colored Pencil Lead Refill

The Visit The Jovitec Store Colored Pencil Lead Refill might be a relatively new release, but it’s still nothing short of impressive this year, thanks to multiple price cuts and added new features over the past few months. The cover of tube is designer with a extra tip which is convenient for you to open/close. Moreover, the colored pencil lead refill is suitable for using at home, schools, offices and any where, do not push too much power while writing. To sum up, with 3.1 rating and more than 6440 buyers, the visit the jovitec store colored pencil lead refill stands as the best choice.

One customer says – “Handier to use than regular colored pencils. “.Most customers agree that the colored pencil lead refill is good value for the money.

Top Customer Quotes:

  • The quality resin material gives you smooth writing experience
  • Six colors pencil refills with 180 pieces in total for your various choice
  • Fun to use and write with
  • 6 different colors refills, including red, orange, green, blue, purple, rose pink

Other Colored Pencil Lead Refills We Reviewed

Best Pick

We looked at 5 other Colored Pencil Lead Refills. Even though they didn’t make our 5 best Colored Pencil Lead Refills list, they’re the best of the best and each is still a great option. The information you’ll need to compare each one is included with the listing.

Products You May Be Interested In

Hestya Colored Pencil Lead Refill

Most customers found that the coloredpencil leadrefill works just fine for shading and line art. They also found that the colored pencillead refill is easy to break and it can be erased cleanly and easily with a regular eraser.

Top Customer Quotes:

  • These lead refills are good for both schools and offices
  • 12 tubes of lead refills, each tube contains 30 pieces refills
  • Pay attention to strength when you write, don’t push too hard

Cost: $11.99

Outus Colored Pencil Lead Refill

Most buyers opine that the colored pencil lead refill comes with 100 pieces colored lead refills packed in a silver color iron box. A few also found that the colored pencil lead refill is about 2.0 mm in width, 90 mm tall.

Why We Like This:

  • Different colors can meet your different painting needs, make your life more colorful
  • This is about 2.0 mm in width, 90 mm tall
  • This comes with 100 pieces colored lead refills packed in a silver color iron box

Cost: $9.99

Gydandir Colored Pencil Lead Refill

Almost all customers found that the colored pencil lead refill is suitable for using at home, schools, offices. A few strongly agree that the colored pencil lead refill comes with the colorful material added in the refills, the pencil leads are not so sturdy as regular black refills.

Why We Like This:

  • Features: these color pencil can be corrected by eraser
  • Suitable for coloring your drawings but not suitable for writing
  • Manufacturer says: we do not push too much power while using these leads

Cost: $10.99

Tupalizy Colored Pencil Lead Refill

Almost all buyers found that the colored pencil lead refill is perfect gift for kids, students, teachers, artists and writers. A few say that the colored pencil lead refill is suitable for using at home, schools, offices and any where, do not push too much power while writing.

Top Customer Quotes:

  • This is perfect because the tip doesn’t break off as easily
  • This is perfect gift for kids, students, teachers, artists and writers
  • Size: 0.7mm in diameter, 60mm / 2. 36inch in length; quantity: 120pcs refills

Cost: $7.09

Zhehao Colored Pencil Lead Refill

Most buyers agree that the colored pencil lead refill is designed with convenience and simplicity making lead dispensing effortless. They say that the colored pencil lead refill is perfectly in pencil, colors look nice.

Top Customer Quotes:

  • The mechanical pencil lead can make your writing smoothly and erase cleanly
  • Looking forward to getting to use some cool colors on documents
  • This is easy to use and store/carry containers

Cost: $13.99

Colored man or how to colorize the output echo / Habr

When you write even a minimal script, you often use echo – hints.

Agree “

colored man

” is much nicer to read, so why not color the echo output?

it’s easy enough.

So …

Task:
Colorize the text string displayed on the screen using the echo
command
those. color these same tips

What you need:
1) man echo
www.opennet.ru/man.shtml?topic=echo&category=1

From it we will need exactly

echo -e # the -e switch in the echo command turns on the display of "backslash escapes"; e.g. \ n - go to the next line, \ t - tabulation
echo -n # the -n switch in the echo command signals that after displaying information, you do not need to go to the next line.
echo -en # in our case will help color the text output.

2) Nice article with examples “Linux console management” RUS
c-reaction.net / content / 204

Good article with examples “Colorizing Scripts” ENG
www.faqs.org/docs/abs/HTML/colorizing.html

Let’s go:

First, let’s look at man echo rus with one eye, and then we’ll look at how to use the color
www.opennet.ru/man.shtml?topic=echo&category=1

Go to Color Management:

tput sgr0 Return the color to the "normal" state

\ 033 [0m all default attributes
\ 033 [1m bold (intense color)
\ 033 [2m semi-bright color (dark gray, regardless of color)
\ 033 [4m underline
\ 033 [5m blinking
\ 033 [7m reversion (characters get background color and background color)

\ 033 [22m set normal intensity
\ 033 [24m cancel underline
\ 033 [25m cancel blinking
\ 033 [27m cancel reversion

\ 033 [30 black characters
\ 033 [31 red characters
\ 033 [32 green color of characters
\ 033 [33 yellow color of signs
\ 033 [34 blue color of characters
\ 033 [35 purple color of signs
\ 033 [36 aqua signs
\ 033 [37 gray color of signs

\ 033 [40 black color of background
\ 033 [41 background color red
\ 033 [42 green background color
\ 033 [43 background yellow
\ 033 [44 blue background color
\ 033 [45 purple background color
\ 033 [46 aqua background
\ 033 [47 gray background color

Table of colors and backgrounds:

Color code background code

black 30 40 \ 033 [30m \ 033 [40m
red 31 41 \ 033 [31m \ 033 [41m
green 32 42 \ 033 [32m \ 033 [42m
yellow 33 43 \ 033 [33m \ 033 [43m
blue 34 44 \ 033 [34m \ 033 [44m
magenta 35 45 \ 033 [35m \ 033 [45m
cyan 36 46 \ 033 [36m \ 033 [46m
gray 37 47 \ 033 [37m \ 033 [47m

Combining these escape sequences is allowed. D \ 033 [0m to return back”
sh
#
# note that the escape sequences
# enclosed in brackets “\ [” and “\]”
# This is to prevent the shell from counting them at
# evaluating the length of the string.
# Otherwise long lines will not wrap correctly.
#

For ease of use, you can color and add. assign properties to variables:

RED = '\ 033 [0; 31m' # $ {RED}
GREEN = '\ 033 [0; 32m' # $ {GREEN}

The .sh file must be in UNIX format and encoded UTF-8

And finally, one good example with all the goodies:

# ! / bin / sh
# echo backlight
# echo color
# The script displays the menu list

clear # Clears the screen

# Memo, Table of colors and backgrounds
# Color code background code

#black 30 40 \ 033 [30m \ 033 [40m
#red 31 41 \ 033 [31m \ 033 [41m
#green 32 42 \ 033 [32m \ 033 [42m
#yellow 33 43 \ 033 [33m \ 033 [43m
#blue 34 44 \ 033 [34m \ 033 [44m
#magenta 35 45 \ 033 [35m \ 033 [45m
#cyan 36 46 \ 033 [36m \ 033 [46m
#white 37 47 \ 033 [37m \ 033 [47m

# Additional properties for text:
BOLD = '\ 033 [1m' # $ {BOLD} # bold (intense color)
DBOLD = '\ 033 [2m' # $ {DBOLD} # semi-bright color (dark gray regardless of color)
NBOLD = '\ 033 [22m' # $ {NBOLD} # set normal intensity
UNDERLINE = '\ 033 [4m' # $ {UNDERLINE} # underline
NUNDERLINE = '\ 033 [4m' # $ {NUNDERLINE} # remove underline
BLINK = '\ 033 [5m' # $ {BLINK} # blinking
NBLINK = '\ 033 [5m' # $ {NBLINK} # cancel blinking
INVERSE = '\ 033 [7m' # $ {INVERSE} # reversion (characters get the background color, and the background - the character color)
NINVERSE = '\ 033 [7m' # $ {NINVERSE} # undo reversion
BREAK = '\ 033 [m' # $ {BREAK} # all default attributes
NORMAL = '\ 033 [0m' # $ {NORMAL} # all default attributes

# Text color:
BLACK = '\ 033 [0; 30m' # $ {BLACK} # black color of characters
RED = '\ 033 [0; 31m' # $ {RED} # red color of characters
GREEN = '\ 033 [0; 32m' # $ {GREEN} # green color of characters
YELLOW = '\ 033 [0; 33m' # $ {YELLOW} # yellow color of characters
BLUE = '\ 033 [0; 34m' # $ {BLUE} # blue color of characters
MAGENTA = '\ 033 [0; 35m' # $ {MAGENTA} # purple color of characters
CYAN = '\ 033 [0; 36m' # $ {CYAN} # aqua signs
GRAY = '\ 033 [0; 37m' # $ {GRAY} # gray color of characters

# text color (bold):
DEF = '\ 033 [0; 39m' # $ {DEF}
DGRAY = '\ 033 [1; 30m' # $ {DGRAY}
LRED = '\ 033 [1; 31m' # $ {LRED}
LGREEN = '\ 033 [1; 32m' # $ {LGREEN}
LYELLOW = '\ 033 [1; 33m' # $ {LYELLOW}
LBLUE = '\ 033 [1; 34m' # $ {LBLUE}
LMAGENTA = '\ 033 [1; 35m' # $ {LMAGENTA}
LCYAN = '\ 033 [1; 36m' # $ {LCYAN}
WHITE = '\ 033 [1; 37m' # $ {WHITE}

# Background color
BGBLACK = '\ 033 [40m' # $ {BGBLACK}
BGRED = '\ 033 [41m' # $ {BGRED}
BGGREEN = '\ 033 [42m' # $ {BGGREEN}
BGBROWN = '\ 033 [43m' # $ {BGBROWN}
BGBLUE = '\ 033 [44m' # $ {BGBLUE}
BGMAGENTA = '\ 033 [45m' # $ {BGMAGENTA}
BGCYAN = '\ 033 [46m' # $ {BGCYAN}
BGGRAY = '\ 033 [47m' # $ {BGGRAY}
BGDEF = '\ 033 [49m' # $ {BGDEF}

tput sgr0 # Return color to "normal" state

# Start menu
echo ""
echo -n ""
echo -e "$ {BOLD} $ {BGMAGENTA} $ {LGREEN} DNS323 Menu $ {NORMAL}"
echo ""
echo -en "$ {LYELLOW} 1 $ {LGREEN} Commands for easy telnet work $ {GRAY} (Execute?) $ {NORMAL} \ n"
echo ""
echo -en "$ {LYELLOW} 2 $ {LGREEN} Folder Paths & Change Permissions $ {GRAY} (Commands) $ {NORMAL} \ n"
echo ""
echo -en "$ {LYELLOW} 3 $ {LGREEN} Transmission ($ {GREEN} Start $ {NORMAL}, $ {LRED} Stop $ {NORMAL}, $ {CYAN} Upgrade $ {NORMAL}) $ {GRAY} ( Menu) $ {NORMAL} \ n "
echo ""
echo -en "$ {LYELLOW} 4 $ {LGREEN} Copy (cp & rsync) $ {GRAY} (Commands) $ {NORMAL} \ n"
echo ""
echo -en "$ {LYELLOW} 5 $ {LGREEN} Link to file or folder $ {GRAY} (Commands) $ {NORMAL} \ n"
echo ""
echo -en "$ {LYELLOW} 6 $ {LGREEN} Installing from fun-plug & IPKG $ {GRAY} (Commands) $ {NORMAL} \ n"
echo ""
echo -en "$ {LYELLOW} 7 $ {LGREEN} Show Traffic ($ {LYELLOW} n $ {LGREEN} load) $ {GRAY} (Execute?) $ {NORMAL} \ n"
echo ""
echo -en "$ {LYELLOW} 8 $ {LGREEN} Task Manager ($ {LYELLOW} h $ {LGREEN} top) $ {GRAY} (Run?) $ {NORMAL} \ n"
echo ""
echo -en "$ {LYELLOW} 9 $ {LGREEN} Midnight Commander ($ {LYELLOW} m $ {LGREEN} c) $ {GRAY} (Execute?) $ {NORMAL} \ n"
echo ""
echo -en "$ {LMAGENTA} q $ {LGREEN} Exit $ {NORMAL} \ n"
echo ""
echo "(Please enter the item number to execute the commands of this item, any other input, Exit)"
echo ""
tput sgr0

ps: Can you please tell me which blog is better to publish?

UPD1: ported to Linux for everyone, i. e.Since this is the closest blog on the subject, as it seems to me.
UPD2: Thanks to aco for the picture, briefly and clearly =)

Doppler during pregnancy in Minsk

Doppler (synonym, Doppler) of feto-placental blood flow is a study of the state of blood flow in the mother-placenta-fetus system, which is performed during an ultrasound examination during pregnancy.

The results of Doppler ultrasonography make it possible to judge the state of the uterine-placental-fetal blood flow and indirectly indicate the intrauterine state of the child.

The physical effect used in modern medicine to measure blood flow velocity was discovered in 1842 by Christian Johann Doppler, professor of mathematics and geometry. Dopplerometry has become widespread in obstetrics since the mid-80s of the 20th century. The most commonly used Doppler techniques for scanning during pregnancy are as follows: pulse, color (color), power doppler.

Pulse Doppler.

The essence of the Doppler effect is that when ultrasonic waves are reflected from moving objects (in our case, such objects are blood cells moving through the vessels), the physical properties of the wave change.The difference between the frequency of the reflected and emitted ultrasonic pulses is called the Doppler shift. Blood flow velocity is calculated using a mathematical formula based on the Doppler shift and then marked with a luminous dot on the monitor. The combination of these points forms a pattern on the screen of the ultrasound machine, which is called the blood flow velocity curve. In addition, during Doppler measurements, audible signals are heard, which help the doctor to distinguish whether the measurement is being carried out in the desired vessel.The doctor evaluates the blood flow velocity curve visually, and also, marking certain areas, calculates special indices. These indices are called vascular resistance indices and characterize the state of blood flow in the studied vessel. In general, there can be many indicators characterizing blood flow in a vessel, but the most popular indices in obstetric ultrasound are IR (resistance index), PI (pulsation index) and SDO (systalo-diastolic ratio). The values ​​of the obtained resistance indices are compared with the normative ones and, based on this, a conclusion is formulated on the state of blood flow in the vessel.

Color Doppler.

This technique is based on the application of the same frequency shift, only after signal conversion, an image of blood vessels, usually red and blue, appears on the monitor screen. Using this technique, it is impossible to determine the calculated indices, but it is possible to characterize the features of the blood flow in the organ, to trace the course of the vessels.

Often, color and pulsed Doppler are used in combination – color to locate the vessel, pulsed to assess the blood flow velocity in it.

Color Doppler is used very frequently during pregnancy ultrasound. So such dangerous conditions as placental previa to the cervix, true umbilical cord knot, repeated entanglement of the umbilical cord around the fetal neck, cervical cancer can be diagnosed using this technique. In addition, color Doppler is used for every examination of the fetal heart and helps to detect heart defects.

Power Doppler.

Another method for assessing the blood supply to the object under study.The change in the amplitude characteristics of the wave is transformed in the apparatus and the vessels, usually orange in color, are visible on the monitor. This technique is not often used in obstetrics.

Indications for Doppler.

The main indications for assessing blood flow in the mother-placenta-fetus system are:

1.Mother’s diseases:

  • gestosis, arterial hypertension,
  • kidney disease,
  • collagenoses,
  • antiphospholipid syndrome and other autoimmune conditions
  • congenital thrombophilia
  • diabetes mellitus

2. Diseases of the fetus, placenta, umbilical cord:

  • size gap
  • low water, polyhydramnios
  • multiple pregnancy
  • Disturbance of maturation of the placenta
  • dropsy, fetal malformations, umbilical cord abnormalities, fetal chromosomal abnormalities
  • pathological types of CTG
  • malformations and suspected chromosomal abnormalities

3. A burdened obstetric anamnesis (GRP, gestosis, stillbirth in previous pregnancies).

Assessment of blood flow in the placenta basin.

Assessment of placental blood flow includes the measurement of resistance indices in the umbilical artery and in both uterine arteries. Violation of blood flow in the umbilical cord indicates a malfunction in the fetal part of the placenta. Violation of blood flow in the uterine arteries indicates a malfunction in the uterine part of the placenta. You need to know that normal blood flow rates are a fairly reliable sign of the normal intrauterine state of the fetus, but do not completely exclude the development of certain complications; the presence of blood flow disorders in different parts of the uterine-placental-fetal system requires strict dynamic control and treatment, including in a hospital setting.

Assessment of fetal circulation.

Hemodynamics of the baby is usually assessed by examining the blood flow in the cerebral vessels (middle cerebral artery), aorta, venous duct, heart.

Classification of disorders of uteroplacental-fetal blood flow.

The most commonly used, simple and convenient classification of placental blood flow disorders is set out below.

1st stage

A. Disruption of the uteroplacental blood flow while maintaining the fetal-placental (increased resistance indices in the uterine arteries)

B.Violation of fetal-placental blood flow while maintaining uteroplacental blood flow (increased resistance indices in the umbilical artery)

2nd stage

Simultaneous disturbance of uteroplacental and fetal-placental blood flow (increased resistance indices in the umbilical cord artery and in the uterine arteries)

3rd degree

Critical impairment of fetal-placental blood flow (impaired blood flow in the umbilical cord) – there is no diastolic blood flow in the umbilical artery, or even reverse (reverse) blood flow appears.

After assessing the blood flow in the vessels of the placenta and the fetus, the doctor draws appropriate conclusions and formulates a conclusion. Based on this conclusion and the results of other examination methods, the tactics of pregnancy management are selected.

Points to remember:

* Doppler is an additional technique that is used after an ultrasound examination.

* Indications for dopplerometry are determined by the doctor.Such a study should not be carried out without evidence.

* The frequency of Doppler measurements is determined by the doctor. Sometimes daily monitoring of the mother-fetus blood flow is required

* Normal Doppler results do not override the results of other tests and do not guarantee the absence of intrauterine fetal distress.

bash – Color FIND output?

UPDATE: I added a new (different) script … Ignacio Vazquez-Abrams had a point: The question really asks for executable scripts are green, et cetera . … ok … you will find a scenario like this (prototype) at the end of this answer,


This first (original) section is about grc and grcat .

This should work; grc … (as specified by enzotib .. Package name grc … The subroutine used in the example is grcat

  generic colouriser for everything

generic colouriser, can be used to colorize logfiles,
output of commands, arbitrary text....
configured via regexp's.
  

The following example prints

  • ./ purple
  • bin / cpp / in cyan
  • bigint bold white

I haven’t completely figured out how it handles this config file yet, but it looks like it will do what you want (once you tame it) .. eg. for a file without a subdirect, and the color sequence does not appear to be in the same sequence as the expressions. /] +)
colors = bold white, magenta, cyan
“> $ HOME / .grc / findhi

find. -maxdepth 3 -name ‘*’ | grcat findhi


Here is a new Ignacio inspired script:

This works if you use one path as the first argument for find .
There are UNTESTED issues in this script. This is just a concept.
One of the questions: Symbolic links … murky waters …
As-is, it prints ERROR when it encounters an unknown type (like a symbolic link) and then continues to process the past.
Thanks to enzotib for examples tput .

  dircol = $ (tput bold; tput setaf 4)
coloff = $ (tput sgr0)

root = "$ HOME" # define path here, not in 'find` arg
root = "$ {root: -.}" # default to '.'
root = "$ {root% /} /" # add trailing '/'
#
find "$ root" -maxdepth 1 -name '*' -printf "% y% P \ n" |
  while read -r line; do
    case $ line in
       d) printf "% s \ n" "$ dircol $ root $ coloff" ;;
       d \ *) printf "% s \ n" "$ dircol $ root $ {line: 2} $ coloff" ;;
       f \ *) l = "$ root $ {line: 2}"
             d = "$ {l% / *} /"
             f = "$ {l ## * /}"
             cd -P "$ d"
             printf "% s" "$ dircol $ d $ coloff"
             ls --color = always -R1 "$ f"
             cd -> / dev / null
             ;;
          *) printf "ERROR - type not yet catered for \ n" ;;
    esac
  done
  

90,000 Example 33-9.Colored text output

Example 33-9. Colored text output. The art of shell scripting programming

WikiReading

The art of shell scripting
Cooper Mendel

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Text output

Text output
It would be strange if the canvas did not allow the display of arbitrary text.There are two methods and several properties for rendering text. The strokeText method outputs the specified text to the specified location. The text is drawn as an outline, without filling; the outline color is set to

Example: str_echo function using standard I / O

Example: str_echo function using standard I / O
We are now modifying our TCP echo server (see p.Listing 5.2) to use standard I / O instead of readline and writen. Listing 14.6 shows a version of our str_echo function using the standard

Example: Displaying the hardware address of a node

Example: displaying the hardware address of a node
We now use our my_addrs function to return all of the host’s IP addresses. Then, for each IP address, we make a SIOCGARP ioctl call to retrieve and display the hardware addresses.Our program is shown in

Example: Displaying the Destination IP Address and Datagram Trim Flag

Example: Outputting the recipient’s IP address and the datagram truncation flag
To test our function, we’ll modify the dg_echo function (see Listing 8.2) to call recvfrom_flags instead of recvfrom. The new version of the dg_echo function is shown in Listing 22.3. Listing 22.3. Dg_echo function,

Text output

Text output
It would be strange if the canvas did not allow the display of arbitrary text. There are two methods and several properties for rendering text. The strokeText method outputs the specified text to the specified location. The text is drawn as an outline, without filling; the outline color is set to

Example 17-4.Suppressing multi-line messages with tabs

Example 17-4. Suppressing multi-line messages with tabs
#! / bin / bash # Same as the previous script, but … # The “-” character that starts the inline document delimiter line: & lt; & lt; – # suppresses the output of tab characters that might appear in the body

Print color 4 + 4 and black and white business cards, delivery SPB

In our printing house-112 full cycle in St. Petersburg, you can print business cards in different ways.We print full-color business cards on an offset printing press or on a digital one. Both methods have their advantages and disadvantages. For example, in offset, urgent production of an order is impossible due to lengthy prepress preparation, and a digital machine does not print all types of cardboard. However, digital printing has a number of advantages, which include high printing speed, the absence of intermediate preparatory work, the ability to produce both full-color and black-and-white printing products, the clarity of even the thinnest lines and accurate color reproduction.

Print color business cards 4 + 4, 4 + 1, 4 + 0

Digitally print color business cards in just 15 minutes if the circulation is small. In the absence of a ready-made layout, we will create it on the go, and your card, sealed on one side, or a 4 + 4 business card will be ready in a matter of minutes.

However, if you intend to print double-sided business cards that you want to use, including when dealing with partners from abroad, do not forget that the other side is not intended to duplicate information in English.Moreover, double-sided business cards in two languages ​​are contrary to the norms of business etiquette and are perceived as a sign of extreme stinginess of the owner who saved a penny on matches. Rather, on the press. Therefore, you should maintain good tone, print two sets of business cards and feel confident in any situation.

It is preferable to leave the back of the business card blank, however, in some cases, sealing on both sides has the right to exist, for example, if the company logo is placed on the second side of the business card, there are elements of corporate identity or a map of the road is shown.

Print color and black and white business cards

Black-and-white business cards have not lost their relevance with the high accuracy of the color palette. Classic exquisite business cards printed on expensive linen look very advantageous, and when replicating business cards on a “digital”, there is a choice between matte and glossy paper, the density of which ranges from 200 to 300 g / m². Thicker matte paper can have a delicate beige tint or a pearlescent sheen that sets off the legibility of fonts.Glossy chalk will accurately convey all the shades of full-color business cards, which is important if the business card layout contains a colored logo of your company and corporate colors are used.

“Color revolutions” and “Arab Spring” in the Russian official discourse

Yulia Nikitina *

Introduction

In the post-Soviet space, it was initially taken to mean the rose revolution in Georgia (2003) , the Orange Revolution in Ukraine (2004) and the Tulip Revolution in Kyrgyzstan (2005).The unifying feature of these events is considered to be the non-violent nature of the change of power as a result of mass protests. The 2010 revolution in Kyrgyzstan can also be attributed to this group of cases: although the revolution was not exclusively peaceful, it nevertheless led to a change in the country’s leadership. More obscurity is caused by cases of attempts to change the government or mass protests, for example, the situation in Andijan (Uzbekistan) in 2005, mass protests and unrest in Moldova in 2009. So far, there is no understanding whether the change of power in Ukraine in February 2014 should also be attributed to the “color revolutions”.Likewise, there is no precise definition of the Arab Spring, which usually includes mass unrest and protests, often of a non-peaceful nature, which led (or did not lead) to regime change in a number of countries of the Arab world since the end of 2010. Despite the lack of consensus at the political and expert level regarding the terminology, in general in the Russian official discourse, at the level of the expert community and in the media, the terms “color revolutions” and “Arab spring” have taken root and are used, as a rule, without additional explanations.

In the latest version of the Russian Foreign Policy Concept of February 18, 2013, there is no mention of “color revolutions” or “Arab spring” either in the list of threats or in the section on regional priorities. The previous version of the concept also did not contain an official position on the problem of revolutions in the post-Soviet space. On the eve of the NATO summit on September 4-5, 2014 in the UK, the Russian media reported that by the end of 2014 a new version of the Military Doctrine would be adopted in Russia; an interdepartmental commission had already been created under the Russian Security Council Office to develop it.In an interview, Deputy Secretary of the Security Council Mikhail Popov noted that a new edition is needed due to the emergence of new challenges and threats to Russia’s security, which, among other things, “manifested themselves in the events of the“ Arab spring, ”in the armed conflict in Syria, as well as in the situation in and around Ukraine ”. [1]

Why didn’t Russia include the problem of revolutions in conceptual documents on foreign policy and security? It seems that this is due to the fact that before the crisis in Ukraine in 2014, Russia considered revolutions to be a purely internal matter and did not consider it necessary to formulate its position on events that do not go beyond the sovereignty of those states where revolutions or mass protests took place.Despite the absence of the issue of revolutions in conceptual foreign policy documents, Russian presidents Vladimir Putin and Dmitry Medvedev, as well as representatives of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, above all, Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov, have repeatedly formulated Russia’s position on “color revolutions”, the events of the “Arab spring”, Ukrainian events 2014, as well as various mass protests that did not escalate into revolutions and did not lead to regime change. The article provides an overview of the official Russian discourse from the Rose Revolution in Georgia in 2003 to the Ukrainian crisis in 2014, as well as the events of the “Arab Spring”.

“Color revolutions” of 2003–2005 in the post-Soviet space

It is widely believed in expert circles that the main fear of the Russian leadership regarding “color revolutions” is the spread or deliberate export of revolutions to neighboring states, including Russia. However, in his 2005 interviews, Vladimir Putin identifies other problematic consequences of the “color revolutions”:

My main concern is not that some violent events are taking place there, but that they go beyond the current legislation and constitution.We all need to understand that democracy means, among other things, the correct good law and the ability to obey it and live by this law. [2]

For Russia, the problem is not that something will change in the states neighboring Russia as a result of color revolutions, and that relations will have to be rebuilt, because in the end all leaders in the post-Soviet space, as before , and after the revolutions, they adhere mainly to pragmatism in relations with Russia.The main concern is that the problems are not solved within the framework of the constitution and existing laws, but are solved through revolutions and “street democracy”. [3]

The topic of observance of national laws can be considered one of the main topics in the Russian official discourse on the problem of revolutions. Revolutions are a destabilizing factor because they call into question the legitimate ways of resolving the contradictions between the government and civil society. Vladimir Putin believes that the main goal in the post-Soviet space should be to accustom citizens to strict observance of laws, because “[e] democracy cannot develop in isolation from democratically adopted laws.” [4] It is necessary to suppress extra-parliamentary methods of struggle so as not to destroy the state structures and legal systems of the post-Soviet states, given their youth, as well as the difficult internal political and economic situation. [5]

The reason for the opposition’s success in the “color revolutions” lies in the systemic mistakes of the authorities, in particular in the fact that the authorities failed to create “strong democratic institutions” that would become the guarantors of democratic procedures and stability.As a result of these systemic errors, the government moved away from society and lost its trust, which allowed the opposition to take the place of power. [6]

In addition to the internal causes of the “color revolutions”, the Russian leadership also singles out an external factor. In 2004, Putin called the main problem of the post-Soviet space “attempts to resolve political issues in an illegal way”, as well as “the creation of a system of permanent revolutions.” Decisions on revolutions, according to Vladimir Putin, are made from the outside, on the basis of some political expediency for the decision-making countries, and not for those countries where revolutions are taking place.By itself, assistance to democratic development can take place, but it should not be in the form of revolutions, because the result will only be “endless conflicts.” Thus, the Russian president disputes the methods of democratization used by Western countries, but not democratization itself. The recipe for development for post-Soviet states, according to Putin: you need to get used to living by the law, in addition, certain rules and procedures must mature within society. [7] Note that the Russian president does not say that these rules must necessarily be democratic.He only emphasizes that these should be rules and laws developed in this particular country, taking into account its specifics, and not rules borrowed or introduced from outside.

In the West, Russia’s position on “color revolutions” is often perceived as a focus on preserving authoritarian regimes in the post-Soviet space and unwillingness to allow external players into the region of their priority interests. However, in 2005, when the problem of “color revolutions” was still actively discussed in political and scientific circles, Russian Deputy Foreign Minister Grigory Karasin noted that it would hardly be possible to avoid competition in the post-Soviet space at this stage due to globalization.As a result, Russia needs to increase its competitiveness, try to find a balance with its Western counterparts within the framework of clear rules of competition. Given its own vital interests in the post-Soviet space, Russia does not believe that other international players cannot have their own interests in this region. At the same time, the method of interaction between various players and the post-Soviet states themselves should be only fair competition and the struggle of ideas and concepts, and not forceful pressure. [8] Methods of violent “democratization” (this term Karasin uses in quotes in his article to emphasize the controversial nature of the content of these processes), the deputy minister considers not only “color revolutions”, but also information and political pressure on the current government.The results of such “democratization” are destabilization of the situation in the region with the potential growth of extremism. [9]

The growth of extremism as a result of revolution or riots presents a problem, first of all, for the Central Asian region, which can be considered a separate case within the framework of “color revolutions” in the post-Soviet space. The reasons for the first Kyrgyz revolution in 2005, Vladimir Putin called the weakness of the government and the accumulated socio-economic problems, expressing regret that political issues are being resolved in an illegal way. [10] During the second Kyrgyz revolution in 2010, President Medvedev was in power in Russia, who evaluated both revolutions of 2005 and 2010. Medvedev also designates the population’s dissatisfaction with the socio-economic situation in the country as the main reason for the revolutions. The second revolution, according to the Russian president, occurred due to the fact that the country’s new leadership essentially recreated the previous ineffective management system based on clannishness and redistribution of business, as a result, it was not possible to solve the existing socio-economic problems. [11]

External factor

It is important to note that when describing the Kyrgyz revolutions, President Medvedev’s speech does not mention the external factor as a destructive phenomenon, which distinguishes Medvedev’s position from Putin’s. Dmitry Medvedev admits that he had to enter into consultations with the President of Kazakhstan and the President of the United States in order to agree on the peaceful resignation of Kyrgyz President Kurmanbek Bakiyev, because without the resignation, the situation, most likely, would begin to develop towards bloodshed and destabilization, right up to the threat of split state and full-scale civil war: “Not because we wanted to intervene in this situation, in the end it is a sovereign affair of another state, but bloodshed had to be avoided.” [12] Medvedev stressed in every possible way that after the emergence of the interim government, his task would be to get the legitimacy of the people and take care of the fate of his own state.

Prior to the 2010 Kyrgyz Revolution, Russia played a similar intermediary role in Georgia’s 2003 Rose Revolution. It should be reminded that Igor Ivanov, as Russian Foreign Minister, as a mediator, participated in the negotiations between Georgian President Eduard Shevardnadze and the opposition, as a result of which Shevardnadze announced his resignation to avoid bloodshed.At the same time, Ivanov believes that if the change of leadership in Georgia took place within the framework of the Constitution, it would be more “civilized” and better for the stability of the region as a whole. The main plus of the change of power that took place in 2003-2004 is its peaceful nature, without violence and bloodshed. [13]

Repetition of revolutions in other post-Soviet countries, according to Medvedev, is possible if the government loses contact with the people. To avoid this, you need to “competently manage your own state.” [14] The development path of Central Asia is not revolution, but evolution. Russia cannot afford to “rock” the situation in any country so that this would lead to a revolution. [15]

Not all post-Soviet leaders share the approaches of the Russian leadership that, despite the presence of an external factor, internal reasons are still the main factors in the emergence of mass protests. Thus, it was an external factor that Uzbek President Islam Karimov explained the tragic events that took place in Andijan in May 2005, a month after them during a meeting with Vladimir Putin.Islam Karimov then described the “color revolutions” as specially prepared “operations” that are carried out on the territory of the CIS. According to Karimov, in Andijan “the scriptwriters and directors of this operation relied on and used those religious, extremist and radical forces that were once called terrorists and extremists by the same directors and scriptwriters, which they fought so successfully in Afghanistan and are now fighting in Iraq.” … [16] Vladimir Putin, commenting on the above statement of Karimov about Andijan, only stated that before the events, Russia really had information about the penetration of militants from bases in Afghanistan into territories adjacent to Uzbekistan, and this information was passed on to the leadership of those countries where militants from Afghanistan were concentrated.However, Vladimir Putin directly disagreed with Karimov’s version of the Andijan events, calling them “difficult and tragic.” [17]

Ukraine 2014

The reasons for the revolutionary situation in Ukraine, according to Vladimir Putin, are corruption and stratification of society, and this situation has developed “from the first days of Ukraine’s independence”:

To our great regret , for all the years of its independence, Ukraine has not been able to really overcome the permanent political and state crisis.Its next aggravation led to the fact that an armed coup took place in Kiev. [18]

A detailed understanding of the situation was presented by Russia’s Permanent Representative to the OSCE A. Kelin in March 2014: the backbone of the protest movement in Ukraine was the accumulated discontent against corruption, ineffective government, poverty. [19] However, this situation was used by radical forces – “nationalists, neo-Nazis, Russophobes and anti-Semites”, who were preparing a coup d’etat in advance.The West actually helped precisely these radical forces when it supported the “Maidan”, and now the Western countries “are very nervous because their next geopolitical experiment has led to such unexpected consequences” and because “I do not want to admit that the cause of the crisis is not in Russia, but in their own irresponsible actions. ” [20]

“Arab Spring”

the speed with which events developed.The problems that provoked the events of the “Arab Spring” are low living standards and incomes and unemployment among educated youth, as well as some loss of connection with reality by the ruling regimes that have been in power for decades. [21]

The reasons for the “Arab spring” in the assessment of the Russian leadership are the desire of peoples for socio-economic modernization, while an important factor is the independent nature of these processes, “without external pressure and on the basis of strict observance of state sovereignty” … [22] During a meeting with the Muslim clergy of Russia, Dmitry Medvedev outlined the official Russian position on the Arab Spring: called “old, rotten”. [23]

It is also important to analyze the position on the “Arab Spring” of Vladimir Putin, who served as prime minister during the events in the Arab world.He directly points out in his 2012 election article that the overthrown regimes were authoritarian and emphasizes that at first the reaction of Russians was positive, because there were expectations of positive democratic changes. Such an assessment suggests that Russia was not interested in preserving authoritarian regimes. Russia’s negative reaction was not to the revolutions themselves, although we repeat that analysts often pointed to Russia’s fears that the revolutionary wave could spread to the post-Soviet space and, above all, the countries of Central Asia.The negative reaction concerned the way of the West’s reaction to the processes of the “Arab Spring”, in particular – the intervention in support of one of the parties to the conflict, which is characterized by Vladimir Putin as “militant itching”. [24]

According to the Russian leadership, external influence from the international community is necessary only in order to achieve “transferring the situation into a political channel” by maintaining national dialogue and national accord between the parties concerned, to force an end to violence without external interference in internal processes. [25] For example, regarding Syria, it is recognized that the President of Syria was unable to fully meet the demands of the protesters, responding with belated and insufficient measures. However, in order to carry out reforms that suit everyone and bring them to an end, it is necessary for the Syrians themselves to sit down at the negotiating table to determine their own future. [26]

Analyzing the situation in Egypt related to the transfer of power by President Hosni Mubarak to the Vice President and then to the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces, Sergey Lavrov stressed that this transfer was carried out in accordance with the current Egyptian constitution, that is, the legal the nature of the events that occurred.The Libyan case is presented in Russian official discourse as an unconstitutional change of power. According to Lavrov, after the overthrow of the regime of Muammar Gaddafi, Russia’s Western colleagues view the Libyan events as a model of revolution for the future, which does not suit Russia, since there was interference in internal affairs in violation of international law, while initially NATO countries, in Lavrov’s interpretation, declared that the revolution and regime change must take place by the forces of the Libyan people themselves, without the help of external forces. [27]

There is some contradiction between the Russian idea of ​​“color” revolutions and the “Arab spring” as being controlled and provoked from the outside, while recognizing the existence of real problems in those countries in which such revolutions occurred. Moreover, Vladimir Putin considers these real problems in Arab countries to be quite serious – they are tyranny, poverty and lack of prospects. In 2014, the Russian president’s explanation is that the feelings of popular discontent were “just cynically used.” [28] That is, following this logic, the dissatisfied population, apparently, without external interference, would have chosen another way of expressing dissatisfaction, more legitimate and constitutional.

Note, however, that the comparison of the “color revolutions” and the “Arab spring”, in the opinion of Sergei Lavrov, is rather counterproductive: he sees between the two phenomena more differences than similarities. The main difference lies in the reasons. In the Middle East, we are talking about internal socio-economic problems as a source of public discontent.In the post-Soviet states, on the other hand, the internal factor played a less significant role than the external one. [29]

The result of the “Arab Spring”, according to the Russian leadership, was not development, but violence and civil war. There was no growth in the well-being of the population, but only chaos, unrest and the replacement of some political groupings by others. The main fear on the part of Russia is that, as a result of the Arab Spring, radicals or extremists will come to power, with whom it will be much more difficult to work. [30] The specificity of the region in which the “Arab Spring” took place is its strategic importance for many major powers due to its energy resources, as well as problems associated with international terrorism and extremism. [31] There is a threat of Islamization when extremists are being trained under religious slogans, inciting sectarian and sectarian hatred. [32] At the same time, according to Lavrov, Islam and democracy are quite compatible, which can be observed in the example of Turkey and, to a certain extent, Iran. [33] However, the democratization of the region and revolutions will not solve regional problems, in particular, the problem of the Middle East settlement. [34]

The problem of terminology: revolutions or coups?

In the official Russian discourse, the problem of qualifying mass protests and a change of power arises: the choice is between the terms “revolution” and “coup d’etat”. The main controversial points arise in the cases of Syria and Ukraine.

As for Syria, in an interview in 2012, when asked by a journalist to qualify the situation in this country (to choose from: a revolution, a civil war or a global conspiracy against the regime), Sergei Lavrov replied that, according to the definition of the International Committee of the Red Cross, it is armed conflict. Lavrov does not believe that in this case we are talking about an external conspiracy, there is some external influence, but not a conspiracy. [35] Another spokesman for the Russian Foreign Ministry described the situation in Syria as “a complex and difficult internal conflict that may well escalate into a civil war”, rejecting the journalist’s definition of “pre-revolutionary situation”. [36] The Syrian oppositionists who came to Moscow in 2012 tried to present the conflict with the government as a revolution against the regime. The Russian Foreign Ministry, in turn, made an argument that with such a qualification of the current events, one should not turn to the UN Security Council for support, because revolutions are not within its sphere of competence. [37]

Events in the post-Soviet space can also have different interpretations. Former Foreign Minister, Secretary of the Security Council of Russia Igor Ivanov in 2005 assessed the events in Georgia, Ukraine, Kyrgyzstan and called them a change of power in an undemocratic, unconstitutional way. [38] According to Sergei Lavrov, in essence, the Rose Revolution in Georgia and the Orange Revolution in Ukraine are the same coups d’etat as the October Revolution of 1917. [39] The Ukrainian revolution of 2014 is characterized by Putin as a “coup d’etat with the use of force.” [40]

The logic of reasoning of the Russian leadership is as follows: if a revolution took place in Ukraine in February 2014, and not an unconstitutional change of power, then a new state appears on this territory, with which Russia has not signed any agreements, [ 41] , respectively, any references to the 1994 Budapest Memorandum do not make sense, because they signed it with another Ukraine.Another dilemma: if the West recognizes the coup after February 21, 2014 as a legitimate expression of the will of the people, despite obvious violations in the procedure for transferring power, then the events in Crimea and the referendum on joining Russia should all the more be recognized as the will of the people. You cannot recognize one thing and deny the other. Either these events qualify as coup and illegal annexation, respectively, or both events are legal. [42] However, it should be noted that there is a built-in contradiction in this logic: Russia in the same way recognized the legality of the referendum in Crimea and did not recognize the legality of the change of power in Kiev.

Misunderstanding of Western logic

For the Russian leadership, the logic of Western countries’ actions to promote democracy through various forms of support for revolutions raises a number of conceptual questions.

Can the revolution be considered a democratic phenomenon?

So, in 2005, Vladimir Putin asked a question about the approaches of Western countries to the introduction of democracy in the post-Soviet space: “… if democracy does not work in the post-Soviet countries – as someone thinks – why then introduce it there? And if we introduce it there – these principles of democracy – then why are there revolutions? “ [43]

The main miscalculation of those who try to intervene from the outside is the imposition of standards that do not correspond to the lifestyle, culture and traditions of these peoples, which leads not to the expected result in the form of democracy, but to chaos, violence and further coups d’état. [44]

In Western expert and political circles, the opinion has been established that the “color revolutions” led to the victory of the democratic forces. The Russian side disputes this logic.In an interview regarding the “color revolutions” in Georgia and Ukraine, the Secretary of the Security Council of Russia Ivanov asks a just question: “How is the victory of democracy possible if the basic democratic principles are violated in achieving victory?” [45] Lavrov points out that in post-revolutionary countries there has been a rollback of democracy, which is recorded even by Western research centers, for example, “Freedom House”. [46]

Why overthrow the leaders and change the regime?

Another important aspect that causes misunderstanding on the Russian side is the attitude of the West towards the leaders of states overthrown during the color revolutions.So, regarding the Georgian revolution and the support of the West, Vladimir Putin expressed the opinion that Eduard Shevardnadze was also not the pro-Russian president of Georgia, he was actively supported by the Western countries, respectively, the question arises: “If it was necessary to overthrow him with the help of the revolution, the question is: who did you support? “. [47]

A similar position of the West is observed regarding the Syrian conflict. According to Russia, President Assad agreed to accept all the initiatives proposed by the world community (the Arab League peace initiative, K.Annan, UN Observer Mission and Geneva Communiqué), in contrast to the Syrian opposition. [48] That is, the same logic, incomprehensible to Russia, is observed here: the president makes concessions, but the pressure on him and support of the opposition continues.

Russia also perceives the change of the regime in Ukraine in the same way after Yanukovych signed an agreement with the opposition on February 21, 2014 in the presence of representatives of the EU countries. According to Vladimir Putin, representatives of the opposition could easily come to power in a legal way, without a coup d’etat, because Viktor Yanukovych accepted all their conditions.The question arises, what was the meaning of the coup? [49]

From such actions of the West, the Russian leadership draws the conclusion that there is essentially no concept of loyalty for the West, since even those leaders who make concessions are overthrown as a result of revolutions. That is, supporting the position of the West does not give a particular leader a guarantee against revolution and regime change.

Is it possible to reach an agreement with the West at all?

Indicative is the phrase of Vladimir Putin, said at the St. Petersburg Economic Forum in 2014 about Russia’s desire to come to an agreement with the West on the Association Agreement of Ukraine: “… I have not seen such snobbery for a long time.They just didn’t talk to us, they said: “It’s none of your business.” [50]

Simultaneously with the refusal to discuss Russia’s interests, the West, in the understanding of Vladimir Putin, introduces sanctions against Russia, including with the aim of aggravating Russia’s internal problems. For the Russian leadership, the mechanism by which the Western countries expect to aggravate internal problems remains unclear. The most obvious option is the deterioration of the socio-economic situation in Russia as a result of the sanctions, which could provoke public discontent.The second option considered by Vladimir Putin is “the actions of a certain fifth column – all sorts of ‘national traitors’”. [51]

In general, Vladimir Putin outlined his understanding of the strategy of Western countries at a meeting of the Security Council devoted to the problem of state sovereignty, which took place on July 22, 2014:

… today the language of ultimatums and sanctions is increasingly heard in the world. The very concept of state sovereignty is blurring. Undesirable regimes, countries that pursue an independent policy or simply stand in the way of someone’s interests, are destabilized.For this, the so-called color revolutions are used, and if you call a spade a spade – simply coups d’etat provoked and financed from outside.
Of course, the focus is on problems within countries. There are always enough problems, especially in unstable states, failed states, states with a difficult regime. Of course, there are always problems, only it is not clear why these problems should be used to completely destabilize and disintegrate countries, which we often see recently in various regions of the world. [52]

The way the West acts is to finance radical, nationalist, neo-fascist and fundamentalist forces from outside, at least that’s how, according to Vladimir Putin, it happens in the post-Soviet space. The post-coup elections are just a cover for those who financed the coup.

Thus, the actions of the West appear to the Russian leadership as a combination of unwillingness to negotiate with Russia, despite its readiness to discuss and concessions, along with destabilizing activities in the form of sanctions or support for the Russian opposition.Actually, it was precisely the fear of external influence on domestic political processes that formed after the first wave of “color revolutions” that led to the adoption of the so-called law on foreign agents in 2012, which presupposes special registration of non-profit organizations participating in political activities that receive money and other property from foreign sources. Does this position of the Russian leadership mean that it is not ready to honestly interact with the opposition? No, this means that the Russian authorities are not ready only for a dialogue with the opposition sponsored by the West.

Revolutions as a phenomenon

“Color revolutions” fit into the general context of globalization, when the line between domestic and foreign policy is gradually blurring. Such revolutions, although occurring within the country, are “actively fueled from the outside.” [53] At the same time, without external “heating”, according to Lavrov, there might not have been the revolutions themselves. The result of revolutions is usually regime change. At the same time, the destabilizing effect extends not only to domestic politics, but also to international relations. [54] At one time, the stability of international relations was given by the bipolar structure of the system of international relations. After the disappearance of bipolarity, it is not international law that operates, but the law of the strong, this is how the Western countries, led by the United States, act, based on the belief in their own exclusivity and exclusivity. [55]

The conclusion that follows from the Russian understanding of the position of the West is that no one touches states with established sovereignty, the threat of “color revolutions” initiated from outside exists only for “young” states: “It is necessary to state institutions of emerging states , to treat institutions with the utmost care, because otherwise it is chaos, and now we are seeing it in Ukraine ”. [56] It is necessary to act exclusively in a constitutional way, since in the post-Soviet space there are still fragile political structures and a very weak economy. [57]

Condemnation of revolutions can be perceived from outside as an obstacle to historical development and progress. Vladimir Putin expressed the opinion that progress is inevitable, it cannot be artificially stopped, but progress cannot be artificially pushed, otherwise the result is “chaos and collapse”, as, for example, in Iraq and Libya.The recipe is “an attentive attitude to the history, traditions of the people, the culture of the people.” [58] What the West calls democratic transformations in countries where operations were carried out and where power was changed, according to Putin, are “inanimate, dead schemes” that “do not work outside the historical and cultural context”, [59] because “democratic reforms must take place in a civilized manner, without outside interference.” [60]

Sergey Lavrov formulates Russia’s approaches in a similar vein: democratic countries should not turn revolution into a means of promoting democracy, [61] points and destabilization of international relations in general. [62]

Revolutions in a Historical Perspective

In the Russian official discourse, revolutions are placed not only in the international, but also in the historical context. The Russian leadership refers to its own experience of Russia in the XX century, as well as the experience of Western countries.

To substantiate the thesis about the undesirability of interference in the process of modern revolutions, Sergei Lavrov draws parallels with the revolutions that took place in developed Western countries: The United States – dealt with their problems, agreed after bloody wars and clashes, but still agreed and found the political structure of the state, which still, at the very least, provides them with normal and even good development in the modern world. [63]

Thus, according to Russia, the historical experience of the West should have led Western politicians precisely to the idea of ​​non-intervention, because the developed countries of the West had the opportunity to independently go through the path of state transformations. In turn, the Western countries, apparently, on the basis of the same historical experience, draw the opposite conclusion: they know by themselves that the processes of transformation are proceeding very slowly, and therefore seek to accelerate historical changes, offering ready-made recipes for democratization.

However, in the Russian official discourse, revolutions are presented not as a path to liberation and prosperity, but as a tragedy:

At the root of all the tragedies of the 19th-20th centuries lay the crisis of European society, the traditional foundations of which were destroyed as a result of numerous revolutions, when the whole world became a victim of the fact that Zb. Brzezinski called it “a civil war within the West.” It was possible to create a sustainable model of economic and social development – socially oriented, with universal suffrage and relying on a significant middle class – only under the conditions of the impasse of the Cold War and its geopolitical imperatives and on new technological principles. [64]

The results of the Great French Revolution and the October Revolution in Russia’s understanding are the intolerance of revolutionaries who came to power, who got rid of their comrades in the name of “purity of faith.” [65] Lavrov stresses that Russia’s own experience, in whose history there were “enough revolutions”, can hardly be considered a role model, because it is always bloodshed, and as a result, the country is always thrown back in its development … [66]

For Russia, revolutions are a break in history. To make sense in the national development of Russia, according to Putin, it is necessary to forget about these breaks of 1917 and 1991, to perceive the history of Russia as an indissoluble thousand-year history. [67] In another speech, Putin calls the events of 1917 and 1991 “national catastrophes of the twentieth century, when we twice experienced the disintegration of our statehood.” [68] The Russian president describes the consequences of these events as follows:

As a result, they received a devastating blow to the cultural and spiritual code of the nation, faced a break in traditions and the unity of history, with demoralization of society, and a lack of mutual trust and responsibility.This is where many of the roots of the acute problems we face are. After all, the issue of responsibility to oneself, society and the law is one of the fundamental not only in law, but also in everyday life. [69]

It is interesting to note that in the understanding of the Russian leadership, the process of the collapse of the Soviet Union is also assessed as a revolution. Shortly after his first term as president, Vladimir Putin gave an interview to the French newspaper Le Figaro in October 2000.In this interview, Vladimir Putin explained to French journalists that since the mid-1980s, perestroika has been taking place in the USSR, which has essentially become a revolution since the early 1990s. Putin understands the revolution as the dismantling of the previous state institutions, after which a creative process begins, the strengthening of institutions on a new, democratic basis. [70] In another interview with the French press, Putin called the events of the 1990s a “bloodless revolution.” [71] Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov also describes the events of the 1990s as “a truly democratic revolution without any color shades” (an allusion to “color” revolutions as not truly democratic), which resulted in Russia being considered “ one of the best countries with a democratic regime ”. [72] However, in the understanding of the West, with the coming to power of Vladimir Putin in 2000, Russia lost the title of “advanced democracy.”

Conclusions for Russian domestic policy

The lessons that Russia learned from the “color revolutions” of 2003-2005, according to the Secretary of the Russian Security Council Igor Ivanov, is the need for a more intense dialogue between the Russian authorities and society. [73] A similar conclusion is drawn by Deputy Foreign Minister Grigory Karasin from the events of the “Arab Spring”: “Modern politics makes the elites more responsible.” [74] Karasin believes that society is changing, becoming more demanding, it can no longer be approached “according to the templates of the 70s – 80s – 90s”. Young people need social elevators, otherwise they become susceptible to provocations. [75]

How did the position of the Russian leadership regarding the “color revolutions” and the “Arab spring” affect the attitude towards the mass protests that took place in Russia in late 2011 – early 2012? According to Putin, most of the protesters are patriotic people, whom the president, in his words, treats with “deep respect” because they are interested in changing Russia for the better.Putin negatively assesses the views of those protesters who can be attributed either to anarchists or to those who wish to defeat their own country (in 2014, Putin used the term “national traitors” to refer to them). The President stressed that he was offended to see the symbols (white ribbons) on the protesters, which, according to him, were developed abroad, [76] , which demonstrates his confidence in the presence of an external factor during mass protests. During the protests themselves during the television “direct line” on December 15, 2011, Vladimir Putin even expressed the opinion that some participants in the rallies participate in them for money, noting that color revolutions are “well-established schemes for destabilizing society.” [77]

What conclusions should be drawn from the development of the Ukrainian events in 2014 for the policy inside Russia? According to Vladimir Putin, on the one hand, it is necessary to suppress the arbitrariness of the radical and terrorist elements, on the other hand, while not creating restrictions for civil society, which must still have a set of legal ways to present claims to the authorities. At the same time, Putin urged to avoid such political decisions that would restrict civil liberties, so that the authorities would not create “hothouse conditions” for themselves, using the Ukrainian events as an excuse. [78]

Conclusion

The Russian official approach to revolution as a phenomenon, on the one hand, is conditioned by the Russian experience of statehood and revolutions in the XX century, on the other hand, it is a reaction to Western approaches to supporting the opposition forces in the course of revolutionary changes. The Russian leadership believes that every young state has the right to follow its own path of trial and error, without outside interference. Only then will the citizens of young states learn responsibility and parliamentary forms of political struggle, acquire the skills of interacting with the authorities within the framework of the rules established by the constitution, and not according to the laws of “street democracy”.The intervention of third countries in revolutionary processes does not lead to acceleration of democratization, but only destabilizes the situation and leads to the emergence of internal conflicts, because the export version of democracy does not take into account the internal conditions, traditions and history of society, where the principles of Western democracy are trying to be introduced. The Russian official formula is not a revolution, but an evolution, within the framework of which the authorities and civil society conduct a dialogue to resolve socio-economic problems that inevitably arise in any newly formed state.


* Yulia Nikitina is an Associate Professor at the Department of World Political Processes and a Research Fellow at the Center for Post-Soviet Studies at MGIMO University. The opinions expressed in the article reflect the personal position of the author and do not necessarily coincide with the position of MGIMO-University.

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[4] “Interview to the German TV channels ARD and CDF”, Official site of the President of Russia, May 5, 2005, http: // kremlin.ru / transcripts / 22948.

[7] “Press conference for Russian and foreign journalists”, Official site of the President of Russia, December 23, 2004, http://kremlin.ru/transcripts/22757.

[10] “Press Conference on the Results of Russian-Armenian Talks”, Official Site of the President of Russia, March 25, 2005, http://kremlin.ru/transcripts/22883.

[11] “Dmitry Medvedev answered questions from Russian journalists”, Official site of the President of Russia, April 16, 2010, http: // kremlin.ru / news / 7479.

[13] “Transcript of the speech of the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Russia I.S. Ivanova at a press conference following the third meeting of the Committee on the Strategy of Russian-Polish Cooperation “, 2737-27-11-2003, November 26, 2003, Official website of the Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, http://mid.ru/BDOMP/Brp_4.nsf / arh / 073E7199C30DC77B43256DEB002AED86? OpenDocument.

[14] “Dmitry Medvedev answered questions from Russian journalists”, April 16, 2010

[15] “Transcript of a press conference for Russian and foreign journalists”, January 31, 2006, Official website of the Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, http: / / kremlin.ru / transcripts / 23412.

[16] “Beginning of the meeting with the President of Uzbekistan Islam Karimov”, Official website of the President of Russia, June 28, 2005, http://kremlin.ru/transcripts/23063.

[18] “Vladimir Putin answered journalists’ questions about the situation in Ukraine”, Official website of the President of Russia , March 4, 2014, accessed: http://kremlin.ru/news/20366.

[19] “Speech by the Permanent Representative of the Russian Federation A.V. Kelina at a meeting of the OSCE Permanent Council ”, Vienna, 624-21-03-2014, Official website of the Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, March 20, 2014, http: // www.mid.ru/brp_4.nsf/newsline/DB7DECF7467D64F04 4257CA2003EB675.

[21] “Interview of the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Russia S.V. Lavrov to the head of the author’s program “Topical Conversation” of the TV company “Channel 3” V. Solovyov, 323-13-03-2011, Official website of the Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, March 13, 2011, http: //mid.ru/BDOMP/Brp_4.nsf/ arh / E35AC8110082ABCBC3257852004AF20E? OpenDocument.

[22] “Message to the King of Morocco Mohammed VI”, March 9, 2012, Official site of the President of Russia, http: // kremlin.ru / news / 14735.

[23] “Meeting with the Muslim clergy” (November 19, 2011), Official website of the President of Russia, http://kremlin.ru/news/13592.

[24] V.V. Putin, Russia and the Changing World, Moskovskie Novosti , 27.02.2012.

[25] “Interview of the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Russia S.V. Lavrov to the head of the author’s program “Actual conversation” of the TV company “Channel 3” V. Solovyov ”.

[27] “From the replies of the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Russia S.V. Lavrov to questions from radio listeners on the air of the radio stations “Voice of Russia,” “Radio Russia” and “Echo of Moscow” “, 1604-22-10-2011, Official website of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russia, October 21, 2011, http: // mid.ru / BDOMP / Brp_4.nsf / arh / 7180386FFEE0DFB4C325793100329482? OpenDocument.

[28] “Address of the President of the Russian Federation”, March 18, 2014

[29] “Interview of the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Russia S.V. Lavrov to the head of the author’s program “Actual Conversation” “.

[30] “Interview to Russian TV Channels”, Official Site of the President of Russia, April 26, 2012, http://kremlin.ru/news/15149.

[31] “Interview of the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Russia S.V. Lavrov to the head of the author’s program “Actual Conversation” “.

[33] “Interview of the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Russia S.V. Lavrov to the TV channel “Sky News Arabia” “, 1547-18-08-2012.

[38] “Interview of the Secretary of the Security Council of the Russian Federation I.S. Ivanov “.

[39] “Transcript of the replies of the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Russia S.V. Lavrov to questions during a meeting with members of the Council on Foreign Relations “, New York, 1531-06-10-2008, Official website of the Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, September 24, 2008, http: //mid.ru/BDOMP/Brp_4.nsf/ arh / 22D0E42DE56D4830C32574DA003217E2? OpenDocument.

[40] “St. Petersburg International Economic Forum”, Official website of the President of Russia, May 23, 2014, http://kremlin.ru/news/21080.

[41] “Vladimir Putin answered journalists’ questions about the situation in Ukraine.”

[43] “Interview between Radio Slovensko and the Slovak TV company STV.”

[44] “Address of the President of the Russian Federation”, March 18, 2014

[45] “Interview of the Secretary of the Security Council of the Russian Federation I.S. Ivanov “.

[47] “Interview with the German TV channels ARD and CDF”, May 5, 2005

[48] “Interview of the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Russia S.V. Lavrov to the TV channel “Sky News Arabia” ”, August 18, 2012

[49]“ St. Petersburg International Economic Forum ”, May 23, 2014

[51]“ Address of the President of the Russian Federation ”, March 18, 2014.

[52] “Meeting of the Security Council”, Official website of the President of Russia, June 22, 2014, http://kremlin.ru/news/46305.

[53] “Speech and Answers to Questions by the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Russia S.V. Lavrov during the discussion at the Youth Educational Forum “, Seliger, 1988-27-08-2014, August 27, 2014, Official website of the Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, http: //mid.ru/brp_4.nsf/0/7CF0446902F9584544257D410064D1C8.

[55] “Address of the President of the Russian Federation”, March 18, 2014.

[56] “St. Petersburg International Economic Forum”, May 23, 2014

[57] “Vladimir Putin answered journalists’ questions about the situation in Ukraine.”

[58] “Meeting of the Council for Interethnic Relations”, July 3, 2014, Official website of the President of Russia, http: // kremlin.ru / news / 46144.

[60] “Meeting with Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu”, June 25, 2012, Official website of the President of Russia, http://kremlin.ru/news/15728.

[61] “Transcript of the replies of the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Russia S.V. Lavrov to questions during a meeting with members of the Council on Foreign Relations “, New York, 2008.

[63]” Interview of the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Russia S.V. Lavrov to the head of the author’s program “Actual Conversation” “.

[64] “Lecture of the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Russia S.V. Lavrova “On the subject and method of modern diplomacy” in the framework of the “Golden collection” of the magazine “International Affairs” 12:11 (September 17, 2009), Official website of the Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, http://mid.ru/BDOMP/Brp_4.nsf / arh / 1169CB7A7B8A6228C325766C0046E102? OpenDocument.

[67] “Message of the President to the Federal Assembly” (December 12, 2012), Official website of the President of Russia, http://kremlin.ru/news/17118.

[68] “Meeting of the Valdai International Discussion Club” (September 19, 2013), Official website of the President of Russia, http: // kremlin.ru / news / 19243.

[70] “Interview to the French newspaper” Figaro “”, Official site of the President of Russia, October 26, 2000, http://kremlin.ru/transcripts/21634.

[71] “Interview to French TV channels” TF-1 “and” France-3 “”, Official site of the President of Russia, October 23, 2000, http://kremlin.ru/transcripts/21643.

[72] Transcript of replies of the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Russia S.V. Lavrov to questions during a meeting with members of the Council on Foreign Relations “, New York, 2008.

[73] “Interview of the Secretary of the Security Council of the Russian Federation I.S. Ivanov “.

[74] “Interview of the State Secretary – Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs of Russia G.B. Karasin “Rossiyskaya Gazeta” “, 269-13-02-2013.

[76] “Meeting with the participants of the forum“ Seliger-2012 ”” (July 31, 2012), Official website of the President of Russia, http://kremlin.ru/transcripts/16106.

[77] “Live TV channels“ Russia 1, ”“ Russia 24 ”and“ RTR-Planeta, ”radio stations“ Mayak, ”“ Vesti FM ”and“ Radio Rossii ”aired a special program“ Conversation with Vladimir Putin.Continuation ”” (December 15, 2011), Official website of the Prime Minister of Russia, http://archive.premier.gov.ru/events/news/17409.

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Data output to a color display 128 * 128 based on ST7735

RadioKot> Articles>

Data output to a color display 128 * 128 based on ST7735

Good day, dear cats, kitties and kittens!

This article was written in the format of a previously published article about OLED 128×64 display on SSD1306 with I2C control, only devoted to another, oddly enough, cheaper, but, with all that, a full-fledged color noname display.On the unforgettable Ali, it is searched for by keyword TFT 1.44 “1.44inch SPI Serial Module LCD Colorful Display Panel 128 * 128 and looks something like this:

As you can see from the captions on the photo, its screen has a resolution of 128 * 128 pixels, and the seller’s website states that it is based on the ST7735 controller from SITRONIX.

I will make a reservation that, as in the previous case, the purpose of this article is, first of all, to describe the basic methods of working with this display by means of an AVR microcontroller: initialization and output of information, therefore I do not upload any libraries not because of the harmful nature, but because I did not create them as they were completely unnecessary for myself, for which I apologize in advance to everyone.

Nevertheless, in the appendix to the article, you can download an example with a detailed source code for the output of such a color picture taken from RadioKototeka (I hope the author of the photo will not be offended):

So let’s get started.

The display is controlled by means of SPI in the “0” mode, i.e. reading of information transmitted to the display occurs when the clock signal level transitions from low to high:

In this case, the information transmitted to the display can be interpreted by it as command , or as command parameter , or as data to be displayed on the screen.Note that as of command , a byte is received here, the least significant bit of which was transmitted at a low level at the A0 pin (line D / CX), and as parameter or data – a byte, the least significant bit of which was transmitted at a high level at this leg.

In my case, this algorithm is implemented in software, while the Mega itself operates from an internal clock generator at 8 MHz.

Wiring diagram primitive:

Signet was not developed, i.e.since all connections were made on a breadboard. In the course of experiments with the display, I tried to clock Mega from an external quartz at 16 MHz – no problems were observed. In general, increasing the frequency of the controller’s clock generator makes sense, since this directly affects the speed of displaying information on the screen. At 8 MHz, its full fill takes about 2 seconds.

After all connections and power have been applied, the display needs to be initialized. The minimum “gentleman’s” set for this consists of three commands: SWRESET (0x01), SLPOUT (0x11) and DISPON (0x29).

The first command executes the software reset , the second takes the chip out of the sleep mode, the third turns on the display of information on the screen. After the first and second commands, a pause of 120ms is required. If everything is done correctly, then after DISPON a “starry sky” should appear on the screen, which indirectly indicates the correct direction for applying efforts))

In addition to the described “gentleman’s” set, I include a couple of additional customization commands in the initialization section: COLMOD (0x3A) and MADCTL (0x36).

By sending the first command and the corresponding byte with parameters , we can change the so-called color depth, which will affect both the quality of the displayed image and the amount of code required to create it.

The fact is that after turning on the power and initial initialization with the commands from the “gentleman’s” set, our display switches to the mode of the highest quality rendering, allowing to display more than 262,000 color shades! On the one hand, this is cool, on the other hand, it requires a huge amount of memory, i.e.because for encoding the color of one pixel (!) we need three bytes ! Multiply 128 by 128 and 3 more, and it turns out that to draw one single screen (not to be confused with fill / clear, everything is easier there) we need 49K SRAM!

Using the command COLMOD with parameter 0x05, we reduce the color depth to 64,000 colors, while encoding one pixel we will spend not three bytes, but two. In this case, to draw a full screen, we already need 128 * 128 * 2 = 32K of memory – the savings, as they say, are obvious.

Before describing the purpose of the MADCTL command, I will slightly touch on the color formation process itself: it is believed that mixing a maximum of three primary colors – Red, Green and Blue (Red, Green, Blue – RGB) – is sufficient to create any color shade.

After turning on the above-described mode, the proportion of this mixing itself is encoded by means of two bytes as follows:

The most significant 5 bits of the 1st byte are assigned to red, then the 3 least significant bits of the same and 3 more most significant bits of the second byte to green, and the remaining 5 least significant bits of the second byte – to blue.

However, when working with different displays and different programs used to digitize the image, we can get a code with an inverted data representation for this type of display, as shown in the figure below:

In this case, when displaying on the screen, we get the replacement of red for blue and vice versa. To combat this inversion, it will be enough for us to either change the order of transmission of bytes and bits, i.e.That is, first transmit the second byte of the color code, and then the first in the sequence from LSB to MSB, or use the command MADCTL . By applying this command with the parameter 0x08, we, passing the data in the original way, change the order of their output at the software level and get the correct color reproduction without much hassle with the code.

Since when working with the code that compiles ConvertBMP (can be downloaded in the appendix) my screen behaves in an inappropriate way, I execute this command with the parameter described by immediately upon initialization of the display.In your case, depending on the converter used and the display that came to you, there is a possibility that this procedure will be unnecessary.

Of the remaining three (I used, in fact, there are significantly more of them) commands CASET (0x2A) and RASET (0x2B) set the upper left (X0, Y0) and lower right (X1, Y1) coordinates of the area along the X axis ( CASET ) and along the Y axis ( RASET ), into which we want to display information pixel by pixel.

By default, the output is carried out line by line from top to bottom from left to right with automatic increment of the counter and “carriage return” to a new line when the right border of the output area is reached.For the top of the display, I conventionally take its side located closer to the connection comb.

Command RAMWR (0x2C) indicates to the display controller that all data following it should be interpreted as bytes of color encoding (do not forget about 2 bytes per color of one pixel), which, after conversion, are displayed alternately in the corresponding place in the output area.

The peculiarity of setting X and Y coordinates is that our ST7735 controller can control not only 1.4 ‘displays, but also displays with a larger diagonal.Accordingly, for unification, each coordinate is encoded with two bytes of data , of which, in our case, the first byte will always be equal to zero, since to set the coordinate of the largest value attainable in our screen (127), the size of a single (second) byte is sufficient.

As a result, after compiling and uploading the firmware, we will get the following picture on the display screen:

The photo taken by the phone is not capable of conveying the real quality of the image, but, believe me, it looks more than worthy in real life))

Unlike the output of a full-color image, the encoding of which requires a lot of memory space, for the output of one-color images of any color, the amount of code will not much exceed that required to work with a monochrome display, i.e.Because in this case it is possible to control each pixel bit by bit, i.e. one byte at once by 8 points of the screen.

To implement such an undocumented method, we will use an editor that allows you to encode a byte of information not from top to bottom, but horizontally. An excellent option for such an editor is TheDotFactory (you can download it in the application). Then we will put the resulting code into memory, and when displaying information on the screen, we will use the following trick: paint over a pixel that should be visible (bit = 1) with a color other than the background color, and a pixel that should not be visible (bit = 0 ), with a color that matches the background color.

As a result, you can get all kinds of multi-colored inscriptions or pictures on the screen:

You can download the C source code for alternate display of both illustrated images below.

And, instead of completion, a small IMHO, describing my subjective opinion about the price / quality / capabilities of this display: it seems to me that in its form factor today it is one of the best for use in radio amateur (and not only) crafts …

Thank you all for your time and good luck, who decided to repeat it.

P.S. Unfortunately, I have no information about the MTBF of this display, so all the conclusions made in IMHE are nothing more than thinking aloud))

Files:
Source
ConvertBMP
TheDotFactory
Datasheet ST7735

All questions in
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