Clavier music and art: Clavier Music & Art 小豆苗音乐美术中心 – Music & Art Lesson in Hurstville

Phantasm, Johann Sebastian Bach, Laurence Dreyfus – Art of Fugue / 5 Fugues from Well-Tempered Clavier

Ceci est apparemment le second enregistrement de l’art de la fugue de Robert Hill, une oeuvre que ce claveciniste enregistrera 3 fois: une fois pour l’édition Bach 2000 chez Haenssler sur un clavecin italien, une fois pour Archiv avec le Musica Antiqua Köln en 1984 sur un clavecin allemand (pour les parties solistes bien sûr) et ici en 1987 sur un clavecin de son frère Keith Hill (comme tous les autres d’ailleurs) inspiré de la tradiition francaise du XVIIe et de l’allemagne du sud.

Cet enregistrement qui tient sur un disque s’en tient à la première version du début des années 1740 et qui, même si elle est amputée de certaines fugues (dont celle à 3 sujets) et canons par rapport à la version posthume, n’en est pas moins un document remarquable dans la mesure où elle est clairement agencée par ordre de complexité croissant et surtout elle permet d’entendre certaines fugues dans des versions alternatives.

Robert Hill relativise aussi les “problèmes” d’ordonnancement des fugues en soulignant que plusieurs ordres peuvent fonctionner, la cohérence interne de n’importe pratiquement n’importe quel agencement étant, au moins en partie, assurée par l’omniprésence du thème principal et ce même si certaines fugues semblent clairement se répondre ou se compléter. Il souligne d’ailleurs qu’on peut concevoir l’art de la fugue comme une forme ultime et gigantesque de la forme de la fugue à variations.

Alors que le disque du Musica Antiqua Köln fait figure des références discographiques incontestables de l’oeuvre, et que le dernier enregistrement sur clavecin italien est une des toutes meilleures versions au clavecin, cette première version peut rebuter au prime abord par son caractère direct, droit, rapide, presque aride dans la mesure où il est difficile de percevoir les articulations, les mises en perspective si bien qu’on peut avoir l’impression de subir au lieu de pourvoir déguster ce festival de virtuosité qui n’est peut-être pas aussi gratuit qu’il y parait.

Je me suis en effet habitué à ce jeu et cette virtuosité ébouriffante et à ce festival de contrepoint serré qui ne ménage que si peu de silences et de répit pour l’auditeur et cette version fait aussi partie de mes préférées. Il est en effet fascinant de voir comment certains “problèmes” d’articulation se trouvent naturellement résolus par un tempo élevé sur un clavecin tonique. De plus, cette virtuosité et cette vélocité ne tombent jamais dans l’emportement. Au contraire, Robert Hill est toujours non seulement diablement précis à cette vitesse mais il sait distiller les articulations et les silences qui supportent le sens du texte et bien sûr le fonctionnement du contrepoint.

A certains moments, les sonorités qui s’échappent de ce clavecin ne sont pas sans rappeler certains passages de Heavy Metal dans leur densité sonore et leur caracère obsédant. Mais en général, c’est plutôt une force vitale paradoxalement à la fois ludique et sérieuse qui se dégage de ces pièces.

Cette version, essentielle pour appréhender l’aspect quasi “anti-organistique” et ludique de cette oeuvre autant que l’approche interprétative personnelle de Robert Hill, ne sera pas forcément digérable par le grand nombre, d’où l’étoile en moins qui n’est aucunement une réserve personnelle.

Clavier Class Teaches Kids Music Appreciation Through The Keyboard — And A Social Conscience

Image by Remaztered Studio from Pixabay

Summer is a great time for children to try out new things, along with making new friends. However, this year, with the pandemic and the consequent lockdown, things changed drastically and abruptly, and many children lost an integral part of life as they’ve ever known it — including daily contact with friends and teachers. With such uncertainty for the summer, young educators Edmee Nataprawira and Pauline Feng are bringing summer learning home to children through a new program called Clavier Class, an online music appreciation course about keyboard instruments across history, musicians, different genres and much more from harpsichord to piano, from accordion to synthesizer.

“Before COVID-19, Pauline and I were planning a low-cost summer choir in the light of cuts to public music education,” says Edmee. Edmee and Pauline first met at the Faculty of Music, University of Toronto in 2012 as Music Education Majors, and became great friends in addition to sharing classes, and working at summer camps. Their first independent education collaboration took place in summer 2016, ‘Summer, Sun and Singing!’ an open-choral program for children ages 6-14 of all levels, free of charge.

For these young yet experienced educators, musical inspiration started early and close. “I started tutoring and teaching piano lessons to young children at age of 14,” says Pauline. “I always knew that I loved helping others learn, and becoming a music educator was a choice I made to pursue my passion!” As a young child, Pauline grew up watching her older brother playing piano, so at age 5, she started piano herself, and by age 10, she was accompanying at her school programs. Edmee also remembers her older sister and brother playing music in the living room. “As the youngest, I idolized them and wanted to be part of everything they did.” She started her lessons around age 3-4.

They graduated from CTEP (Class of 2017) together in the Concurrent Teacher’s Education Program; Edmee is qualified to teach English and Music, and Pauline in French and Music. Pauline, after teaching French at high school for two years, pursued a career change, but along with her new career as a full-time corporate concierge, she is still heavily involved in private teaching and the tutoring program, Songs and Studies.

Pauline Feng and Edmee Nataprawira (Photo: Gabrielle Nguyen)

Edmee is currently teaching in St. Clement’s School, Toronto, and couldn’t be happier. “As a child, my school’s music room was my second home. It was there that I tasted safety, community, courage, self-expression, and great joy. I don’t think I would be here today — at least not as the same person — if not for the genuine kindness, love, mentorship, and dry wit that my teachers showed me when I needed it most.” She also conducts the youngest division of Timothy Eaton Memorial Church’s Choir School, Cherub Choir, for kids from kindergarten to Grade 4.

With swift changes to all future plans with COVID-19, their initial plan for a 2020 free or low-cost summer children’s choir has morphed into an at-home online class focusing on the exploration of piano — one of the most iconic instruments. “We were brainstorming ideas for an engaging and accessible summer music program that we could both be excited about,” says Pauline. “It morphed from a music and movement class, into a musical instrument appreciation class, and eventually became a keyboard instrument exploration class.”

In addition to cuts in public education funding, Edmee and Pauline felt strongly that they should introduce two additional current issues into CC’s program focus: global pandemic and racism in both the United States and Canada. “These issues — anti-Black racial violence and injustice, poverty, and food insecurity — have existed for a very long time. Having not personally experienced them, Pauline and I both have incredible privilege. As such, we also feel a sense of responsibility to contribute to some change in whatever little we can,” says Edmee.

Edmee explains the focus of the course in an email. “I am delighted to be co-creating Clavier Class, an online summer music course for kids ages 11-14, with my friend and fellow music educator, Pauline Feng. We’ll explore history, musicians, genres, and more… all through the lens of keyboard instruments — from the harpsichord to the piano to the synthesizer. We’d love to support Canadian organizations doing important, hard work, so the entirety of our ‘fee’ is a suggested donation directly to 1 of 4 organizations supporting food security, frontline workers, Black communities, and marginalized voices in the Arts: Churches-on-the-Hill Food Bank, Frontline Fund, Black Lives Matter, and Nia Centre for Arts.”

Edmee Nataprawira (Photo: Danielle Reesor)

To enroll, participants are asked to send suggested donation of $50 directly to the chosen organizations. Though they have not had direct communication with these organizations (beside their own personal donations), Edmee and Pauline are hoping their initiative will redirect funds to organizations doing important work right here at home, and to give element of choice and agency to interested families; in addition, this format will also allow families to receive tax receipts for the donation. Wanting to keep the classes accessible, they set the total suggested ‘fee’ of $50, equivalent to less than $10 per class. “Everyone’s circumstances are different in the best of times, and certainly even more so during a pandemic. I don’t feel that anyone should be turned away if $50 is too much, and I also hope that those who are able to give more, do… every penny will help,” says Edmee and Pauline.

Anna Rutledge is enrolling her daughter, Emma, and she chose Clavier Class to give Emma an additional enrichment after camps were cancelled. Emma is currently finishing off this school year online, and she, like many of us, has had a very challenging spring. “My teacher’s transition to online learning was very slow and the process did not work well for me. I do not like the online model and am looking forward to return to in-person learning,” says Emma. She misses her friends the most, but she also misses the direct and immediate interaction with teachers, which helps her to better understand the materials.

Anna chose Clavier Class hoping to provide some structure and joy during this very difficult summer. As a musician herself, (she holds a doctoral degree in musicology), music is a very important part of family life. “Our kids are all in choirs and their father and I grew up with music as a central part of our lives. And (Clavier Class) seemed like a great way to maintain a connection with a teacher she loves, while donating to a cause that is close to our hearts,” says Anna. They are donating to the COTH food bank, as an addition to their regular food donation in this time of need.

Emma currently sings and plays the French horn, and got to know Edmee through TEMC. “I like making music with people, and working like a team to get better. I am interested to see how Ms. Edmee will structure the class — I hope she will make it fun, like choir!” says Emma. Edmee’s experience through Cherub Choir echoes Emma’s feeling. “Teaching the Cherub Choir at TEMC is an absolute joy! These kids are vibrant, hilarious, kind and always ready to sing. We keep each other on our toes, learn great musical skills, and have a lot of fun every week.”

Though the Cherub Choir children are bit young for the Clavier Class, having this multi-level experience gives Edmee and Pauline a definite edge in leading the new Clavier Class participants, where both parties will experience and face new challenges — especially with open enrolment format (as CC is geared towards all intermediate music students, with or without previous experience with the piano). There also will be a few guest musicians throughout the program to give participants a closer look at keyboard instruments that they may have yet to encounter, like the harpsichord (Adam Weinmann) and the accordion (Lili Ahopelto). The guest sessions will include a short performance followed by a Q&A. Both confirmed guests are also established pianists, making them ideal candidates to compare-and-contrast for the students, including a virtual show-and-tell of their instruments.

“We would love this class to have the feeling of a small community, where each student’s voice is heard, and they can share ideas. Our plan is to have a homework assignment and give each student at least one opportunity to present to the group. We want each person bringing to the table their own ideas, and how they connect course content with their own interests.”

#LUDWIGVAN

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Cecilia tumbled into ‘serious’ music study when she decided to avoid attending medical school. Currently working in the field of classical music, recording, and Korean-English interpretation, she tends to get her nose dirty in many different things in the city. Cecilia holds a DMA in Piano Performance from the University of Nebraska-Lincoln.

Latest posts by Hye Won Cecilia Lee (see all)

Cecilia tumbled into ‘serious’ music study when she decided to avoid attending medical school. Currently working in the field of classical music, recording, and Korean-English interpretation, she tends to get her nose dirty in many different things in the city. Cecilia holds a DMA in Piano Performance from the University of Nebraska-Lincoln.

Latest posts by Hye Won Cecilia Lee (see all)

Clavier à Couleurs: An Exhibit of Piano Preludes

The Arlene Kies Piano Recital and Master Class Series and University of New Hampshire Department of Music bring Toronto-based pianists Gregory Millar and Lisa Raposa ’99 (Millar Piano Duo) and artist Antonietta Kies to Durham to present “Clavier à Couleurs: An Exhibit of Piano Preludes.” Part art exhibition and part concert, this event will feature a performance of 24 Preludes, Op. 11 by Alexander Scriabin, and 24 Preludes, Op. 28 by Frédéric Chopin. Additionally, a new series of 24 landscapes by Kies will be receiving their first U.S. public exhibition. Clavier à Couleurs: An Exhibit of Piano Preludes successfully premiered at Heliconian Hall in Toronto on November 23, 2019. The U.S. event will take place in the Bratton Recital Hall of the Paul Creative Arts Center on Monday, March 23, at 8:00 pm, and include a “Session with the Artist.” Admission is free and open to the public.

Kies’ paintings, collectively titled “Poetics,” take Scriabin’s music as their inspiration. The artist captures on canvas a personal response to the mood and emotional content suggested by each prelude. During the performance of Scriabin’s pieces by Raposa, images of the paintings will be projected, giving the audience the opportunity to contemplate the connections between the art and the music. Following a brief intermission, the evening will conclude with Millar’s performance of Chopin’s piano preludes, the collection upon which Scriabin modeled his own. This will be accompanied by projections of descriptive titles penned by German pianist and conductor Hans von Bülow and French pianist Alfred Cortot that will invite audience members to paint their own pictures in their imaginations as they listen.

Music and art are strongly interconnected for Kies, having grown up with two pianist parents:  current piano faculty member Christopher Kies and the late Arlene Kies, a UNH piano faculty member for 20 years. The younger Kies says, “When I listen to music, I am one of those people who tends to space out a little, daydream… I inevitably start seeing pictures and thinking about feelings that the music relates to, so it all blends together for me.”

Raposa is a UNH Department of Music alumna, class of  1999. The Millar Piano Duo, a husband-and-wife team, are both graduates of the Eastman School of Music. They have presented concerts and workshops in Canada and the U.S., normally playing together in music for four-hands on one or two pianos. Millar comments on the interesting departure they take for this project: “The two solo piano works are formally and stylistically related, yet we can give them individual interpretations. Bringing Antonietta into the mix adds a third layer of perspective. The result is a unique kind of ensemble performance.”

 

Versuch über die wahre Art das Clavier zu spielen Sonaten

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The Island Music Teacher—Clavier Chronicle

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    Anita has earned a Bachelor’s Degree from the University of Michigan’s School of Music, Theatre, and Dance. Following this, she completed studies for a Master’s Degree at the University of Cincinnati College-Conservatory of Music.

    She has earned recognition for her music making as a teacher, soloist, chamber musician, and orchestral performer. Recent performances include Carnegie Hall’s Weill Recital Hall, the Dame Myra Hess Memorial Concert series, and “Concerts from the Library of Congress.” She has also performed in recital as a guest of various radio programs, including “Young Artists Showcase” on WQXR, WFMT, WGTE, WOSU and others. She directs and performs with the Juliani Ensemble, an innovative, multi-faceted chamber ensemble, with whom she has performed at Preston Bradley Hall, as well as numerous renowned concert halls. Frequent orchestral appearances include the Cincinnati Symphony Orchestra, originally as a CCM-CSO Fellow, as well as the Louisville Orchestra, Dayton Philharmonic and others.

    She has performed at various festivals, including fellowships with the Chautauqua Symphony Orchestra, as principal cellist of Brevard Music Festival, the Catskills Chamber Music Festival, as assistant principal cellist of Miami Music Festival, as well as Credo Chamber Music Festival at Oberlin Conservatory.

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    A Well-Tempered Well-Tempered Clavier | La Folia

    Maurice L. Richter

    [April 2000. Originally appeared in La Folia 2:4.]

    The great cycle of forty-eight keyboard preludes and fugues that Bach created for didactic purposes in The Well-Tempered Clavier is one of the sublime monuments of Western art. As Angela Hewitt aptly observes in her thorough and informative notes accompanying her recording of the work, “It is an inexhaustible treasure trove of the greatest possible music, combining contrapuntal wizardry with his immense gift for expressing human emotion in all its forms. Bach amazes us by absolutely never running out of steam. In The Well-Tempered Clavier, we find a piece to suit every mood and every occasion.”

    During the years 1717-1723, Bach was employed as Capellmeister and director of chamber music at the court in Cöthen. Since the court belonged to the Reformed Church, Bach was freed from the obligation to compose church cantatas and works for the organ. Here, then, he became a composer of secular chamber and house music, devoting his efforts to writing instrumental music whose purpose was to serve as perfect models and guides to both beginning and advanced students as well as music lovers. Bach was now the great mentor, dictating objective standards of technical craftsmanship. His extraordinary imagination and technical prowess, however, raised all these models far above the status of mere pedagogical devices into the realm of great art works.

    By the time Bach composed the preludes and fugues constituting The Well-Tempered Clavier, he had thoroughly absorbed the two poles of late baroque music — the Italian and the French styles. The Italian style encompassed the harmonic resources of tonality, the concerto style in both instrumental and vocal music and the concerto and sonata styles of “absolute” music, while the French style was characterized by coloristic and programmatic trends in instrumental music, a measure of orchestral discipline, the use of the overture and dance suite and a quite florid use of melodic ornamentation. The Italian style was exemplified in the works of such composers as Corelli and Vivaldi, while the French style was molded by the orchestral innovations of Lully and the keyboard technique of Couperin. Rather than succumbing to these powerful Italian and French influences, Bach magnificently assimilated both of them with his profoundly German polyphonic tradition and created a unique fusion of national styles that is the most remarkable feature of his mature instrumental music.

    In the two books of The Well-Tempered Clavier, he brought all of his insight, learning and superior compositional technique to their highest fruition. The preludes and fugues of the Clavier are not only technically flawless, but are compositions of profound emotion as well. No two of them are alike, and taken together they encompass an unbelievably wide world of feeling.

    In Book 1 of The Well-Tempered Clavier, Bach composed twenty-four preludes and fugues in all of the keys now made possible by the system of tuning recently introduced by Andreas Werckmeister, the Halberstadt organist and music theoretician. For the first time, it was now possible to modulate and play in all major and minor keys. Bach systematically set down preludes and fugues in each major and minor key, beginning with C Major and ascending chromatically from C Major to C Minor, then C sharp Major (D flat Major), C sharp Minor and so on until he reached B Major and B Minor. Bach noted the date, 1722, on the title page, although the work was a compilation of preludes and fugues, some dating from earlier years.

    Twenty-two years later, in 1744, Bach compiled another, similar set of twenty-four preludes and fugues, in what is now known as Book 2 of The Well-Tempered Clavier. All of these pieces together have come to be known as “The 48” and have exerted a profound influence on the music that was to follow. “The 48” are remarkable in providing an encyclopedic display of all the compositional styles known at the time for the keyboard. For example, in Book 1, Prelude No. 7 is patterned after the toccata, No. 10 is an aria, No. 11 an invention, No. 12 an allemande, No. 13 a two-part invention, No. 18 a three-part invention, while No. 19 is itself a fugue and No. 24 is patterned after the trio sonata. In Book 2, similarly, Prelude No. 5 is a sonata movement in galant style, No. 19 a pastorale, No. 21 a courante and No. 22 a trio sonata.

    The fugues, too, exploit every possibility of the form, becoming not merely contrapuntal exercises, but “character pieces,” each embodying a single affection. Bach here brought the fugue form to a final culmination beyond which no further development was possible. Their incredible variety, their richness of invention, their extraordinary technical demands, along with their immediately expressive beauty and profundity of feeling have made them a pinnacle of artistic achievement.

    Angela Hewitt is a Canadian pianist who now makes London her home. Ever since her triumph at the 1985 Toronto International Bach Piano Competition, her extraordinary musicianship and great virtuosity have endeared her to audiences around the world. With an amazingly varied repertory, she has performed entire recitals of the works of Bach, Beethoven, Schumann, Chopin, Brahms, Fauré and Roussel, along with two recital series devoted to the complete solo piano music of Ravel and concerts featuring the music of such contemporary composers as Messiaen.

    Hewitt was born into a musical family, the daughter of the Cathedral organist in Ottawa. She began her study of the piano at the age of three and gave her first recital at Toronto’s Royal Conservatory of Music when she was nine. She received her Bachelor of Music degree from the University of Ottawa at the age of eighteen and later, in 1995, was awarded an Honorary Doctorate by the University. In two albums on the wonderfully enterprising Hyperion label, she has recorded Bach’s Das Wohltemperierte Clavier (The Well-Tempered Clavier), Book 1 on CDA 67301/2 (2 CDs) and Book 2 on CDA 67303/4 (2 CDs).

    Her playing immediately strikes one with its “rightness” — a combination of faultless technique, extraordinary control of touch and dynamics (with very restrained use of the sustaining pedal), great elegance and phrasing that is profoundly poised and intelligent. The forty-eight preludes and fugues encompass a whole world of feeling in their infinite variety, and Hewitt seems to capture all the many moods of the work as well as they have ever been captured on the piano. I have spent many hours playing and replaying these superb performances and find them endlessly fascinating. Hewitt brings an unalloyed freshness and vigor to her playing, a thorough musicianship, great clarity of texture and avoidance of the merely didactic — this is truly satisfying Bach.

    Hewitt’s formidable technique is marvelous in the Prelude No. 2 in C Minor of Book 1. Her subtle articulation and depth of feeling are manifest in the Prelude No. 4 in C sharp Minor in the form of a loure, a French theatrical dance. The accompanying fugue, built on a subject consisting of just four notes is a massive piece, phrased flawlessly by Hewitt, who here builds up a powerful edifice. The variety of form in these pieces is enormous — Fugue No. 5 in D Major in French overture style is majestically interpreted by Hewitt. She brings a beautiful inwardness to Prelude No. 8 in E flat major, in the form of a slow sarabande. Her playing here is profoundly moving, with superb phrasing and perfect control of dynamics. Prelude No. 10 in E Minor has a bewitchingly haunting melody followed by a Presto that shows off Hewitt’s virtuosity, as does the accompanying two-voice fugue.

    For Hyperion, she has recorded a collection of works of Messiaen on CDA 67054, but she is particularly notable as an exponent of Bach. She has recorded exemplary performances of the Bach Six French Suites and other works on two compact discs, CDA 67121/2, as well as the Fifteen Two-part Inventions, Fifteen Three-part Inventions, Chromatic Fantasia and Fugue in D Minor and Fantasia and Fugue in C Minor on Hyperion CDA 66746. Bach’s Six Partitas are on two CDs, CDA 67191/2. Her newest, eagerly awaited recording of the Bach Goldberg Variations, CDA 67305, has just been released. Hewitt is today’s finest exponent of Bach on the piano.

    WAGNER’S GÖTTERDÄMMERUNG

     

    A TRUE TESTAMENT

    Testament has gloriously reincarnated a never previously released recording of Wagner’s Götterdämmerung dating from 1951, with a stellar cast and conducted by one of the great Wagner conductors, Hans Knappertsbusch, Testament SBT 4175, (4 CDs). The performance was recorded live at the Festspielhaus in Bayreuth on August 4, 1951 and is in really fine monaural sound, scarcely betraying its age, with the voices in beautiful balance with the orchestra.

    1951 marked the reopening of the Bayreuth Festival after a closure of seven years, and this Götterdämmerung was its culmination, a triumph at the time. One Ring cycle was conducted with majestic dignity by the older, much revered Knappertsbusch, the second cycle by the young Herbert von Karajan, who favored faster tempi. Since Knappertsbusch was loath to become involved in long rehearsals, much of the musical preparation was left to Karajan.

    The performance was recorded by the English Decca company (known as London in the U.S.) under John Culshaw as producer (also famously responsible for the later Sir Georg Solti- conducted recording of the Ring). A serious dispute between Decca and EMI (the fascinating details of which are given in the accompanying notes) over rights to the performance prevented its release for almost half a century. To everyone’s surprise, good will has prevailed, the necessary clearances obtained and a magnificent performance of Götterdämmerung is now happily available for the first time. It proves to be an inspired achievement, for Knappertsbusch’s legendary, authoritative conducting, the superb orchestral playing (the players were hand-picked from the best of Germany’s symphony orchestras and opera houses), the fine chorus chosen from all over Germany (many of them soloists in regional opera houses), carefully trained by the eminent Wilhelm Pitz of Aachen. Pitz’s work at Bayreuth in those first post-war years was much envied and never surpassed. But, most of all, it is a great performance because of the inspired singing of Astrid Varnay’s clear-voiced, youthful, womanly Brünnhilde, Bernd Aldenhoff’s powerful Siegfried, Ludwig Weber’s dark, magisterial bass, masterful as Hagen, sung with overwhelming intelligence, as fine a performance as this rôle has achieved. Hermann Uhde is a solid, articulate Gunther, and Martha Mödl strongly projects Gutrune’s emotions. Elisabeth Höngen is an intense Waltraute in a performance not easily bettered. The Norns and Rhinemaidens, all too often cast with voices of second rank spoiled by shrillness, are excellent here, with the luxury casting of Elisabeth Schwarzkopf as Woglinde, marvelously leading the Rhinemaidens and Mödl doubling as the Third Norn.

    From the opening of the Prologue, Knappertsbusch’s legendary command is thrilling, the opening scene of the Three Norns prophesying with enormous power the tragedy to follow. The ensuing orchestral interlude is characteristic of Knappertsbusch’s ability to shape and mold the long lines of the drama. He subtly increases the tempo to reflect the transformation from the mythic mood of the Norns to the passionate music of Brünnhilde and Siegfried. Varnay’s ringing Brünnhilde is electrifying and Knappertsbusch’s energy sweeps the drama along. In the second scene of Act 1, he magically slows down when Hagen recognizes the Tarnhelm on Siegfried’s belt and discloses its magic power to him. Weber’s black bass is chillingly effective as he keeps watch at the end of this second scene, anticipating his possession of the ring. Varnay is intensely powerful in her denunciation of Siegfried, Aldenhoff’s bright voice impressive in both his responses here and in his Act 3 Narration.

    There are very minor imperfections, as there almost always are in a live recording — occasional stage noises, a too distant miking of the Rhinemaidens at the very beginning of their appearance at the opening of Act 3 (though this rapidly improves). Aldenhoff is vividly dramatic in his peroration to Brünnhilde immediately before his death, Knappertsbusch and his expert orchestra providing outstanding support here, the strings warm and rich, the brass ringing and full as they are in the ensuing Funeral Music. Varnay at the close delivers a magnificently powerful and at the same time warm, womanly Immolation that is overwhelming in its focus and passion — this is a great Brünnhilde, indeed!

    This is, in fact, a superb Götterdämmerung and a fine contribution to the legacy of great Wagner singing and conducting on record.

     

    90,000 Couperin is … What is Couperin?

  • Couperin – (French Couperin) French family of organists and harpsichordists. The earliest mention of the Couperins dates back to 1366, but musicians among family members began to appear, apparently, only from the end of the 16th century. The first was probably … … Wikipedia

  • COUPERIN – (Couperin) François (1668 1733), French composer, harpsichordist, organist. From a family of hereditary musicians, he was nicknamed the Great Couperin.His program pieces (combined in cycles) are the pinnacle of French harpsichord art. Style of Couperin … … Modern Encyclopedia

  • Couperin – (Couperin) family of organists and harpsichord virtuosos in France; became known from the middle of the XVII century. The most famous of all K. François (1668 1733), called the great; wrote five collections of pieces for the harpsichord, the manual L art de toucher du … … Encyclopedia of Brockhaus and Efron

  • Couperin F. – (Couperin) François (10 XI 1668, Paris 12 IX 1733, ibid.) French. composer, harpsichordist and organist. The largest representative of the family K., who gave several. generations of musicians. He was nicknamed by his contemporaries the great K. Primary education … … Encyclopedia of Music

  • Couperin – (Couperin) a family of organists and virtuosos on the harpsichord in France; became known from the middle of the XVII century. The most famous of all K. François (1668 1733), called the great; wrote five collections of plays for the harpsichord, the manual L art de toucher du … … F.A. Brockhaus and I.A. Efron

  • Couperin – (Couperin) French family. musicians. From ser. 17 to mid. 19th century numbered at least 12 representatives (composers and performers). In addition to the famous François K. (the great K.), 3 brothers enjoyed fame: Louis K. (1626, Chaum en Brie … … Encyclopedia of Music

  • Couperin F. – Couperin François (1668-1733), composer, harpsichordist, organist. From the family that gave several.generations of musicians; nicknamed K. the great. The music of the program pieces (combined in cycles) is melodic. ingenuity, grace … Biographical Dictionary

  • COUPEREN – (Couperin), the name of a number of excellent organists at St. Gervais in Paris. This family comes from Shom in Bree. The first known were three brothers: 1) Louis, b. 1630, d. 1665 organist at St. Gervais and violinist (Dessus de Viole) … Riemann’s Musical Dictionary

  • Couperin Francois – (1668 1733) French composer, harpsichordist, organist.From a family that gave birth to several generations of musicians; nicknamed the great Couperin. His work is the pinnacle of French harpsichord art. Couperin’s music is distinguished by melodic … … Big Encyclopedic Dictionary

  • Couperin François – Couperin Francois (10.11.1668, Paris, ≈ 12.9.1733, ibid.), French composer, organist and harpsichordist. Descended from a family that gave birth in the 17th and 18th centuries. several generations of musicians; was nicknamed “the great K.”. The main place in the heritage of K…. … Great Soviet Encyclopedia

  • The principle of shaping in organ and clavier fantasies of JS Bach [Abstract No. 7165]

    Contents:

    Introduction

    In the XVI-XVII centuries, there was an intensive development of secular instrumental music, which was a manifestation of tendencies common to all art of the Renaissance. It was at this time that music was gaining independence, becoming an independent area of ​​spiritual culture.
    A noticeable rise in the art of clavier has been observed since the first half of the 18th century; it is associated with the activities of outstanding masters: François Couperin, Domenico Scarlatti, Georg Friedrich Handel, Johann Sebastian Bach and others. Without diminishing the historical role of Couperin, Scarlatti, Handel, one should especially emphasize the importance of Bach as the greatest innovator in the field of clavier creativity. In this work, I will analyze in detail the principle of shaping in organ and clavier fantasies of I.S. Bach.

    The main goal of this essay is to acquire knowledge about the principle of shaping in organ and clavier fantasies by I.S. Bach. My main task, however, is a detailed analysis of this topic.

    Chapter I. The creative path of I.S. Bach.

    Organ and Clavier Music XVI-XVIII

    Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) – German composer and organist. Using his fame as an organist, Bach did not attract enough attention as a composer during his lifetime. His biography, typical in external events for an ordinary German musician of the 18th century, is in contradiction with his ingenious work, which is one of the pinnacles of philosophical thought in music.
    A fundamental role in the formation of Bach’s art was played by the successive connection with the Protestant movement and its musical culture, which developed in the mainstream of the choral and organ genres. Most of his life he worked in the church. His creative pursuits are closely related to the Lutheran tradition; the atmosphere of the cathedral corresponded to them. The most important feature of Bach’s art was also an organic connection with musical schools and genres of different European countries starting from the 16th century. The external forms of Bach’s works do not go beyond the genres, principles of form formation and intonation structure, which were established in the music of the 17th century.

    Bach, who paid tribute to almost all areas of musical creativity, passed the leading genre of his time – opera. For the composer, with his in-depth structure of thought, far from anything superficial and entertaining, the court opera was absolutely alien. But it is important to note that under the influence of opera, a new type of polyphony appeared in Bach’s work – on a harmonious basis, the nature of instrumental thematicism and the principles of the development of choral and solo vocal and instrumental music were determined and, what is especially important, “collectively impersonal”, harsh music Lutheranism was transformed into a lyrical and dramatic art, marked by extraordinary emotional strength.

    In the music of Bach, almost all significant trends of the previous one and a half century period are generalized and completed. Bach’s work was prepared and reflected in Renaissance choral polyphony, Protestant chant, German song, vocal and instrumental spiritual works by G. Schutz, Italian and German organ music, Italian opera and Italian violin ensemble and orchestral school, German orchestral suite, leading origin from the instrumental school of J.Lully, French harpsichord music, Italian clavier school and English music.

    At the same time, Bach’s language is immeasurably more expressive and more complex than that of its predecessors. Continuing outwardly to remain within the framework of certain genres, he enriched them with features borrowed from other genres and types of musical creativity.

    Bach has surpassed all his predecessors in mastery of form. In his work, the peak of polyphonic art was reached after the Dutch school.The techniques of polyphonic development developed by this school are combined in Bach’s work with the expressive possibilities of homophony. Bach’s works are distinguished by the unity of all elements, a balanced musical structure linked by a strong internal logic, strict architectonics, an endless variety of methods for varying the same material. The austerity and harmony of architectonics are just as important features of Bach’s style as the poetic atmosphere and bright emotional expressiveness of his works.

    Bach’s vast artistic heritage includes over 1000 works of various genres. It can be divided into 3 main areas: vocal-dramatic, organ, instrumental – associated with secular traditions. Each area of ​​Bach’s work belongs mainly to a certain period. Most of the vocal and dramatic works were written in the “Leipzig period” (1723-50).

    Works for clavier, violin and other instruments are mainly associated with the period of work as a court musician in Köthen (1717-23).All the most significant for the organ was created in the “Weimar period” (1708-1717), when, having changed a number of places in the provincial cities of Thuringia (Arnstadt, Mühlhausen), the composer served in Weimar as organist of the court church.

    Most of Bach’s mature organ preludes and fugues (c-minor, D-major, e-minor, g-minor, G-major, f-minor, etc.), fantasy (C-major ), fugue (g-moll), toccata and fugue (d-moll, C-major), passacaglia, etc.

    The heyday of his clavier creativity comes during his work at the court in Köthen, where the 1st volume of “Well-Tempered Clavier”, “Chromatic Fantasy and Fugue”, a brilliant virtuoso style, the drama and pathos of which testify to the transfer of expressive techniques characteristic of organ toccata and fantasies.
    In The Well-Tempered Clavier, evoked by the idea of ​​a new temperament, the composer in a laconic, refined form and highly poetic. refraction captured the genre and style trends of his era. Preludes are associated with various types of music from the 17th to the beginning of the 20th century, both in terms of their thematism and the principles of shaping. XVIII centuries Fugues mark the pinnacle of the world polyphonic style, they are marked by compactness, severity, symmetry of form, at the same time, each of them is brightly expressive.

    Chapter II. The principle of shaping in organ and clavier fantasies of I.S. Baja

    Until now, there is a very vague idea of ​​Bach’s clavier fantasies among Russian theorists-musicians, and Russian pianists, as a rule, are not familiar with them at all. Nevertheless, the followers of Emanuel – the Viennese classics – were well aware of these intricate compositions, because then, along with sonatas and rondos, they were published and widely known to Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven. Moreover, Bach’s fantasies, with their striving for maximum freedom of form and thought, were supposed to prove a tangible influence on the history of musical art.
    Free crossing and interpenetration of features of different genres and national schools is generally characteristic of Bach. Thus, he transcribed A. Vivaldi’s violin concertos for organ and clavier and created concertos for clavier based on their model. In addition, the form of a concert allegro formed the basis for a number of clavier and some organ fugues by Bach, giving them greater plasticity and completeness. In turn, Bach enriched the traditional Italian forms of the violin and clavier concerto, introducing polyphony into them.The peculiarities of polyphonic genres, in turn, influenced the traditional appearance of Italian violin literature (counterpoint, the use of the principles of imitative development). The crossing of polyphonic linearity with a harmonic chord structure gave rise to a wealth of consonances unknown before him in Bach’s works. Complex chromatic successions, distant chord juxtapositions are layered on the clear functional plan of classical harmony.

    A virtuoso performer on the organ, Bach created works for this instrument, which were the pinnacle of the development of organ literature.Choral preludes, interpreted by the composer as a kind of intimate, romantic diary of the artist, play a huge role in the formation of Bach’s unique organ style. In these lyric poems, a complex, colorful musical language was born, ahead of its time. Choral fantasies are marked by the boldness of artistic pursuits, a wide range of expressive means, images and forms. Many of them embody one mood or image and are distinguished by the unity of the dominant timbre color.

    In the genres of prelude and fugue, fantasy, toccata, Bach acts as the successor of the German organ school, and especially of his immediate predecessors – J. A. Reinken and D. Buxtehude. From Buxtehude, to whom Bach went to study in his youth, he took on the free poetic character of organ improvisations, oratorical pathos, and brilliant concert decorativeness. Bach’s organ works are characterized by emotional richness, deep inner concentration, dramatic scope with splendor of sounds and freedom of form.Bach combined parts that were polar in their expressiveness in two-part cycles – improvisational toccata, fantasy or prelude (often with genre associations) of a homophonic-harmonic character and a strict polyphonic fugue. Organ fugues are marked by a large scale and freedom of imagination; in comparison with clavier fugues, they are characterized by powerful dramatic pumping, grandiose climaxes at the end. These works make the most of the dynamic and timbre resources of the instrument. Large-scale fantasies, variations and fugues are built on vibrant coloristic and dynamic contrasts.
    Since the plays called “fantasy”, appearing in a number of eras, did not become one of the main genres in the history of music, being a companion of various polyphonic forms, sonatas, rondos, many Soviet theoreticians mention them in passing (for example, the authors of textbooks on the structure of musical works: I. Sposobin, L. Mazel and Y. Tyulin).

    Fantasies originate from the middle of the 16th century, but it was at the beginning of the 17th century that a very important stage in the development of fantasy began, when, giving due imitation, it gradually began to accumulate free improvisational elements in the organ work of many composers of that time.In the fantasy of the second half of the 17th century, improvisational and virtuoso sections began to play a role, where pathetic declamation, dramatic recitative and lyrical adagios appeared.
    JS Bach’s fantasies will appear in clavier music. Bach’s choral preludes are rather fantasies, moreover, very diverse, from the simplest to the most complex. Even the toccatas of the Weimar period can already be considered fantasies, which represent the recorded ingenious improvisations on the clavier. Of course, between the organ and clavier creations of I.Bach, there is an undeniable connection. We can confidently attribute the seven toccatas of Johann Sebastian to examples of clavier fantasy. They have a different number of sections. What unites them is the alternation of free (sometimes without bar lines) passages, as well as polyphonic sections, among which there should be a fugue section (or even just a fugue) and not even one.
    JS Bach sought diversity not by changing the thematic material, but by alternating prelude and fugue episodes. For example, “Fantasy No. 2 on one theme” consists of five sections, marked by the composer himself.Each section has a different size. Within each such musical construction, imitation is not always strict.
    Despite JS Bach’s tendency to one affect, the brilliance of Bach’s rhetoric does not diminish in any way in any of his fantasies, even if composed only in one dramatic, impetuous, unchanging mood. Of the “pure” fantasies, we know most of all in Johann Sebastian’s “Chromatic Fantasy in g-minor”, ​​which also has a fugue, as well as “Fantasy in c-minor”, ​​written in the old two-part form.However, the beginning of an unfinished fugue of 47 measures belongs to this fantasy. So far, this still testifies to the inseparable union of fantasy and fugue in the work of J.S. Bach.

    So, in baroque music, the process of freeing fantasy from the fetters connecting it with other genres was gradually going on. I.S. Bach not only fantasy itself (without fugue), which reached an unprecedented individuality, but also fantasy pieces of his works, Bach’s improvisation itself became the culmination point of the development of this genre in the first half of the 18th century.
    It is worth noting a few points that are extremely important for understanding the shaping of Bach’s fantasies:
    – fantasies of I.S. Bach completely separated from the fugue and became an independent work;
    – Bach’s fantasies arose in an era when the theory of affect acquired a new meaning, that is, it began to be based on constant changes of moods already within the limits of subjective sensitivity (Empfindungkeit).
    – this genre has reached the greatest dispersion of form, thus revealing the most radical type of this type of musical composition.

    Bach’s fantasies certainly come from his improvisations and are called free. Improvisation is called free if it does not contain meter, it changes more keys than it happens with other pieces that respect the meter or are created from impromptu.

    Bach’s fantasies, despite the author’s desire for complete freedom of form, can be roughly divided into three types.
    The first one gravitates towards the sonata form: Es-dur, D-dur, Fis-moll.
    The second – to three parts: “Hamlet-Fantasy” C-minor, A-dur.
    The third type is difficult to pull up to any common form (truly free): F-major, C-major.
    Only the C-dur fantasy from the 6th Collection is written in the form of a five-part rondo (like Haydn’s), where each refrain is substantially modified.

    Let’s analyze the basic principles of shaping in Bach’s organ and clavier fantasies using some of them as examples.
    Fantasy c-moll. In the first allegro moderato there is an alternation of arpeggios, scale passages and recitatives with an abundance of intonations of small and large seconds.There are no bars in the first section. In Largo, they appear, which testifies to the metrically organized arious parts of the fantasy. In the beginning, it even has features of squareness, which are gradually broken in the transition to allegro moderato. The third (instead of the recapitulation) section goes again without bar lines, it is more concise and energetic than the first, and practically does not repeat the first section, except that gamma-like passages and recitatives appear there again. Before the very conclusion – a hint of an intonation turn from the middle part, like a brief moment of memory.

    Fantasia Es-dur gravitates towards a new sonata form. This fantasy is a witness to a far from easy analysis of Bach’s favorite genre. The first researcher characterizes the structure of the play as follows:
    (allegro) A – B – A / repeated / – (roco adagio) C – (allegro) A / modified / – B – A / modified /

    Second: “GP”, “SP”, “PP”, “ZP”, “Episode” (roco adagio), “Development” (allegro) / “PP”, “ZP”, “SP”, “GP”.
    Especially in the latter analysis, one can see Bach’s tendency to mirroring, which we found earlier in sonatas.

    The next fantasy in A major can be called three-part with fewer reservations than the fantasy in c minor, because all the material that is present in the first section is also in the third, only all the elements are rearranged.

    Fantasia B-dur is close to sonata form, where the introduction appeared. It has features of specularity. Instead of a slow episode, development.

    List of Bach’s organ and clavier fantasies:
    1) Fantasies and fugues (fugues):
    a-moll, d-moll, c-moll, B-dur, D-dur
    2) Chromatic fantasy and fugue d-moll
    3) The Art of the Fugue (Die Kunst der Fuge)
    Selected Preludes and Fugues
    4) Toccata :
    fis-moll, c-moll, D-major, d-moll, e-moll, g-moll, G-dur
    5) Fantasies :
    g-moll, c-moll, g-moll
    6) Fantasia-rondo c-moll
    7) Preludes (fantasies):
    c-moll, a-moll

    Conclusion

    During Bach’s lifetime, his brilliant work was not truly appreciated.His work marked both the pinnacle of the centuries-old development of organ music, which began from the early Renaissance, and its completion. The influence of Bach’s organ work is noticeable in many other works of the composer (cantatas, solo violin sonatas, preludes and fugues).

    Bach was the first to write concert pieces for the clavier (modeled on violin ones), confirming the independent significance of this instrument. Bach created literature for the clavier that was most directed towards the future. In the field of clavier music, he not so much completed the searches of his predecessors as opened new paths.
    In this essay, all the goals and objectives have been achieved.

    Sources

    1. https://www.belcanto.ru/bach_klavier.html
    2. Braudo I.A.On organ and clavier music (1976)
    3. https://www.philharmonia.spb.ru/persons/biography/354/
    4. A.F. Pronin “Formation of the genre of fantasy in Western European music of the 16th-17th centuries” (scientific article in the specialty “art history”). (2017)

    IFI bibliography: h_moll – LiveJournal

    At the request of workers students.Thanks to V.P. Chinaev for the file sent.

    You can download it here (thanks to S.V. Grokhotov).

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    Sat .: Debussy and music of the twentieth century. L., 1983
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    Sat .: The pianists tell. Issue 1 and 2.M., 1979, 1984
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