Boys talking watch: Amazon.com: Five Senses – Talking Watch Kids Time-Teacher Kids Talking Watch, Watch for Kids, Kids Watch, Kids Watches, Girls Watch, Boys Watch, Kids Watches, Watch for Kids Girls, Watch for Boys 1048 : Clothing, Shoes & Jewelry

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Talking Watches | Talking Watches for the Blind

Talking Watches

Talking watches offer a sense of security to whoever wears them. At the touch of a button, the wearer can instantly have the time spoken to them. The talking wrist watches available from LS&S are beautiful, fashionable and indistinguishable from a regular watch. These durable and reliable watches feature true quartz accuracy and include a host of features such as multiple alarm sounds. Whether you wear your talking watch everyday, or you save it for special occasions like a dinner out, you can count on it being a handsome accessory to any outfit. These talking watches for the blind and visually impaired are available in the following finishes: gold, silver, chrome and two-tone. Quality craftsmanship and innovation in an original timepiece – that’s what LS&S provides to our customers.

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    • Touch Face Talking Watch
    • Ladies 1-Button Gold Talking Watch Black and White Beaded
    • Touch Face Talking Watch, White Face Gold band
    • Talking 1-Button Watch With Choice of Voice White Face, Gold Color, Expansion Band
    • Talking 1-Button Watch With Choice of Voice White Face, Silver Color, Silver Expansion Band
    • Talking Watch 1-Button White Face Two-Tone
    • Talking 4 Button Watch With Choice of Voice White Face, Silver Color, Expansion Band
    • Talking 4-Button Watch With Choice of Voice White Face, Gold Tone, Expansion Band
    • XL Talking Watch – Calendar 4-Button Gold Case Gold Band White Face – Black Numbers
    • XL Talking Watch – 1 Button – Silver Case – Silver Band White Face – Black Numbers
    • Talking Watch Black face, silver tone, expansion band
    • Talking Watch Black face, gold tone, expansion band
      • Touch Face Talking Watch

        This special talking watch with a white face, gold case, and gold flex band speaks the time when you touch its crystal face, making it extremely easy to use by anyone with weak hands or poor dexterity. The watch also speaks the full date, has a talking…

      • Ladies 1-Button Gold Talking Watch Black and White Beaded

        This Ladies Gold Colored One Button Talking Watch with black and white beaded stretch band is one of the easiest talking watches to use. This watch only speaks the time and does not offer alarm or chime functions. This particular model has a simple and…

      • Touch Face Talking Watch, White Face Gold band

        This special talking watch with a white face, gold case, and gold flex band speaks the time when you touch its crystal face, making it extremely easy to use by anyone with weak hands or poor dexterity. The watch also speaks the full date, has a talking…

      • Talking Watch 1-Button White Face Two-Tone

        One of the easiest watches to use, the Talking 1-Button Watch speaks the time only—no alarm or chime functions here! A simple and elegant design, this talking watch will appeal to people with visual impairments looking for something simple. This is…

      • Talking Watch Black face, silver tone, expansion band

        Get the time easier with our talking watches. This watch announces the time and features easy to set alarms with three distinct alarm sounds. While setting an alarm, the watch will announce the hours and minutes—ideal for low vision users.Talking…

      • Talking Watch Black face, gold tone, expansion band

        Get the time easier with our talking watches. This watch announces the time and features easy to set alarms with three distinct alarm sounds. While setting an alarm, the watch will announce the hours and minutes—ideal for low vision users.Talking…

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Talking Watches, Pendants & Pocket Watches For Men

Who would benefit from a talking watch?

Visually impaired men, women and children who have difficulty viewing a “regular” watch will benefit from using a talking watch. Many of the models will recite the time on the hour and on demand, and display the time in either digital or analog format. Some models also provide calendar information (day and date) in the same manner.

For those who live with blindness and who are proficient using braille, there are models that include braille numerals on the watch face of a talking watch.

Often as we age, our vision becomes less clear and standard watch faces can be difficult to read. If you or a loved one experiences diminished visual acuity, consider a talking watch solution. There are many styles and models to choose from to meet your specific needs.

What distinguishes one talking watch from another?

The many models of talking watches available today can be distinguished by the cosmetic and functional choices assigned to each device as described below.

Cosmetic choices include:

• Shape of the watch face (round, oval or square).
• Extra-large watch face.
• Type of watchband–buckle band in leather, leather-look or plastic, expansion band, or no-band pocket watch.
• Color or tone of watch and band (gold tone, silver tone, stainless steel, chrome, bright colors).
• Sporty or more classic styling.
• Placement of buttons on top of watch face, or around perimeter.
• Visual contrast on watch face–white on black or black on white for best visual acuity.

Functional choices include:

• Talking (speaking the time) on the hour, and on-demand at the push of a button. Some models allow the hourly broadcast to be turned off.
• Choice of male or female voice, and choice of spoken language (some models).
• Alarms, single or multiple (up to four), set medication and other reminders.
• A variety of alarm sounds available on some models.
• Digital or Analog display, or both.
• Top light illumination and/or glow-in the dark watch face.
• Support 2 time zones.
• Support choice of 12- or 24-hour time format.
• Speaker on top of watch to avoid sound being muffled by clothing.
• Water-resistant (not submersible).
• Atomic Clock Synchronization–daily check and update (U.S. and some international).

Please note that the talking watch Atomic Clock automatic updates for the United States will not work in Hawaii and Alaska, because no signal is available between those locations and the U.S. Atomic Clock in Colorado. Some of these watches can instead be manually set, and all of the other features will continue to work.

Rehabmart carries a large assortment of talking watches from notable vendors like MaxiAids and LSS.

Hulet Smith, OT
Rehabmart Co-Founder & CEO

nrb

 

How to talk to children about difficult news

Children’s lives are touched by trauma on a regular basis, no matter how much parents or teachers try to keep the “bad things” away. Instead of shielding children from the dangers, violence or tragedies around us, adults should talk to kids about what is happening.

The conversation may not seem easy, but taking a proactive stance, discussing difficult events in age-appropriate language can help a child feel safer and more secure.

As much as adults may try to avoid difficult topics, children often learn or know when something sad or scary happens. If adults don’t talk to them about it, a child may overestimate what is wrong or misunderstand adults’ silence. So, be the first to bring up the difficult topic. When parents tackle difficult conversations, they let their children know that they are available and supportive.

Guide the conversation

Think about what you want to say. It’s OK to practice in your head, to a mirror or with another adult. Some advanced planning may make the discussion easier. You won’t have to think about it off the top of your head.

Find a quiet moment. Perhaps this is after dinner or while making the next day’s lunch. This is time and place where your children can be the center of your attention.

Find out what they know. For example, there was a shooting at a school or a bomb set off in another country. Ask them “What have you heard about this?” And then listen. Listen. Listen. And listen more.

Share your feelings with your child. It is OK to acknowledge your feelings with your children. They see you are human. They also get a chance to see that even though upset, you can pull yourself together and continue on. Parents hear it often: Be a role model. This applies to emotions, too.

Tell the truth. Lay out the facts at a level they can understand. You do not need to give graphic details.

For young children, you may need to have the conversation about what death means (no longer feel anything, not hungry, thirsty, scared, or hurting; we will never see them again, but can hold their memories in our hearts and heads).

Say, “I don’t know.” Sometimes the answer to the question is “I don’t know.” “Why did the bad people do this?” “I don’t know” fits.

Above all, reassure. At the end of the conversation, reassure your children that you will do everything you know how to do to keep them safe and to watch out for them. Reassure them that you will be available to answer any questions or talk about this topic again in the future. Reassure them that they are loved.

Take care of yourself

Talking about and experiencing difficult news and tragedies can be exhausting. Don’t forget to take care of yourself:

  • Turn off the news.
  • Take a break.
  • Engage in physical activity.
  • Do something that will lift your spirits and those of your family.

Seek professional help

These tips and strategies can help you guide your children through the current crisis. If you are feeling stuck, overwhelmed or your child shows persistent signs of stress or agitation, you may want to consider talking to someone who could help. A licensed mental health professional such as a psychologist can assist you in developing an appropriate strategy for moving forward. To find a psychologist in your area, visit the Psychologist Locator.

Top 10 Retro Toy Watches of all Time

Not too long ago I was thinking about the watches we used to have as children and how much fun they were. As the watch seems to be losing the child market in the present day due to smart phones, MP3 players and all the other gadgets us older people never had growing up, I thought it would be great to look back at some of the play watches and remember what made them individual and great.

I grew up in the nineties (I literally hit my teens in the year 2000) so a few of these watches are the ones I remember, and three of the mentions on this list I actually owned myself. Knowing that there many notable kid’s watches from before and after my childhood, I dug a little deeper to find the ones I would have liked to own had they been around at the time too. I’d also like to add that this list does not have any girl watches, mainly because I was a boy and can’t remember any. I apologize to any nostalgic 90s chicks who might be reading this!

Some of the newer kid watches I saw (including the Ben 10 watch) looked like incredible toys, but didn’t have a time keeping function so I didn’t include them. Once you take away the clock you’re no longer looking at a watch but instead a glorified play wrist strap.

Anyway, here are my personal top ten children’s toy watches of all time…

10. G.I. Joe Watch

(Via Retroist)

A classic homage to the days when all you needed was a bulky bit of over-the-top plastic and a couple of pointless functions to make a kid say “WOW”. The right dial is the clock whilst the left dial flips open to reveal a compass, all bought together by a classy looking gold-sprayed plastic eagle.

9. Kronoform Watch

(Via Youtube user autoblindato)

Further proof that kids were easily impressed all those decades ago is the Kromoform, which can only be described as a watch crossed with a Transformer. Toy developers had it easy back in the day; just stick a “cool” teenager in the commercial and a cheesy 80s song complete with over-the-top sound effects and you’re in business.

8. Transformers Watch

Speaking of Transformers, here’s their attempt at the 80s watch market. Although the Kronoform was a bit more sophisticated it let itself down in the flimsy category as any toy with small moving plastic parts does, whereas the Transformer watch went for simplicity and pulled it off. Essentially it was just a mini transformer action figure with a digital clock display that attached to a wrist strap, but having a toy on a wrist strap was different back then.

7. Super Mario World Video Game Watch

(Via Toy Archive)

The video game and home console market was the new technology no one could get enough of in the late 80s, and with it came Mario; Nintendo’s loveable and now iconic mascot. This watch had an extremely primitive built in LCD version of Mario Brothers built into the watch face which consisted of playing the same backdrop layout over and over. Not really on par with the original Game Boy let alone a PSP, but as a novelty watch it’s cool.

6. TV Remote Control Watch

(Via Retro Thing)

I remember a few kids in my school having these in the mid-90s, and I never saw any proof that they actually worked. In fact I was sat next to a friend during a class where the TV had been rolled in to watch an educational video and told him to try it out but it did nothing. Looking back it might have been due to the TV being about 20 years older than the watch itself, that TV might have even back dated the invention of the remote control. They also functioned as a calculator so at least not all purpose was lost.

5. Power Rangers Watches

(Via Compare Store Prices [left] and Ebay seller nevergrowup123 [right])

As with any franchise that re-invents itself about 8 times and lends its name to just about anything, there’s too many Power Rangers watches to keep track on. The watch on the left is the “Jungle Fury” laser projector that shows the time along with a picture.  The one on the right is based on the original series morph watches. The front has a lenticular picture that changes from human to Power Ranger which flips open to reveal a simple digital quartz display.

4. Mighty Max Watches

(Via Flickr user V&A Streamworks [left] and The Toy Museum [right])

A miniature version the Mighty Max play toys that served as the boy’s answer to Polly Pocket, complete with a digital display and a detachable Max figure inside. All three of the above were based on the bigger play sets too.

3. C-Watches

(Via Youtube user JupiterStudiosSTL)

C-Watches were a brief crave in the 90s made by the now defunct Trendmasters. The C-watch was a basic digital screen similar to old mobile phones with an animated “toon” (there were several available all with different personalities) that would tell you the time at the press of a button, as well as shouting various phrases for alarms or just randomly for a laugh. Various licenced spin off versions were made for the likes of South Park, Austin Powers, The Powerpuff Girls and Ghostbusters too.

2. Pokemon Pokétch Watch

(Via Youtube user Japancommercials4U2)

This watch was a 2006 Japanese only release which mimicked the Pokedex-style watch in the TV cartoon series and video games. The toy has various play functions as seen in the commercial but due to being a Japanese only finding an in-depth description written in English seems to be impossible. I still want one though. I think there will always be a part of my brain that gets excited over bright flashing lights and loud noises!

1. Whizz Watches

(Via Youtube user WhizzWatches)

Whizz Watches are made by Wesco and are only a few years old, but I felt the need to include them as it’s the first homage to the “play watch” I’ve seen in a long time. Although extremely bulky and unpractical for everyday use, the watch is in fact a miniature remote controlled toy. They are available in several themes for franchises such as Star Wars (R2D2) and Doctor Who (Dalek) to name a few.

This list was put together by Dan Callis on behalf of online watch webstore: http://www. findwatches.co.uk. If there are any old watches you remember as a kid or recent watches that look like fun not included in this list, let me hear about them in the comments section! I’m all in for debate and discussion…

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“Girls-neurologists cried and went to the red zone”: how doctors work in Moscow Covid hospitals

  • Olesya Gerasimenko, Svetlana Reiter
  • BBC

Photo author, Stanislav Krasilnikov / TASS

The Moscow City Hall asked the capital’s hospitals back in March 20 to estimate how many coronavirus patients they can take. They were given five days to plan the restructuring and erect the necessary partitions.Thousands of people were sent home from hospitals to complete their treatment, leaving only seriously ill patients. Redesigned clinics hardly accept new patients who are not with coronavirus – ambulances are deployed to other hospitals.

“The intensive care unit was filled within one day, and the hands were no longer enough”

Pirogov Vitaly Gusarov. Arranged sanitary checkpoints, airlocks, where employees change clothes before entering the red zone, and airlocks, where they return from the zone.

A lot of effort in redesigning clinics is spent on logistics: what elevators will sick patients ride, where will the cured patients leave, how will nurses move around the building, how to take out medical waste from the red zone. In a different way, now you even have to hand over the sheets for washing: all linen from the Covid department is disinfected, and only then can it be taken to the laundry.

Neurologists, cardiologists, therapists, surgeons, traumatologists have gone to work in the coronavirus building of the Pirogov Center, their head physician says. “We were all sharpened to help a high level,” wrote on Facebook the resuscitator of this hospital, head of the department of anesthesiology and intensive care unit No. 1 Boris Teplykh. in the next days of the storm, no one had any doubts that the time had come for the “ambush regiments”.The girls-neurologists cried, put on protective suits and walked to the red zone. “

True, according to Gusarov, a colleague of doctors’ emotions exaggerated.” All employees from the first day in the red zone were aware of their responsibility and were ready for hard work, real heroes. ”

But not all doctors are mentally ready to work with Covid-19. In the Pirogov center they talk about a shortage of nurses and aides. Nurses refused for fear of infecting their loved ones, someone has a difficult family situation and they are their families while working in the hospital, and many elderly employees were at risk due to age.

Doctors who agree to treat coronavirus, who do not have the required specialization, work in departments where patients are not the most severe. For them, who are not infectious disease specialists by profile, the hospital is developing step-by-step instructions. According to Gusarov, they are made up of the recommendations of the Ministry of Health, the Moscow Department, WHO, the Federation of Anesthesiologists and Rheumatologists and other sources.

The chief physician of the Pirogov Center’s hospital is also working in the red zone.

– In the first week, when we opened, the intensive care unit filled up within one day – and the hands were no longer enough.And my specialty is this. We had to do both a tracheostomy and connect it to a ventilator, we went to help the guys.

– As the head physician, have you already done this?

– I regularly came to the intensive care unit for rounds and difficult cases. But so that because of the wave of patients it was necessary to get up and provide emergency assistance as an intensive care doctor – no, this has not happened yet. This is the first time we have encountered such a problem.

“By the end of the shift, some in protective suits faint”

Before entering the red zone, where the infected with coronavirus lie, everyone wears a special protective suit.It is disposable. Under it – a disposable cotton suit, which surgeons wear, a hat, disposable socks, crocs and shoe covers.

“We take off everything, leave watches, keys, mobile phones. -naval fleet, working in the Pirogov Center for 14 years. Levchuk – advisor on surgical issues, oncologist, professor of the department, doctor of medical sciences, honored doctor of the Russian Federation.

This is the fourth quarantine in the 61-year-old surgeon’s career. The first three were in military units for dysentery, malaria and cholera. In the center, he is responsible for sorting patients who are brought in by ambulances. After four hours of working with patients, the suit should be changed.

At the 15th Infectious Diseases Hospital named after O.M. Filatov, about 30 people work in the sanitary gateway to help the doctors change their clothes. “Until all this began, we chose one volunteer from the team and put on protection for him twenty times in order to remember how, for example, to put on a respirator correctly,” says the head physician Valery Vechorko.

You must not unfasten your buttons in the red zone and you must not take off anything either – neither a respirator nor glasses. “It’s hot in protection, you want water, it’s hard to see. You can’t go to the toilet, drink and eat too. Just in case, we have adult diapers, some of them are already using them. But they immediately get hotter under the suit, skin problems appear, diaper rash, “says the head physician of the Pirogov Center.

Physicians put on two pairs of gloves on their hands and a third on top to examine the patient. They are immediately thrown away, and the first two pairs remain on hand. “As a surgeon, I can tell you that tactility is decreasing. It is difficult to examine. But the audibility is good – the suits are not made of rubberized fabric, not like in the 80s. It was very difficult to work in those diving suits,” explains Levchuk.

Author of the photo, Krasilnikov Stanislav

Caption,

This is how the trainings on equipment were held at the Pirogov Center

It is impossible to listen to the patient’s breathing noises and wheezing in protection – you cannot use a phonendoscope with the kit.We have to focus on respiratory rate, fever and data on blood oxygen saturation, says Gusarov. “In general, in defense and in the red zone, it is three times more difficult to assess a patient than in a normal hospital setting,” he says.

In intensive care and triage shifts last four hours, in bed wards six. By the end of the shift in protective suits, some faint, but get up and go on to work. “Moreover, these are not pampered creatures, but, for example, our older sister, who will give any man a head start in strength and health,” says the head physician Gusarov. He talks about a nurse who vomited into a respirator from fatigue the day before in the red zone, but she was finalizing the shift without leaving the patients. “These are people who want to kneel before,” the doctor adds.

“I love this job, I am ready to do everything,” says Levchuk, who works in the emergency room at the Pirogov Center.

If you follow all the sanitary and epidemiological standards from the very beginning to the very end, it is difficult to get infected, says Levchuk.But usually, in his opinion, among doctors, people get sick who remember the rules for the first two weeks, and then a period of complacency comes, and then mistakes are made – they casually put on a suit or mask or break the rule of three pairs of gloves.

Tests for coronavirus are done once a week for hospital staff. Almost all the doctors were isolated from their families, Gusarov rented an apartment, most of the other doctors in his center live in a hotel opposite Pirogovka – the hospital pays for them.

The head physician of City Clinical Hospital No. 15 Valeriy Vechorko says that the hospital has two cafes for doctors: one with palm trees on the site of the old pool, “like in Turkey at a five-star resort,” and the second called “Zvezda” in two army tents on the street.

“While we are walking in the dark”

What do doctors do with patients in the red zone? If a person is in a satisfactory condition, then he only needs observation, antipyretic and plentiful drink. These patients are often unhappy. “They complain that they are not being treated. And no droppers are given,” Gusarov smiles. But the main task of staying in the hospital is not to miss the deterioration. The clinical picture is fleeting, says surgeon Levchuk: the patient may become worse in two to three hours, and he may be on mechanical ventilation.

Patients in serious condition receive antiviral drugs and drugs aimed at reducing damage to internal organs. “We are trying tocilizumab, which blocks human interleukin-6. This anti-inflammatory neurotransmitter is released by our immune system to damage the cells affected by the virus – along with the tissues of the organs where it has entered. As a result, the lungs and heart are primarily affected.”

The immune response to coronavirus is too strong and leads to complications, says Gusarov.“So the now widespread desire for strong immunity is just not very suitable,” he sighs. “There is a feeling that everything depends on the degree of the immune response to the virus. The stronger it is, the worse the disease progresses. strong immune response. But there is no evidence base, and while we are walking in the dark. ”

The entire staff of the Pirogov Center is taking an antimalarial immunosuppressive drug for prophylaxis. Regarding the ultraviolet lamps that Russians are now buying for their homes, doctors shrug their shoulders: the latest data on ultraviolet light showed that standard air recirculators do not affect the virus.

The head physician of the hospital No. 15, who worked in the Chernobyl disaster zone after medical school, says that then the doctors understood more clearly what they faced. “There was one striking factor, then a clearly worked out help with this factor. And here, this trouble, it fell on its head. We saw what happened in China, Italy, Spain, but no one fully understands what it is. apiece. It is very susceptible to mutation. ”

“Many do not understand the most important thing – this pathogen is constantly mutating,” former military doctor Levchuk agrees with Vechorko.- It’s getting harder and harder. This is not the coronavirus described in 2005 or 2015. It is a virus, evil proceeding, causing fatal pneumonia. “

” These foci are visible to the naked eye “

In most hospitals, coronavirus is already tested by computed tomography (CT), without waiting for tests – their sensitivity is not ideal, says the head physician of the City Clinical Hospital №15 Valery Vechorko. “The patient came to us, we did a CT scan, you can immediately see how the lung tissue has changed – like frosted glass.These foci, they are visible to the naked eye. Even with a negative test for Covid, we treat it as if it exists, “he explains.

The CT device is disinfected after each patient – the nurse washes the device with antiseptics with chlorine and sprays the room from a special spray bottle. In the red zone of hospital No. 15, there are three There is only one in the area of ​​the Pirogov Center. The load on it is colossal, but “it is still working.” Gusarov.

Patients aged from 25 to 90 years are on mechanical ventilation in hospitals. “One of our young patients is a boy with cerebral palsy. But according to the experience of our colleagues with whom we are constantly in touch, there are many young people with a severe form on mechanical ventilation and without concomitant diseases,” says Gusarov. Or people with obesity and diabetes, adds Levchuk. These diseases make the condition much worse. Diabetes does not allow to adequately treat the patient – there are many complications in the lungs and kidneys, the doctor says.

Patients, according to doctors, are those who encountered a sick person at work or in the family, or drove somewhere or visited someone, or came across an asymptomatic carrier in a store.In the center of Pirogov, a married couple is being treated, who visited a relative who is a carrier of Covid-19 in self-isolation. Now the husband is on a ventilator, and the wife is in the ward on the floor above.

“After mechanical ventilation, the patient must be taught to breathe independently”

A person who is assisted by the ventilator cannot speak. If he has an endotracheal tube inserted through the mouth, then he most likely cannot tolerate it calmly and is sedated. Such patients lie in drug-induced sleep, unconscious.”The law is this – the patient must be calm – either on his own or under the influence of sedatives,” explains Borislav Silaev, deputy chief physician of hospital No. 15.

If a tracheostomy is placed on the patient to maintain breathing – the tube is inserted through an incision in the neck below the vocal folds – and the patient tolerates this calmly, then he can be left awake. Then he communicates with the doctors with lips, gestures, nods. They can say “yes” or “no” and even write something. Such patients may even eat in the usual way.The rest are fed by sending the nutrient mixture directly into the stomach through a tube, or, if the condition is severe, there are mixtures that are injected directly into the vein, says Silaev.

Patients on mechanical ventilation have their teeth cleaned, washed, linen and bed changed regularly. Sometimes all this is done several times a day – and all this is done by the attendants and nurses. If care is weakened, the risk of bacterial complications increases. If they join viral pneumonia, it makes the chances of recovery several times lower.

It is easier for people with coronavirus to breathe while lying on their stomach. “In hospitals, this is a protocol procedure – if the oxygen content in the lungs drops below acceptable limits, we turn the patient on his stomach,” Silaev says. “They can lie like that for eight hours. healthy men. ”

The lucky ones manage with an oxygen mask and do not get on the ventilator. But if the patient had a tracheostomy, then the ventilator treatment is extended by 2-3 weeks, says doctor Levchuk.”Because then you have to teach the patient to breathe again, independently, and this is also not easy – every day the time of the ventilator’s operation decreases, the patient turns off for a while, trains to breathe on his own. It is a difficult procedure,” the surgeon explains.

– Are they scared? After all, doctors should give hope, and you yourself move in the dark. After all, as we understood from the words of the doctors, a person can lie in a normal state for 10 days, and then – broads and on a ventilator.

– Well, first of all, we do not tell them about this – that a sharp deterioration may occur, – answers the head physician of the Pirogov Center Gusarov. – We encourage them, we say that everything will be fine, we explain which catheter is installed where and why which tube. We urge you to stick to and obey the medical staff.

“Talk to your dog”

By the beginning of the second week, both intensive care units of the Pirogov Center were full, and patients began to be placed in the operating rooms. In total, there are 33 intensive care beds and 33 ventilators, but all the doctors cannot open them yet: there are not enough anesthesiologists and nurses, there is a recruitment process.

There are still enough hands in the large Filatov hospital, five new resuscitators have recently arrived.“Today I have no problems with medical workers, but I don’t know what will happen tomorrow, I can’t say. One thing I can say is that it will not end tomorrow,” Vechorko says.

The number of patients in the hospital №15 has doubled. Usually, they receive 150 people a day, last week – it was 300 a day. Basically, these are people in a state of moderate severity or very “severe” – with respiratory failure.

– How long will this all last?

“According to the receipts that we see, and we have 1.5 thousand patients with viral pneumonia, this is only the very beginning of the peak,” Vechorko says.

– There are now 8 thousand patients with Covid-19 in Moscow. Still, it’s not 30 or 50. Is that a lot? Why now, as they say in the mayor’s office, is everything bursting at the seams? – we ask the head physician of the Pirogov center.

– Well, you understand that patients with other diseases have not gone anywhere. This is plus eight thousand, which require emergency medical care and the work of staff in fundamentally new conditions for them. This is almost the limit. If the flow increases, we will cease to cope, – Gusarov answers.

– What will it look like?

– Italian script. Intubation on the floor. Choosing between young and old when transferring to intensive care. The inability to properly examine everyone upon admission: that is, they arrived and lie, and if it gets worse, grab and run with him on a ventilator.

– How do they decide whether they are young or old? Are there protocols for this choice?

– From the point of view of medical ethics, there are no such protocols and cannot be, we are obliged to help everyone.

– How do they decide during hostilities when there is a massive influx of wounded? Sorting by status.Lightly wounded people help themselves. People with moderate injuries are a group that receives special attention to save them and get them back on track. And the seriously wounded are left without him.

Former military doctor Levchuk, who works at triage at the Pirogov Center, says that every third patient is sure that he does not have a coronavirus infection: “People have a very high degree of underestimation of the situation. And then, when they understand what is wrong with them, they are already silent. ”

His colleague Gusarov recalls the panic in the eyes of coronavirus deniers when they are admitted to the hospital with ARVI symptoms and are faced with serious patients there.“You see, here it is felt more acutely. They could deny it all yesterday, but what’s the point?” He sighs. “I want to ask the deniers to stay at home anyway. by whom, talk to your dog. If you do not do this, health care will drown. We will not be able to provide medical care to all those in need if the flow increases due to deniers and quarantine violators. ”

And then, says Gusarov, people should be prepared for the fact that they will be intubated by a traumatologist or pathologist.And perhaps this will be the last manipulation in their life, he adds. 90 011 90 000 ▶ Are diapers bad for boys? ✅ Myth or truth ➡️

Today it is difficult to imagine the life of a baby and caring for him without disposable diapers. This invention became a real find for parents of the late XIX – early XX century.

Since their appearance, many speculations and myths have arisen about whether diapers are harmful to a boy.

Almost all young parents heard conflicting judgments, although they did not want to believe them. Indeed, not a single young family can do without disposable diapers for newborns in our time. They are worried about whether diapers can be trusted unconditionally. And how to distinguish myth from truth.

Many experts have researched this topic and found out whether diapers harm the reproductive health of boys. If so, why. Many were divided. We will discuss the views of opponents and supporters of diapers, as well as find out what ADONIS specialists think about it.

Why are diapers harmful for children?

Opponents suggest that spermatogenesis is disrupted in boys in disposable diapers and that this may lead to male infertility in the future.

Is this true?

Myth. Can diapers affect the formation of sperm in a boy’s body.

Boys’ testicles are known to be brought into the scrotum, where the temperature is below the general body temperature.This contributes to the normal spermatogenesis process.

Specialists of ADONIS pediatrics are convinced that it is too early to talk about spermatogenesis in newborns. This judgment applies to older boys. Sperm cells begin to be produced only during puberty at the age of 11-13 years.

In the seminiferous tubules of babies up to 6-7 years old, as you know, there are no germ cells at all. The first sex hormones and sperm cells begin to be produced only by the age of 8. Until this age, the assumption that sperm development is impaired in boys in diapers cannot be justified.

Output :

Disposable diapers do not affect the spermatogenesis process, as it has not yet begun.

Myth. The disposable diaper overheats the testicles.

Some researchers claim that a warm, moist environment is created in diapers, which contributes to overheating in the seminiferous tubules of the testicles.

Their opinion is based on the fact that under a diaper, the temperature of the scrotum rises to the temperature of urine and body, which leads to overheating of the “contents” of the testicles. Is that so?

The optimum temperature for sperm formation is 28-32 ° C.This is exactly the temperature of the testicles.

Numerous studies have shown that under a high-quality disposable diaper, the temperature of the scrotum can be one and a half degrees higher than in gauze diapers. And this is not critical.

But the temperature of the scrotum is not at all equal to the temperature of the testicles. The testicles are protected by 7 membranes, which reliably protects them from overheating. The testicular artery, through which blood enters the scrotum, is located in the center of the large venous plexus. This provides excellent conditions for heat transfer and serves as a kind of thermos.

Modern technologies make diapers “breathable”. And if you change them often enough, then the scrotum will rarely reach an uncritical 36 ° C.

So if the scrotum gets hot, the testicles are unlikely. Of course, you need to make sure that the diapers are not overfilled and there is no compression effect.

Output:

Most experts are convinced that diapers can warm the scrotum, but not the testicles and, accordingly, are not harmful to newborns and boys in particular.

Myth. Pampers are harmful to children, as they contribute to diaper rash and skin dermatitis

The skin of newborns is very sensitive and 5 times thinner than that of adults. Therefore, she is easily irritated from urine, feces, high humidity, friction, but not from a dry high-quality diaper.

Baby’s skin in disposable diapers is subject to various irritations as often as in reusable diapers.And more often it occurs with girls. The risk of developing dermatitis increases with constant stay in poor-quality diapers that are impermeable to air, get wet, or misused.

Parents should take into account that, for example, a six-month-old child urinates up to 20 times a day. Therefore, it is recommended to change the diaper every 2-3 hours or after each act of bowel movement. Not taking off or changing a baby’s diaper for 6 hours is, of course, unacceptable. Even if it doesn’t look very crowded.

Moreover, the secretions contain toxic chemical elements that affect the delicate skin of a child, which can cause skin dermatitis (skin inflammation).

Diaper production technologies have been improved every year. Therefore, modern diapers are good air permeability, do not cause allergies and do not create a greenhouse effect. Liquid on the diaper turns into a gel and the diaper stays dry. Moreover, they even report when they are overcrowded.

Output:

Good quality dry diapers do not harm the baby’s skin. The cause of dermatitis can only be a rare change or poor quality of the diaper.

We examined the myths that are associated with the reproductive health of boys.

There are other controversial judgments, for example, that diapers are harmful because they do not allow the child to make friends with the potty. Of course, diapers are indispensable at night or on walks, but you shouldn’t wear them all 24 hours a day.It is advisable to periodically let the baby stay awake without a diaper, for example, after washing. And after feeding, older children can be planted on a pot. Then acquaintance with him and the ability to ask will not be long in coming. Observations prove that babies who grow up in disposable diapers, on average, only get used to the potty a couple of months later.

And the myths that diapers can cause curvature of the legs are completely groundless. On the contrary, the correct position of the hip joint is slightly spread legs, as is the case in diapers.Moreover, it is useful for dysplasia.

So we are convinced that a disposable diaper from a good manufacturer and its correct use will not harm the health of the child. Opponents of diapers are right only when they argue that everything is good in moderation, and the boy should not be constantly in diapers.

Authors:

Pediatric surgeon-urologist of the highest category Latyshov Konstantin Vladimirovich

90,000 Supervision of a child by specialists from 0 to 18 years

Seeing your baby healthy, vigorous, active, cheerful – isn’t this the dream of all parents? It is necessary to understand that the intensive development and growth of a child, especially in combination with an unfavorable environmental situation, can provoke the development of various deviations in health.Therefore, maintaining and strengthening health is not only daily care and concern, but also providing decent medical care for your child. Doctors-specialists, observing the formation of the body, neuropsychic development, will timely identify the initial stages of changes in the organ system and diseases at an early stage. In accordance with the age of the child, a certain regimen will be prescribed, exercise, nutrition, hardening methods, preventive measures will be recommended, they will provide timely medical assistance and thereby prevent the development of a number of chronic diseases and their exacerbations.

Examination of children in a particular age period is due to the characteristics of the child’s development.

A baby under one year old needs to be examined more often, because any parent knows that during the first year of life, the baby grows by leaps and bounds, gains weight, acquires skills, improves vision and hearing, important periods of musculoskeletal development go through, digestive and other systems, and the foundations of future health are laid in infancy.The baby is examined by specialist doctors at 1.3, 6, 12 months.

FIRST MONTH

In the first month of life, it is important to exclude congenital pathology of organs and systems, which are fundamental for further growth and development.

During the examination, a pediatric neurologist determines the baby’s reaction to loud sounds, which helps to exclude congenital deafness or hearing loss, examines the condition of the spine, cranial sutures, large and small fontanelles, to exclude spinal defects and intracranial hypertension.Assesses the neuropsychic development of the child, checking reflexes and the child’s ability to interact with the outside world, i.e., behavioral reactions; unconditioned reflexes of newborns: search, proboscis, sucking – without them, the baby cannot find her mother’s breast and receive milk from it, protective reflexes – to turn her head towards the danger of stopping air access.

The pediatric surgeon, by virtue of his profession, possesses knowledge not only of a surgical profile, but also knowledge in the field of orthopedics and urology.A specialist examines the child for the presence of many diseases: congenital dislocation of the hip, dysplasia (underdevelopment) of the hip joints, congenital muscle torticollis, clubfoot, calcaneal or flat-valgus feet, fractures: skull bones, limbs, collarbones, vertebrae, shoulder dislocation , cephalohematoma, umbilical, inguinal hernia, hernia of the white line of the abdomen. To exclude dysplasia of the hip joints, all children are prescribed an ultrasound examination of the hip joints.Quite often, hemangiomas (benign tumor) of various localization are detected during examination. In infants, the genitals are carefully examined. In young girls, most often in the first month of life, there may be a fusion of the labia (synechiae), since synechiae can cause urinary retention and may require surgery. And what about the boys? Dropsy of the testicle or cryptorchidism may be detected – not descent of one or both testicles into the scrotum (occurs in 10-20% of boys).Look where the opening of the urethra opens. Sometimes it is not located at the top of the glans (it should be), but on the upper or lower surface of the penis (hypospadias or epispadias). This pathology does not cause pain to the baby, but in the future it can be the cause of curvature of the penis and difficulties during sexual activity.

Examination by an ophthalmologist is very important for crumbs, especially premature babies and babies with complications in childbirth or with an unfavorable course of pregnancy.They need to exclude retinopathy. The specialist will examine the fundus of the child, assess the reaction of the pupils to light, exclude blindness and malformations of the lacrimal canals, serious visual acuity disorders. It is normal for newborns to have physiological hyperopia, when the image of objects is focused not on the retina, but behind it. Approximately up to 1 year, doctors consider farsightedness from +3 to +6 diopters to be the norm. In addition, at such an early age, it is possible to timely identify and successfully treat diseases such as glaucoma, cataracts, congenital retinal tumor – retinoblastoma.

THREE MONTHS

At 3 months of age, due to the intensive growth and development of the baby’s musculoskeletal system, manifestations of changes in muscle tone, the upcoming development of new types of movement: coups, sitting down, and then crawling, it is necessary for a pediatric neurologist and orthopedic traumatologist. Often, a neurologist diagnoses movement disorders for the first time at this age.

By this age, the initial manifestations of acquired pathology, in particular post-traumatic torticollis, may appear as a result of damage to the sternoclavicular muscle and the formation of a scar, or an incorrectly fused clavicle fracture; deficiency of vitamin “D” (flattening of the occipital bone, softness and pliability of bones in the fontanelle and sutures, as well as a receding hairline on the back of the head).Traumatologist – an orthopedist monitors the course and treatment of previously identified diseases. Up to 3 months of age, the functions of the hip joints are almost completely restored.

6 months The main purpose of the examination of a pediatric surgeon is to test motor skills and identify signs of metabolic disorders – phosphate-diabetes, rickets. The children are already actively turning over, trying to sit down, the thoracic and lumbar curvature of the spine begins to form. Examines the head, chest for the presence of rickety changes: in the area of ​​transition of the bone part of the ribs to the cartilaginous – thickening – rickety rosary, lateral compression, protrusion of the sternum forward in the form of the keel of a boat.The spine is bent posteriorly, kyphosis is formed. Physiological curves are often enhanced, but with a strong degree, new curvatures appear.

A children’s neurologist assesses the state of muscle tone, physical activity, the development of physical and psychomotor development (humming, babbling, emotions and social behavior) in the presence of a pathology of the nervous system, the dynamics of the course of the disease is monitored.

1 YEAR

Examination at 12 months is a summing up of the richest year in a child’s life.So, what the specialists look at and what they want to see from your child.

Pediatric surgeon – detects problems of the navel and umbilical ring, malformations of the chest and abdomen, hernias. By this age, there may be spontaneous closure of hernias of the white line of the abdomen, self-healing of dropsy of the testicles in boys. He will pay special attention to the baby if he is registered with a neurologist with PEP (perinatal encephalopathy) or got a note to the pediatrician because of rickets. These children have muscle and ligament weakness.The child actively walks through life – by the handle or already independently. At the same time, the baby’s legs are under serious stress. Therefore, it is important to prevent flat feet and not to allow the so-called equine foot to form, when the baby actually moves on tiptoe without loading the heels. In addition, the appearance of an O or X-shaped curvature of the legs is possible. Particular attention is paid to the examination of the genitals of boys. A boy’s testicles should be in the scrotum. If the testicle has not descended on its own by the year, the baby is prescribed an operation – the testicle is lowered into the scrotum and fixed there.Control over the development of a previously identified pathology – hypospadias or epispadias – is carried out. Watching the removal of the glans penis. Children may have physiological phimosis. With the head closed under the foreskin, the lubricant produced by the sebaceous glands, together with all sorts of bacteria, can cause inflammation of the foreskin and glans penis (balanoposthitis), which can cause urinary retention or the formation of penile scarring. In the future, the pediatric surgeon will annually monitor the course of the identified surgical diseases.

Otorhinolaryngologist – excludes deafness in a child, congenital narrowness of the nasal passages, malformations of the nose, ears and oral cavity, reveals inflammatory diseases of the nasopharynx. Indeed, due to anatomical features, banal rhinitis leads to swelling of the mucous membrane and an even greater narrowing of the nasal passages, which makes it difficult to breathe through the nose. In this case, the baby becomes restless, capricious, breathes through the mouth, and does not sleep well.

The children’s neurologist sums up the neuropsychic development for the year.Assesses the state of muscle tone and tendon reflexes. How the child’s active and understandable speech is developed, what skills he acquired in a year, how effective was the treatment of the pathology of the nervous system and what is the possible prognosis of the existing disease.

The ophthalmologist examines again. It defines refraction, i.e. optical structure of the eye (farsightedness, myopia, astigmatism) and, if necessary, prescribes appropriate correction in order to prevent deterioration of visual acuity, the possible occurrence of amblyopia (“lazy eye”) and strabismus.Examines the eyes for glaucoma, cataracts, retinoblastoma, retinal dystrophy, optic nerve atrophy.

The baby is examined for the first time by a pediatric dentist to monitor the process of eruption of milk teeth and exclude the congenital absence of their bookmarks. He examines the erupted teeth, assesses their condition. Determine the condition of the frenum of the tongue and upper lip. The doctor will tell you about the proper care of the baby’s oral cavity. It is better to take good care of your teeth than to treat them well.

In addition to these specialist doctors, the baby will have a meeting with a child psychiatrist. A child, like a sponge, absorbs information, sounds and emotions from the world around him, and not being able to express his emotions in words, the child reacts to them with psychoemotional reactions, which ultimately can result not only in a mental disorder, but also in a full-fledged somatic illness. The task of the psychiatrist is to identify the harbingers of these disorders, to help parents with the formation of the character of a little person.

3 YEARS

Big changes are planned in your child’s life – he is going to kindergarten. A new rhythm of the day, an unusual diet, and most importantly – a new environment. This is a real test for the immune system of a little person!

The ear, throat and nose are the gateways for many infections, so it is important to keep them in order, and an ENT examination is very important. A significant part of babies suffer from an increase in adenoids, chronic tonsillitis – it is necessary to determine the indications for their surgical treatment, especially in long-term and often ill children.From 1.5 – 2 years old, the paranasal sinuses begin to form, so a child may have sinusitis as complications of rhinitis. Examines the nose for acquired curvature of the nasal septum as a result of domestic injuries during games and falls. Determines hearing problems, including due to the presence of sulfuric plugs in the external auditory canal.

The ever-increasing physical activity affects the formation of the musculoskeletal system, as well as the development of the musculoskeletal system on the child’s physical activity.The task of the pediatric surgeon is to make sure that there are no flat feet, early curvature of the spine (scoliosis, kyphosis, lordosis). The doctor assesses the dynamics of chest deformity; it is by this age that weak degrees of funnel-shaped curvature can be corrected during treatment. Eliminate the consequences of traumas in children that have specific features. Sprains, dislocations rarely occur due to the elasticity of the ligaments, more often there are fractures in the growth zone, sometimes with a separation. An undiagnosed trauma can lead to impaired growth and deformity of the limb.

The children’s neurologist checks reflexes, coordination, sensitivity, compliance with the child’s age and developmental level. Reveals hyperexcitability and restlessness, enuresis, general speech underdevelopment, various types of stuttering, sleep disturbance problems.

The doctor – obstetrician-gynecologist reveals the features of the child’s sexual development, the correctness of the formation of the genitals and the presence or absence of inflammatory diseases.

Doctor – urologist-andrologist examines the condition of the genitals after surgical treatment, if such was carried out for hyposodia, cryptorchidism; removal of the glans penis – by 3 – 4 years, physiological phimosis disappears; the presence of inflammatory diseases of the genitourinary system.

Before reaching school age, the child spends more and more time at the computer or game consoles. The ophthalmologist assesses the visual acuity and whether it corresponds to the age norm. Corrects refractive errors.

Almost all dental diseases are irreversible. In other words, the carious cavity itself is not restored, and the lost teeth do not grow back. Therefore, when examining the oral cavity, the pediatric dentist finds out if the baby has dental problems – caries, gum disease, stomatitis, malocclusion, curvature of the teeth and whether everything is in order with the development of the maxillofacial apparatus.

General nervousness (irritability, excitability, decreased appetite, motor restlessness, tendency to unreasonable temperature fluctuations), withdrawal, a tendency to aggression and anxiety will be the subject of a child psychiatrist’s proceedings. In addition, the doctor will give advice on how to make the adaptation to the team the least traumatic for the baby.

At 4 and 5 years old, it is necessary to visit a pediatric surgeon. Indeed, by this time, the physiological curves of the spine are fully formed and possible postural disorders.By the age of 5, the arches of the foot have also formed and it is already possible to make or exclude the diagnosis of flat feet with confidence.

6 YEARS

6 years is the preparatory year for school. It is important to make sure there are no vision problems. By the age of 6, hyperopia begins to decrease, and what is the visual acuity in general and whether it corresponds to age. Identify color perception anomalies. After all, visual defects delay psycho-motor development (95% of information about the outside world we get thanks to vision).Therefore, it is so important to show your child to an ophthalmologist.

It is assumed that it is necessary to gnaw the granite of science with healthy teeth. Therefore, children need to sanitize the oral cavity: identify teeth affected by caries and carry out treatment, evaluate changes in the occlusion and get advice on how to avoid new problems. A deciduous tooth that is not cured in time can cause complications that lead to damage to the rudiment of a permanent tooth. And if the milk tooth is removed ahead of time and is not immediately replaced by a permanent one, then the child is guaranteed a bite pathology.The nature of the bite affects the articulation of speech.

Deviations in psycho-motor (enuresis, motor disinhibition, or vice versa, excessive slowness in actions, bad habits – pulling clothes, biting nails or lips, blinking, sucking a finger) and somato-vegetative (various pains, excessive sweating, appetite disturbances, sleep problems) development the pediatric neurologist will have to find out when examining the child, and while there is time before entering school, prescribe the appropriate treatment.

7 YEARS AND SCHOOL AGE

At the age of 7 years, the process of learning at school begins and it is necessary to determine the readiness for heavy loads, and, based on the results of the examination by specialist doctors, outline a plan for the school doctor.

Urologist-andrologist and obstetrician-gynecologist-exclude premature puberty, which is usually associated with serious endocrine diseases that require urgent treatment.

Otorhinolaryngologist – eliminates the problems of hearing loss, difficulty in nasal breathing (adenoids, curvature of the nasal septum, hypertrophy of the nasal mucosa, polyps), which lead to rapid fatigue of the student and, as a result, does not cope with the program.

During this period, the child is actively growing. Improper sitting position at the table, obesity, lack of physical activity lead to disruption of the musculoskeletal system. Examining a child, an orthopedic traumatologist identifies the initial stages of posture disorders, curvature of the spine, and he must also determine if there is any pathology in the development of the feet and lower legs.

In the presence of problems of attention and behavior, sleep disturbances, anxiety, nervous tics, headaches, speech disorders, a pediatric neurologist will have to exclude or establish a connection with the pathology of the nervous system and give recommendations on the correct organization of adaptation to school life.

The child psychiatrist uses tests to determine the level of psychological maturity, readiness of the child for school and identify his “weak points”. Readiness for school presupposes: the child has a well-formed student position – the child understands why it is important to study, why it is necessary to overcome difficulties, realizes that learning is not just another game, he is interested in learning new things, he must be able to obey the rules and work according to instructions, must motor skills be developed, on which the writing of the future student depends.At this age, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is often diagnosed, which can develop in the framework of various disorders – from psycho-traumatic influences, mild organic lesions of the central nervous system to schizophrenia. The early onset of psychocorrectional influences largely determines their effectiveness.

An examination by a pediatric dentist will show if the child has dental problems (tooth decay, gum disease, malocclusion, crooked teeth).

The ophthalmologist evaluates visual acuity, reveals the presence of strabismus, optic nerve atrophy, as a result of the course of diseases of the nervous system.Eliminates inflammatory eye diseases, allergic conjunctivitis, pathology of color perception.

With age, the need to monitor the health status of children does not decrease, but increases. The most pronounced increase in the number of diseases is observed in children aged 7 to 18 years and coincides with the time spent in school. During the school period, the number of children with chronic diseases increased by 20%, the frequency of chronic pathology increases annually and over the past 5 years has increased by one and a half times.Today, every child under the age of 14 has at least two diseases. At school, the load on various body systems increases noticeably.

In particular, vision requires special attention. The number of visual impairments (myopia, hyperopia, astigmatism, amblyopia, strabismus) in school-age children has almost doubled. The reason is the excessive use of computers, tablets and cell phones, and at school, the load on the child’s visual apparatus increases significantly.In this connection, visits to an ophthalmologist from the age of 10 should become annual, and especially for children whose family has relatives with visual impairments.

The musculoskeletal system is no less susceptible to the child’s changing regime (sits more, and not always correctly, moves less, or vice versa, starts actively playing sports). That affects the spine, the risk of its curvature increases, as well as the development of flat feet. From 8 to 14 years old, playing sports can provoke the manifestation of the age-related pathology of Schinz’s disease, manifested by pain in the heels, sometimes swelling.Without treatment, it can take years. At the age of 11-15, the body grows rapidly. Often the muscles cannot cope with the increased load, there is a danger of spinal deformity. At this age, the disease often progresses, which leads to increased scoliosis, deformation of the chest and pelvis, dysfunction of the lungs and heart, and pelvic organs. Also, in this age period, adolescents may be concerned about pain in the knee joint, which may be caused by Osgood-Schlatter disease. This is the problem of the growing bone of a teenager.It can pass on its own, or it can leave unpleasant consequences. Sports activities should also be coordinated with a specialist, because some types may be contraindicated in the presence of changes in the musculoskeletal system. Therefore, at the age of 10, a visit to a traumatologist – orthopedist suggests itself.

Preventive examination of the dentist at 10 and 14 years old will identify and promptly correct the pathology of the bite. With the eruption of the first permanent tooth, a changeable bite begins, which is a higher degree of development and differentiation of the masticatory apparatus, which lasts up to 14 years.During the formation of a changeable bite, the most intensive growth of the jaw bones also occurs. In addition, starting from adolescence (14 years), an annual examination with oral cavity sanitation (treatment of caries, periodontal disease, detection of dental canal cysts, removal of tartar deposits) will preserve teeth for long years.

For 10 years, it is worth planning an examination by an obstetrician-gynecologist for a girl and an urologist-andrologist for a boy. At this stage, it is important to make sure how correctly the female and male phenotypes are formed, respectively.How secondary sex characteristics begin to develop. A child turns into a teenager through puberty.

Every girl comes to this world to continue the human race. From the age of 12, the period of the formation of menstrual function begins. Unfortunately, the reproductive health of our girls has been deteriorating from generation to generation. According to statistics, every fifth girl has a disrupted menstrual cycle, and 20% have chronic inflammatory diseases.The early sexual life of girls does not have the best effect on the reproductive organs. To identify signs of impaired puberty, preventive examinations of an obstetrician-gynecologist are called upon at the age of 12, and annually starting from the age of 14.

Exactly for both girls and boys, regular examinations of the urologist-andrologist at the age of 14, 15, 16, 17 are necessary in order to control puberty and early detection of inflammatory changes in the genital organs (orchitis, urethritis).

By the age of 10, many problems have accumulated that, at first glance, are not related to the endocrine system: weight disorders – both its deficiency and excess, stunting from peers or excessively rapid growth, inconsistency in the sequence of the appearance of secondary sexual characteristics with age norms, increased emotional excitability, especially in girls (tearfulness, even aggressiveness), tremor of the hands, enlargement of the eyeballs, the appearance of a difference in pressure – decreased diastolic and increased systolic (pulse), thin, delicate, even dry skin, it turns out that the reason for such disorders lies in the disruption of the pituitary gland, adrenal glands , thyroid gland.Improper nutrition: foods containing trans fats (cookies, chips) and an excess of sweets, and today’s youth prefers just such food, which causes overweight, obesity, leads to a violation of fat metabolism, and then carbohydrate metabolism and the development of diabetes. Insufficient physical activity and even an unnecessarily long stay at the computer at an early age can provoke the development of thyroid diseases such as autoimmune thyroiditis. In addition, it is necessary to check the bone age.If the growth zones closed at the age of 14-15, it means that the child will no longer grow, and this is an unfavorable sign. Thus, examination by a pediatric endocrinologist is extremely important at 10,15,16,17 years.

In connection with the changing information, social environment and psychological load on the student, for the timely diagnosis of mental illness and their timely treatment, it is necessary to examine children by a child (at 10 years old) and then by an adolescent psychiatrist. At primary school age (8-12 years), developmental delays are clearly manifested – speech, motor, intellectual development, behavioral reactions cannot be corrected by methods of psychological and pedagogical influence – the child is pugnacious, overly aggressive, “uncontrollable” and poses a danger to other children and ( or) oneself or becomes withdrawn, uncommunicative, the rate of development of skills and memory sharply decreases.There may be daytime or nighttime incontinence of urine or feces (in the absence of spinal cord injury and urological diseases), persistent recurring fears in the daytime and at night, sleepwalking, sleeping. At the age of 14-15, or even earlier, it is possible to become involved in alcohol and (or) drug addiction. During this period, manifestations of behavioral disturbances are possible (aggressiveness, cruelty, a tendency to leave and vagrancy, suicidal statements, hatred of loved ones, isolation), stubborn restriction of food intake with a desire to lose weight, a painful attitude towards a real minor physical disability (excessive fixation on it), excessive one-sided hobbies, which are given most of the time to the detriment of study and communication.A child who at least once spoke about suicide is subject to immediate examination by a psychiatrist and long-term observation.

Finally, no health problem will bypass the pediatrician. It is the pediatrician who witnesses how the child grows and changes. Even in the first year of life, when the pediatrician weighs the baby, measures the height, checks the neuropsychic development for age, monitors the correct feeding and introduction of complementary foods, issues a permit for preventive vaccinations and gives recommendations for hardening the baby and care.It is in this year that close contact with the pediatrician arises, and the closer this contact is, the better for the child’s health. Reception of narrow specialists is usually limited only to the examination of a specific organ or system. And only a pediatrician is able to “combine” the results of these examinations into a complete picture. Carrying out monthly in the first year, and in the future annual examinations of children, he will be the first to identify deviations in the state of health: congenital anomalies of organs and systems, latent current diseases, inconsistency of physical and neuropsychic development with age norms, manifestation of acute diseases and vitamin deficiency states.He will timely carry out diagnostic measures that are needed specifically for your boy or girl. If indicated, he will send the child for consultation to any specialist: allergist, cardiologist, endocrinologist, gastroenterologist, immunologist.

So, is it worth neglecting preventive examinations when it comes to the health of your child? The answer is obvious. And when the doctors confirm that your child is well developed intellectually, is quite active and cheerful, and most importantly – healthy, you will feel that the health and well-being of your baby is in your hands and you are doing everything right.

90,000 Scientists have explained why more boys are born

Researchers have finally managed to answer the question of why, according to statistics, more boys are born than girls around the globe. At the same time, scientists have refuted the opinion that has been accepted so far that male embryos have a lower survival rate and because of this, during conception, they are formed more often than female ones.

28 September 10:59

Even from school biology textbooks, everyone knows that at conception, the probability of the formation of a female or male embryo is correlated as one to one.The gender of the unborn child depends on which type of sperm – containing the X chromosome or the Y chromosome – will fertilize the woman’s egg. At the same time, biologists argue that the number of both types of sperm produced in a man’s body is the same, which means that they really have an equal chance of playing a decisive role in determining the sex of a child.

Nevertheless, demographers around the world claim:

in fact, more boys are born than girls, and scientists claim that this trend was formed around the same time as the emergence of the species Homo sapiens.

However, it cannot be assumed that such a picture develops due to the higher mortality of female embryos: medical statistics indicate that during pregnancy, at least in its later stages, it is male embryos that die more often.

These observations allowed the researchers to conclude that since male embryos are less viable and at the same time their survival rate at the end of pregnancy still remains higher, it means that at conception they should significantly prevail over female ones.To date, global statistics show that

per 100 girls are born on average 105 boys (with deviations in different countries from 104 to 107). It turns out that at conception, the inequality should be even greater.

This pattern may not hold true, for example, in countries where people are transitioning to new fertility patterns and mothers are gradually increasing in age. Demographers and doctors note that as a woman ages, the chances of male embryos of survival become even lower and the average number of girls born increases.

In Asian countries, such as China or India, the so-called selective abortion is still widespread – termination of pregnancy due to the sex of the child, as families strive to have as many sons as possible. American feminist Ann Warren even coined a special term for this phenomenon – “gendercide” (gendercide). The 2010 Census in China showed that for every 100 girls, 118 boys are born in the country.

According to statistical forecasts, by 2020–2030, every fifth Chinese will be left without a wife.

This generation of forced bachelors, according to experts, can serve as a potential source of social instability.

But even the latest demographic trends could not answer the question: why, contrary to all the laws of biology, at conception, male embryos are formed more often than female ones? A group of British and American scientists led by Stephen Orzak from the Fresh Pond Research Institute (Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA) managed to uncover all the secrets of embryo formation and their further development, and at the same time refute some of the postulates of demography.An article on the work of the researchers was published published in the journal PNAS .

Stephen Orzak’s group analyzed information about children conceived in the USA, Canada and some other European countries from 1995 to 2004. Scientists paid attention not only to natural pregnancies (in this case, the sex of the child was determined on the 3-6th day after conception using amniocentesis – analysis of amniotic fluid), but also to pregnancies formed using in vitro fertilization.The researchers also took into account data on miscarriages and artificially terminated pregnancies.

In total, scientists have collected information on about 31 million embryos, which is an absolute record in this kind of research.

Determining the sex of the child at the earliest stages – during the first week of pregnancy – showed that in fact the laws of biology are not violated: the number of male and female embryos at conception was indeed the same. The opinion about the non-viability of male embryos was also refuted.In fact, boys are more likely to die only during the first one to two weeks of pregnancy and at 28–35 weeks. In the rest of the period, the mortality of female embryos is much higher.

Thus, scientists were able to refute at once two postulates of modern demography: the disproportion of sexes at conception and the weakness of the health of male embryos.

Researchers do not exclude that the results of their work will force demographers to reconsider some of the provisions of their science.

Despite the fact that researchers have been able to prove the effectiveness of the laws of biology, you should not think that future parents can in no way increase the likelihood of conceiving a boy or girl.So, obstetrician-gynecologist of the highest qualification category Georgy Mestergazi notes that sperm activity depends on whether they are “male” or “female”. “Female” X-sperm can be compared to long-distance runners: they are larger, more tenacious, move more slowly and can move through the fallopian tubes for a sufficiently long period of time, and then “wait” for ovulation for about 72 hours.

Y-sperm, on the other hand, are more like sprinters who move quickly and for short distances: they have a better chance of fertilizing an egg if they are close to it.It turns out that the likelihood of conceiving a son or daughter may change depending on where the ejaculation occurred: near the cervix or vagina. Moreover, “male” and “female” spermatozoa feel differently in different environments: the first favors an alkaline environment, the second – an acidic one.

90,000 Baby 8 months: development, nutrition and sleep

If your baby is already 8 months old, you may have noticed that he is now more active and more curious than ever. His muscles get stronger, and he prepares to crawl, then crawl even faster… and eventually go! In this article, you will learn about sleep, feeding, health and much more that parents of an eight month old baby need to know about.

Baby development at 8 months

Get ready for big changes! If the baby has not crawled yet, then perhaps he is preparing to do this and may surprise you at any moment. His sleep patterns and expressions of affection for you and other people who care for him may change. Read this article to find out what’s in store for you this month.

Growth and physical development: Someone added a step

It is very likely that by this time the baby’s weight has exceeded his birth weight by more than 2 times.An eight-month-old boy will normally weigh from 7.7 to 9.6 kg, and a girl from 7 to 9 kg. By the way, closer to a year, the child’s growth rate may slow down, this is normal. At each appointment, the pediatrician weighs, measures the height and head circumference of the child in order to monitor the dynamics of his development. It is useful for parents to know how the growth charts used by doctors are arranged.

How long has it been the last time you looked at these heels and fingers? You may have noticed that while lying on the back, the baby is holding his feet with his toes inward…. The position of the foot will correct itself over time, do not worry! By the age of 18 months, most babies stop clubfoot, the ligaments of the hip joint are gradually strengthened and the baby begins to put his legs right when walking. The sole of the foot is still protected by a layer of fat, because of which it may seem that the child has flat feet. After 2-3 years, this layer will disappear, and the arches of the foot will begin to form.

Sensations: New impressions and reactions

At 8 months you may notice new milestones in the development of hand-eye coordination.Perhaps the child is able to see the toy on the other side of the room, get to it and pick it up. He enjoys exploring different textures by touching objects and trying new food. His hearing and early speech abilities improve – talk to him as much as possible, discuss what you see around.

Movement: Getting ready to crawl

Probably, at 8 months, the baby will sit without additional support – this is an achievement! Sitting, the baby reaches forward and takes the toy with one hand. Now the little athlete is strengthening the muscles he needs to crawl.Babies usually begin to crawl between 7 and 10 months. Now the child needs an eye and an eye, especially when he is on the changing table or playing.

You can help your baby to start crawling by placing him on his tummy more often. Playing lying on his tummy, he is in the ideal position to start crawling, he learns to push up from the floor on his knees and arms. It can swing back and forth before moving forward. Hold a toy or object of interest in front of your baby as a target.

Cognitive Development: Playing with Words and Sounds

At 8 months, your baby’s speech and communication skills continue to develop, and you will likely find yourself “understanding” each other better. What until recently sounded like mumbling and humming began to resemble syllables. Soon, from simple syllables like “ma” and “pa”, which the baby pronounces, you will get “mom” and “dad”. The child now understands more of your words. If you name his favorite toy, which is on the other side of the room, and he looks in that direction, he understands you! He may start to react to his name and the word “no”.

A child at 8 months begins to realize the constancy of objects: that objects continue to exist, even when they become inaccessible for perception. He becomes more inquisitive and may start looking for an item that you hide. So now he can be entertained by playing peek-a-boo.

Children of this age often develop separation anxiety. The kid begins to understand that objects and people continue to exist when he does not see them. However, he still does not understand how time works.Therefore, he may be alarmed if his mother leaves: after all, he does not know when his mother will return and whether she will return. You can help the baby by choosing a “transitional object”: some very familiar object, a toy that is always with the child. This will give him a sense of security.

What to do for a child to develop correctly

There are many ways to stimulate a child’s mental and physical development. The kid at this age is very curious, mobile and glad to get new experience with you.Here’s how you can help him grow:

  • Keep talking and reading to your baby. Focus on sounds, syllables and simple words, and your baby may start repeating after you.

  • Play peek-a-boo. This simple game doesn’t bother the little ones and is very funny. You can “search” for each other in turn, hiding behind a cloth.

  • Give the baby a spoon. As motor skills are developed, it will be useful and fun for the child to play with a spoon (for example, while sitting on a highchair).So he gets used to holding a cutlery in his hand, and this is a wonderful step towards the fact that he learns to eat himself.

  • Get creative when choosing toys. Toys for an 8 month old baby shouldn’t be fancy. A plastic container and a wooden spoon can captivate a kid just as much as an expensive educational toy.

  • Spend time on the floor. Playing with your baby on the floor is great for his development. Try to roll the ball back and forth in front of him, and, perhaps, he will soon master this game too.

Baby 8 months: Feeding

At 8 months, complementary foods in the form of mashed potatoes from a variety of products (in cans or homemade) should fill about half of the daily energy needs of the baby. Breast milk or formula is responsible for the other half. A child needs 750-900 calories daily. The baby develops sense of smell, taste and food preferences begin to appear. Now is the perfect time to offer him new flavors and textures. Try offering yogurt, oatmeal, or mashed banana for a little chewing practice.The new taste may not immediately please the child. You may have to offer him a new dish 10-15 more times before he tastes it.

So, at 8 months, the child continues to feed on breast milk or formula, and also receives complementary foods. Here is an example of a diet for a baby at 8 months, from which you will also find out how much food your baby needs.

Baby 8 months: How much sleep do you need?

At 8 months, children sleep 9-12 hours a day, several times during the day. Daytime sleep can be from 30 minutes to 2 hours.However, be prepared for sleep disturbances at this age. In some children, separation anxiety at this age causes sleep disturbances. What does this mean? The baby may start sleeping less than before, or wake up at night, even if he could sleep soundly all night before. Here’s how you can help your baby sleep better:

  • If your baby sleeps in a separate room, do not close the door at night. If the child hears your voice, he will be calmer.

  • Do not forbid your baby to suck his thumb – this is how he calms himself.

  • Create a transitional object: a small blanket or toy that will give your child a sense of security when you are away. It is an object to which attachment is developed, and by being around the child, it gives the toddler the feeling that everything is in order.

  • If the baby burst into tears in the middle of the night, pat him on the back, comfort him with words.

If your baby cries at night, try not to turn on the light, swing it or walk around the room with it.And also do not feed or take with you to bed. If you do this to comfort your baby, it may be difficult for him to fall asleep on his own in the future. Falling asleep will be associated with these rituals, and he will need them every time to fall asleep.

One day in the life of a baby

All babies are different, but their everyday life is somewhat similar. Here’s what your day might be:

Child Health: Home Safety

Thanks to its new mobility, your baby will soon be able to get to a lot of places, which means you need to make sure your home is safe for the little explorer.You may have already taken security measures, if not, now is the time to start. Not only children’s furniture and equipment require attention, but also sockets and cabinet doors.

Safety equipment

Falls are the most common injury to children at home. Check that the crib, changing table, and feeding chair are safe and properly assembled. Here are some requirements that must be met:

Crib

  • The distance between the bars should be no more than 7 cm so that the baby’s head cannot get stuck between them.

  • The mattress should be firm and fit snugly into the crib (the gap between the mattress and the bed frame should not be wider than two fingers).

  • Lower the mattress to the lowest level before the baby can stand on his own.

  • There should be no loose bed linen, pillows, blankets, blankets, bumpers and toys in the crib. All of these items can cause suffocation.

Changing table

  • Changing tables should have 5 cm sides on all four sides.The swaddling mat should be concave so that the baby cannot roll over and fall off the table.

  • If the changing table has belts, be sure to fasten them and always support the baby with your hand when changing the diaper.

  • Keep diapers and wet wipes close at hand, but so that the baby cannot reach them.

Highchair

  • Choose a highchair with a wide base.Do not place the chair close to the table so that the child cannot push off and turn the chair over.

  • When the baby is sitting in the highchair, use the seat belts.

  • Make sure that all small parts are securely fastened and that the baby cannot detach them. They can pose a risk of suffocation.

Playpen

  • Check that the arena is free of any damage or loose parts (including material).

  • If the baby already knows how to pull up, remove from the playpen all large objects or toys that he can use as a support to get out.

  • Check the integrity of the arena regularly.

Safety in the water

For babies and young children, a depth of even 3 cm is potentially dangerous. Therefore, parents need to be especially careful in the bathroom, as well as near the pool and water bodies (for example, in a country house).

Never leave your child unattended in the bathroom or near any open containers of water, such as buckets and cans. Always close the toilet and place a lock on the toilet lid.

If you have a pool, install a 1.5 meter fence with an auto-locking lock around the entire perimeter. Remove all pool covers before swimming. Keep a lifebuoy and mobile phone nearby. Many toddlers are very fond of water and you can have a great time together in the pool.Just don’t forget about safety: your baby should be your full attention. Try to eliminate all possible causes to distract yourself.

Frequently Asked Questions

How much do babies weigh at 8 months?

An eight-month-old boy will normally weigh from 7.7 to 9.6 kg, and a girl from 7 to 9 kg.

What food can be given to an eight month old baby?

At 8 months, dishes with a denser consistency are suitable. Offer your baby yogurt, oatmeal, mashed banana or potatoes, and a thicker vegetable puree.

How much should a baby sleep at 8 months?

The baby can sleep 12-16 hours a day, of which two naps during the day and a longer sleep interval at night. Be prepared for sleep disturbances: Separation anxiety can make your baby more restless. He may wake up in the middle of the night and sleep less than usual. But this is a temporary condition.

Can a child sleep too long during the day?

If your child has difficulty sleeping at night, you can try cutting back on naps.For example, make the last night’s sleep shorter.

New Parents: Meet New Nanny and Finish Breastfeeding

If your child is experiencing separation anxiety and you need to introduce him to a new nanny, you need to think about how to prepare your baby for the new person. Here are some tips on how to introduce your baby to a new nanny:

  • Hold your baby in your arms when you talk to the nanny. So he learns that this person can be trusted.

  • Let the nanny talk to the baby while you hold him. This will help build trust.

  • Place your baby on the floor with his favorite toys and let the nanny slowly come over and join the game.

  • Try to leave the room for a while, and if all goes well, you can safely leave the baby with the nanny.

If you have been breastfeeding all this time, you may notice that now, when the baby tries a new food, his interest in the breast may decrease slightly.This is called natural feeding cessation, and it is perfectly okay to be guided by your baby’s needs. Continue to offer him a variety of food, giving him breasts on demand.

Some mothers stop breastfeeding for external reasons, including lack of support from family and friends, lack of conditions for expressing or breastfeeding in the workplace. When to end breastfeeding – every mother decides for herself. Breast milk is recommended as the only food for the baby during the first 6 months of life.Continuing to breastfeed along with solid food intake is recommended for up to a year or even two. If you have questions about weaning and complementary feeding, consult your pediatrician or breastfeeding counselor.

If you are confident that your baby is getting all the nutrients it needs, and you and your baby are not ready to complete breastfeeding, try not to do so under pressure from any external circumstances or opinions.

This month’s checklist

  • Your baby has become more mobile, and it’s time to secure the house for the little tenant.You will find detailed recommendations in our home security guide.

  • Let’s see what’s there in the near future. Here’s what’s in store for you and your baby when they are 9 months old.

  • Don’t forget about promotions and discounts for young parents.

  • To find out more, subscribe to our newsletter:

Children’s Autism Spectrum Disorders

07.12.2015


Often mothers come to the doctor with complaints of delayed speech development in a child.But in some children, with a closer look, a specialist, in addition to this, sees features of the child’s behavior that differ from the norm and are alarming .

Let’s consider a clinical example:

Boy S. Age 2 years 9 months. According to the mother, the child’s vocabulary is no more than 20 separate words, consisting of two or three syllables. No phrases. Mom says that the child often has tantrums, is restless, it is difficult to fall asleep. The mother of the child does not present any other complaints.During the examination, the doctor notices that the child does not look into the eyes, is in motion all the time, reacts by screaming if he is not given something or is forbidden. You can calm your child down only by giving him a mobile phone or tablet. Shows interest not in children’s toys, but more in shiny pieces of furniture and interior. Starting to play something, he quickly loses interest and switches to something else. Asking the mother, it turns out that the child is very selective in food. Not potty trained, defecation only in a diaper in a standing position.Sleep poorly and wakes up during sleep. The child underwent electroencephalography and consultations with a clinical psychologist and speech therapist. Based on the results of the diagnosis and the clinical picture, the diagnosis was made – Autism spectrum disorder.

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are complex disorders of mental development, which are characterized by social maladjustment and inability to social interaction, communication and stereotyped behavior (repeated repetitions of repetitive actions).

Back in the middle of the last century, autism was a fairly rare disease. But over time, more and more children with this disorder began to appear. Statistics show that the incidence of ASD in children over the past 30-40 years in countries where such statistics are carried out has risen from 4-5 people per 10 thousand children to 50-116 cases per 10 thousand children. Moreover, boys are more susceptible to this disease than girls (the ratio is approximately 4: 1).


Causes of ASD.

All over the world, to this day, scientists studying the causes of autism have not come to a consensus. Many theories have been put forward. Among the possible factors for the appearance of this disorder in children, some hypotheses are called:

– hypothesis about genetic predisposition

– a hypothesis based on disorders in the development of the nervous system (autism is considered as a disease caused by impaired development of the brain in the early stages of a child’s growth).

– hypotheses about the influence of external factors: infections, chemical effects on the mother’s body during pregnancy, birth trauma, congenital metabolic disorders, the effect of certain drugs, industrial toxins.

But whether these factors can really lead to the onset of autism in children has not yet been clarified.


Features of the mental development of children with ASD.

To understand and recognize the presence of autism in a child, parents need to closely monitor the child’s behavior, notice unusual signs that are not characteristic of the age norm.Most often, these signs can be detected in children under the age of 3 years.

Children’s autism is considered as a developmental disorder that affects all areas of the child’s psyche: intellectual, emotional, sensitivity, motor sphere, attention, thinking, memory, speech.

Violations of speech development : Absence or weak humming and babbling may be noted at an early age. After a year, it becomes noticeable that the child does not use speech to communicate with adults, does not respond to a name, does not follow speech instructions.By the age of 2, children have very little vocabulary. By the age of 3, no phrases or sentences are being built. At the same time, children often repeat words stereotypically (often incomprehensible to others) in the form of an echo. Some children have a lack of speech development. In others, speech continues to develop, but communication disorders are still present. Children do not use pronouns, addresses, speak about themselves in the third person. In some cases, regression of previously acquired speech skills is noted.

Difficulties in communication and lack of emotional contact with others: Such children avoid tactile contact, eye contact is almost completely absent, inadequate facial reactions and difficulties in using gestures are present.Children most often do not smile, do not reach out to their parents and resist attempts by adults to take them in their arms. Children with autism lack the ability to express their emotions, as well as to recognize them from the people around them. There is a lack of empathy for other people. The child and the adult do not focus on one activity. Children with autism do not make contact with other children or avoid it, it is difficult for them to cooperate with other children, more often they tend to retire (difficulties in adapting to the environment).

N Disruption of exploratory behavior: 90,016 children are not attracted by the novelty of the situation, are not interested in their surroundings, and are not interested in toys. Therefore, children with autism most often use toys in an unusual way, for example, a child may not roll the car as a whole, but for hours monotonously turn one of its wheels. Or not understanding the purpose of the toy to use it for other purposes.

Eating Disorders : A child with autism can be extremely selective in the proposed products, food can cause disgust in the child, danger, often children begin to sniff food.But along with this, children may try to eat an inedible thing.

Disorder of self-preservation behavior: Due to a large number of fears, the child often finds himself in a situation that is dangerous for himself. The cause can be any external stimulus that causes an inappropriate response in the child. For example, a sudden noise can cause a child to run in a random direction. Also, the reason is ignoring real threats to life: a child can climb very high, play with sharp objects, and run across the road without looking.

Motor developmental disorder: As soon as the child starts to walk, he becomes uncomfortable. Also, some children with autism tend to walk on their toes, and the lack of coordination of arms and legs is very noticeable. It is very difficult for such children to teach everyday actions, it is quite difficult for them to imitate. Instead, they develop stereotypical movements (performing monotonous actions for a long time, running in a circle, swaying, flapping “like wings” and circular movements with their hands), as well as stereotypical manipulations with objects (sorting through small details, arranging them in a row).Children with autism find it difficult to master self-care skills. Expressed motor awkwardness.

Perception disorders: Difficulties in orientation in space, fragmentation in the perception of the environment, distortion of the integral picture of the objective world.

Difficulty in concentrating: Children have difficulty concentrating on one thing, there is a high impulsivity and restlessness.

Poor Memory: It is common for both parents and professionals to notice that children with autism are good at remembering things that matter to them (this may cause them pleasure or fear).Such children remember their fear for a long time, even if it happened a long time ago.

Peculiarities of thinking: specialists note difficulties in voluntary learning. Also, children with autism do not focus on understanding the cause-and-effect relationships in what is happening, there are difficulties in transferring the learned skills to a new situation, the concreteness of thinking. It is difficult for a child to understand the sequence of events and the logic of another person.

Behavioral problems: negativism (refusal to listen to the instructions of an adult, to carry out joint activities with him, withdrawal from the learning situation).Often accompanied by resistance, shouts, aggressive outbursts. The fears of these children are a huge problem. Usually they are incomprehensible to others, because often children cannot explain them. A child may be frightened by sharp sounds, certain actions. Another behavioral disorder is aggression. Any disorder, violation of a stereotype, interference of the outside world in a child’s life can provoke aggressive (hysterics or physical attack) and auto-aggressive outbursts (damage to oneself).

Each case of the disease is very individual: autism can have most of the listed symptoms in an extreme degree of manifestation, or it can manifest itself with only a few subtle features.


Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorders

To diagnose autism, experts use the criteria of 2 international classifications: ICD-10 and DSM-5.

But the main three criteria (“triad” of violations) that can be distinguished are:

– violation of social adaptation

– violations in the communication sphere

– stereotyped behavior

The main diagnostic steps include:

– examination of the child by a psychiatrist, neurologist, psychologist

– observing the child and completing the “Autism Rating Scale”, which can be used to establish the severity of the disorder

– conversation with parents

– filling out questionnaires by parents – “Questionnaire for the diagnosis of autism”


Types of RAS

There are several existing classifications of ASD, and the separation often occurs on completely different grounds, which, of course, can bring some inconvenience to a person who is initially little familiar with medicine or psychology; therefore, below will be highlighted the most basic and frequently encountered in practice types of ASD: – Kanner’s Syndrome (Early Childhood Autism) – characterized by a “triad” of major disorders: difficulty in establishing contacts with the outside world, stereotypical behavior, as well as delay or impairment of the communicative functions of speech development …It is also necessary to note the condition of the early onset of these symptoms (up to about 2.5 years)

It manifests itself in children in 4 forms, depending on the degree of fencing off from the outside world:

Complete detachment from what is happening. This group is characterized by a lack of speech and the inability to organize the child (to establish eye contact, to achieve the implementation of instructions and assignments). When trying to interact with a child, he shows the greatest discomfort and impaired activity.

Active rejection. It is characterized by more active contact with the environment than the first group. There is no such detachment, but there is a rejection of a part of the world that is unacceptable to a child. The child shows selective behavior (in dealing with people, in food, in clothes)

Gripped by autistic interests. It is characterized by the formation of overvalued addictions (for years a child can speak on the same topic, draw the same plot).The gaze of such children is directed to the person’s face, but they look “through” this person. Such children enjoy the stereotypical reproduction of individual impressions.

Extreme difficulty in organizing communication and interaction. Autism is at its most mild. Children are characterized by increased vulnerability, contact with the world ceases at the slightest sense of obstacles. Eye contact can be made with these children.

– Asperger’s Syndrome.Formed from birth. Children have an early onset of speech development, a rich vocabulary, developed logical thinking, and there are no disorders in mental development. But at the same time, the communicative side of speech suffers: such children do not know how to establish contact with other people, do not listen to them, can talk to themselves, do not keep a distance in communication, do not know how to empathize with other people.

– Rett syndrome. Its peculiarity lies in the fact that the development of a child up to 1-1.5 years of age proceeds normally, but then the newly acquired speech, motor and subject-role skills begin to disintegrate.Typical for this condition are stereotypical, monotonous hand movements, rubbing, wringing, while not being purposeful. The rarest of the diseases presented, which is almost always found only in girls.

– Childhood psychosis. The first manifestations of symptoms are up to 3 years. It is characterized by violations of social behavior, communication disorders. There are stereotypes in behavior (children run monotonously in a circle, sway while standing and sitting, fingering their fingers, shaking their hands).Such children have eating disorders: they can swallow food without chewing. Their obscure speech can sometimes be an incoherent set of words. There are times when children freeze in place like dolls.

– Atypical autism. It differs from autism in age-related manifestation and the absence of one criterion from the “triad” of major disorders.


Correction of patients with ASD

One of the most important sections of habilitation for children with ASD is undoubtedly the provision of psychocorrectional and social rehabilitation assistance, with the formation of skills of social interaction and adaptation.Complex psychocorrectional work, which includes all sections and types of rehabilitation assistance, which will be described below, is, along with drug therapy, an effective means of relieving negative symptoms of ASD, and also contributes to the normal inclusion of the child in society. Types of ASD correction:

1) Psychological correction is the most common and well-known type; is characterized by a fairly wide range of techniques, of which the TEACCH and ABA-therapy programs are the most widespread and recognized in the world.

The first program is based on the following principles:

– The characteristics of each individual child are interpreted based on observations of him, and not from theoretical ideas;

– increasing adaptation is carried out both by teaching new skills and by adapting existing ones to the environment;

– creation of an individual training program for each child; use of structured learning; holistic approach to intervention.

The second program is largely based on learning, depending on the consequences that have arisen after the behavior. The consequences can be in the form of punishment or reward. In this model, it is necessary to highlight the main methods, such as the procedure for creating a contour and reinforcing behavior similar to the target; method of teaching chains of behavior; teaching methodology for distinguishing stimuli.

2) Neuropsychological correction – this type includes a set of exercises consisting of stretching, breathing, oculomotor, mimic and other exercises for the development of the communicative and cognitive spheres, and the exercises themselves differ markedly in time and quantity.

3) Working with the child’s family and environment – first of all, this type of correction is aimed at alleviating emotional tension and anxiety among family members, since often parents of children with ASD also need help, including psychotherapeutic support and training programs (such programs are mainly aimed at forming feelings of understanding the problem, the reality of its solution and the meaningfulness of behavior in the current family situation).

4) Psychosocial therapy – in fact, work with the child himself on the formation of cognitive, emotional and motivational-volitional resources of the personality for the possibility of further social adaptation, the need for which is manifested more and more clearly as the child with ASD grows up.

5) Speech therapy correction – given the fact that speech development is one of the cardinal manifestations of ASD, this type of work with a child will be an integral part of the correction program. It is characterized by an orientation towards the formation of vocabulary, the development of auditory attention, as well as phonetic and speech hearing.

6) Medical correction of ASD. Some forms of autism require medication for the child.For example, to improve concentration and perseverance, the doctor may prescribe vitamins and nootropic drugs that improve thinking processes and stimulate speech development. And with high impulsivity, aggression, negativism, pronounced signs of “withdrawal”, psychotropic drugs can help. In some cases, Autism is combined with epileptic seizures. In such cases, drugs are needed to prevent seizures. Many mothers are afraid of drugs. But medications are prescribed for a specific period, not forever.Adverse events from medications are rare. And the result from the effect in most cases is worth the courage of the parents. In each case, it is necessary to individually decide what kind of therapy is needed. And the doctor must be able to clearly explain to parents all questions regarding drugs.

The Children’s Diagnostic Center in Domodedovo has all the possibilities for diagnosing Autism Spectrum Disorders. Such as: examination by a pediatric neurologist, clinical psychologist, speech therapist, examination – electroencephalography and video EEG monitoring.As well as correction techniques such as ABA therapy.

Alpatsky D.A. (chief physician, neurologist of the DDC), Litvinova E.V. (psychologist at DDC)

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90,000 Synesthetes. They feel differently. They are among us

Nevertheless, the phenomenon has been known to scientists and researchers for several centuries. In the middle of the 19th century, synesthesia attracted the attention of representatives of a new, then emerging science – psychology. Many scientists from different countries have written about this phenomenon.Being a synesthetics in certain circles of the European world and bohemia has become fashionable, research has aroused interest, admiration and even a slight envy of people from the art world. In 1871, the French poet Arthur Rimbaud wrote the poem “Vowels”, in which he conveyed the sensations of grapheme-color synesthesia so similarly that centuries later there is still a myth that he himself was a synesthesia.

Poem by Arthur Rimbaud “The Vowels”

A – black, white – E , U – green, O – blue,
And – red … I want to discover the birth of vowels.
A – tr a urn corset under st a flies already a dark,
Swarming around to a to p a d a li il in mud,
Mir mr a to a ; E – the rest of the fog over the deserts e th,
Tremors e col e tov, vzl e t l e hazardous bottom.
And – purple, a clot of blood, a smile of beautiful lips
In and x fury and l in and x madness before the shrine.
U – marvelous cr in gi greenish seas,
L in g, motley from the beast, rest of wrinkles crumpled by
Alchemy on the foreheads, butt in rushing people.
O – zv o on copper o g o deaf o e o k o starting,
K o met o th, angel m o
4 o nzenn o e m o ling,
o mega, her lilac beam o whose.

In fact, from his later correspondence, it became clear that Rimbaud was not a synesthetics, but remained impressed by communication with acquaintances – carriers of synesthesia.

Associations that form synesthetic connections are formed individually for each person. Therefore, people with the same form of synesthesia can perceive and feel the same things in different ways. So, for example, it was in the family of the Russian writer Vladimir Nabokov.


“It so happened that m you discovered that our son D m ytri – then he was m scarlet m alchik, eleven or twelve years old – also sees letters in color.

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