Blank journals cheap: The Best Notebooks and Notepads for 2021


Empty Notebook?: 30 Ideas to Fill Up Your Blank Journals and Notebooks

I, Briana, come to you, my readers with a confession: I’m a filthy empty journal hoarder. I see a pretty journal or notebook and I buy it without question. What I’m exactly going to use it for…Who knows? If you’re like me and you have a bunch of empty notebooks or journals stashed around your house, you could use some ideas on how to fill them up. So dear readers, I present to you 30 things you can fill a notebook with.

*This post may contain affiliate and/or referral links. It doesn’t cost you anything extra to use the provided links to purchase any of the below products or services. Please check out my disclosure policy.*

1. Love Notes

When say, love notes, I don’t mean the ones from your partner (though you could definitely do that!). For me, love notes are anything that someone has written to you (or you can print it out) that says something about you that makes you feel good. I have “love notes” from friends, family, coworkers, and random people that I’ve never actually met in person.

2. Favorite Quotes

Who wouldn’t love to write down their favorite quotes? These quotes can be from anything and everything…books, tv shows, your mom, your great uncle Ben. If it’s memorable and you love it…fill your notebook with it.

3. Book Reviews

If you’re an avid reader, you may want to keep reviews on the books that you’ve read. You could write things down like the genre of the book, similar authors, how the book made you feel, or any number of things. I actually have a specific journal for this that was given to me by a friend. If you’d like one of your own, you can purchase it here.

4. Write Down Your Dreams

I have pretty vivid dreams and most of the time I rarely write them down other than texting my partner about how weird they usually are. Many people believe that dreams are windows into your soul, your wants, and your fears. If you’d like to be more in tune with yourself and do some self-discovery, why not write down some of your dreams?

5. Lists

Are you a Buzzfeed fanatic and love your listical content? Try making some of your own! Here a couple of ideas: a list of your favorite songs, a list of your favorite flowers, or a list of your favorite food.

6. Sketchbook

If you’re even more creatively inclined, use one of those blank journals as a sketchbook. Try going to a park and sketching what you see or combine some of the ideas on this list and sketch out your thoughts instead of writing them.

7. Gratitude Journal

I love this notebook idea. I’m all about gratitude journaling and I’ve been doing it consistently for almost a year. Since I’ve been gratitude journaling, I’ve been realizing all of the small (and big) things that I’m happy to have in my life like my cat, space for a home office, and an abundance of empty journals.

8. Life Lessons

Along with my gratitude journaling, I also journal about what I have learned every day. These can range from the profound to silly facts that I didn’t know before. Each day can teach us something. I try to spread my learnings forward on my Instagram and on my monthly Gratitude and Lessons post.

8. Travel Plans or Ideas

If you’re an avid traveler or you aspire to be one, write down your travel plans or ideas in one of your notebooks. This isn’t something that I’ve done for a while, but sometimes I do write down some of the places that I’d like to visit.

9. Scrapbook

This is a cute thing to do with a notebook if you like to collect things. As I mentioned in the first idea on this list, I like to collect love notes and put them into my journal. In this same journal, (my heartsong journal), I also put in other things like ticket stubs, pictures, and even an old bracelet.

10. Creative Writing

Channel your inner writer and try a bit of creative writing. A lot of my creative writing (when I have the time for it), comes from dreams that I’ve had or prompts that I’ve found online.

11. Mental Health Tracker

Tracking your mental health can be incredibly helpful in finding the things that work for you. For example, you could track taking your medication, coping skills, and supportive people.

12. Bullet Journal

Bullet journaling is the newest trend in the journaling world. I haven’t personally tried this but many of my friends who have absolutely rave about it. To learn more about bullet journaling, you can grab the official Bullet Journal Method book. It will teach you absolutely everything you need to know to get started.

14. Mind Mapping

Mind mapping is a visual way of organizing your thoughts. Think of it as a hierarchical list but more visual. I’ve only mind mapped a few times, mostly during graduate school, but it can be a helpful framework if you’re more visually included.

15. Old Fashioned Diary

This is how I first started with my blank journals all the way back in middle school. I would write down the things that happened during the day and how I felt about them. There was A LOT of boy drama. If you’ve never tried an old fashioned diary style of journaling, definitely try it! It can be fun to look back and see what was happening in your life.

16. Vision Journal

Vision boarding is pretty popular. I’m in the process of creating my own vision board. But, if you have a blank notebook, why not turn that into a vision journal? You could separate the journal into sections that represent areas of your life and get to vision boarding er–journaling. This is one of my favorite notebook ideas.

17. Habit Tracker

Tracking your habits can be super helpful if you’re trying to build out new habits and get rid of old ones such as drinking more water, stopping smoking, or exercising.

18. Affirmations

In addition to your vision boarding journal, you could add affirmations to each section of that vision journal.

19. Budget or Debt Tracker

Many people have changed their financial lives by using a good old paper and pen budget or debt tracker. If you’re trying to get your financial life right, try a budget or debt tracker for a few months and see how it goes (and let me know about it!).

20. Journaling Prompts

Journaling prompts are an awesome way of filling up an empty notebook. If you’re interested in journaling prompts about friendship, self-discovery, or some general journaling prompts, I’ve got a bunch for you!

21. Recipes

If you love cooking and making your own recipes, turn that blank notebook into your very own recipe book. This is would be a particularly cute idea to fill a notebook with if you give it as a gift to someone that you love.

22. Hobby Journal

A hobby journal would be a great idea for you if you’re someone who has a hobby that may require you to take a lot of notes. Some hobbies that come to mind with this are gardening, collecting, or birdwatching.

23. Mini Paintings

I’m not a painter, but my sister is. If you’re inspired to paint, but don’t have any canvas, try using a blank notebook instead. You could also try out these colorsheets – I’ve never tried them but they look amazing.

24. General Planner

If you don’t want to buy a new yearly planner, convert an old notebook into a planner. This could work well with the bullet journaling idea that I mentioned previously (idea #12).

25. Movie Reviews

Along with being a big fan of reading, I’m also a huge fan of movies. If you’re like me, take a shot at writing down your thoughts on movies that you’ve written. Maybe you’ll even come up with some fun theories! (If you have any Marvel theories definitely slide into my Instagram DMs).

26. Notetaking for Courses

Learning and writing things down go hand in hand for me. I have notebooks for all of the different courses, programs, and classes that I’m currently taking. Though, if courses are similar, I tend to group them into one notebook, like one notebook for all of my blogging courses.

27. Goal Setting

I’ve been tracking my goals in one of my many journals for all of 2019. I find it easier to do goal setting by the month and to focus on one goal at a time. When I complete the goal for the day, I check it off. At the end of the month, I write down what I’ve learned about myself and the goal (even if I didn’t complete it).

28. Meal Planning

Meal planning is definitely not my forte (maybe I should be journaling about it). However, for many people writing down meals and planning for them can be extremely helpful for budgeting, eating all the food that you currently have, and for your health.

Grab Your Free Journaling Prompts Printable

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29. Spirituality Journal

If you’re wanting to delve deeper into your spirituality, try writing it out. If you’d like some prompts to help you in this area, check out this post for a bunch of journaling prompts for self-discovery, including spirituality.

30. Event Planning

One of the best ways to keep things organized is to write them done. If you’re planning a big event like a birthday party or wedding, try writing down all of the things that you need to remember in a dedicated journal.


So there you have it. 30 things to fill a notebook with. The possibilities are literally endless. You can mix and match multiple ideas into one notebook or if you’re an overachiever, have one notebook for every idea. Which idea is your favorite? Are you part of the empty notebook club? Let me know in the comments!

Briana Hollis is a licensed social worker and self-care coach. She earned her Master of Science in Social Administration from Case Western Reserve University in 2014 and her Master of Education from Tiffin University in 2019. She has spent the last 5 years working in crisis intervention.  Her passion for serving others is the heart of this site. She started Learning To Be Free to assist others in bringing freedom to their lives.

Briana is also the author of The Self-Care Journal for Young Adults.

50+ Ideas For Your Empty Notebooks And Blank Journals!
– Archer and Olive

Hey! It’s Hayley here (@hayleyremdeart on Instagram), and today I want to give you as many ideas as possible for all those journals you’ve been hoarding. Don’t try to deny it, I can almost see those empty journals on your shelf over there and they need some love! I actually once read somewhere that buying journaling supplies and actually using them are two completely different hobbies, and I have to say I definitely agree. No matter how many notebooks I already have, when I see a pretty journal I can’t resist, and then I just never get around to using them! Lately I decided I wanted to start filling some of them up, so keep reading to find out all the ideas I’ve come up with.


Essentials For ALL These Ideas:

  • Archer and Olive Journal – As always, it will be no surprise to you that this is my pick. The lovely and thick pages have no bleeding or ghosting, so you get a clean start for every project spread! Also, it means you can decorate the spread without worrying about it.
  • Pencil – To carefully plan out your ideas so you can make sure your spread has everything you need.
  • Fineliners – My favourites are the Unipin fineliners as they’re waterproof, affordable and have a strong nib.
  • Decorative Touch (optional) – This could be anything from washi to acrylographs, or of course, nothing! I usually like to add a personal touch to my spreads so they’re more fun to use and look at!

Remember, you can now even use my affiliate code HAYLEY10 to save money at!! But anyway, lets jump straight into those ideas…


1 – Bullet Journaling

The best tool to keep organised!


2 – Reading Journal

Track all your books, reviews, pages read and more!


3 – Lettering Practise

Time to make it muscle memory!


4 – Diary

Daily journaling has so many benefits!


5 – Work Journal

It’s can be good to keep your work separate from your personal life!


6 – Health Journal

Track your physical and mental wellbeing!


7 – Memory Journal

Something so amazing to look back on in years to come.


8 – Junk Journal

Anything goes!


9 – Painting Journal

Watercolour, acrylic, gouache – have some fun painting in one place!


10 – Language Journal

A place to help you learn and keep track of your progress as you study a new language!



11 – Ideas Journal

Brainstorm new ideas in one place!


12 – Travel Journal

Keep track of your holidays and memories!


13 – Doodle Journal

Doodling can be so relaxing, why not give it a try!


14 – Book Notes

Writing your own book? Keep track of it in it’s own dedicated journal.


15 – Recipe Journal

Are you an avid cook or baker? Your recipes deserve their own place!


16 – Goal Planning

We can easily lose track of our goals if we don’t make note and track them!


17 – Inspirational Quotes

Make note and remember your favourite quotes. This can also pair as lettering practice too!


18 – Funny Moments

Write down those funny things that happen in life. I especially love people documenting the funny things their kids say!!


19 – Lists, List and Lists

We all need to make a good list – so why not have a journal dedicated to them?


20 – Movie and TV Shows

Track your consumption and rate them as you go!



21 – Finance Journal

Sometimes you need to write it out to see where you can save!


22 – Practice Journal

A journal that is meant to be messy so you can trial spreads going in other journals or practice a new skill!


23 – Dream Journal

Do you forget your dreams – make a journal to write them down so you can remember them!


24 – Knitting Journal

Keep track of patterns and projects.


25 – Small Business Journal

Keep track of finances, orders, product ideas and more!


26 – Social Media Journal

Do you work within social media? Keep track of engagement and content ideas in one place!


27 – Plein Air Notebook

Get outside and draw or paint some of the things you see along the way!


28 – Swatch Notebook

Do you have a large collection of art supplies? Swatch and compare them all in one journal!


29 – When Did I Last?

There’s always something we should be doing around the house. Easily track your cleaning, chores and more.


30 – Plant Journal

Track your collection and make sure you never under or over-water again!



31 – Astrology/Horoscope Journal

Keep track of moon phases, tarot readings and more.


32 – Wedding Planning

There is so much to plan for a wedding… I think it would definitely fill its own journal!!


33 – Spiritual Journaling

If you’re spiritual, have a place for your quote, prayers and more.


34 – Review Journal

Is there something you love to collect? Keep note and review each new item in its own place. For example, candles, paints or wine.


35 – Bucket Lists

Keep track of your goals and write down your experiences of achieving them!


36 – Scrapbooking Journal

Make gorgeous pages by sticking in all your favourite things into one place.


37 – Creative Writing Notebook

Perfect if you like to write short stories!


38 – Gratitude Journal

Make note each day of something you’re grateful for.


39 – Affirmation Notebook

Something rewarding to do each day – and lovely to look back on!


40 – Study Notes

Are you studying at school, university or taking a new course? Keep all your notes in one place.



41 – Pen Pal Notebook

Keep track of your pen pals, letters and addresses!


42 – Pregnancy Journal

Cravings? Symptoms? Feelings? Keep track of it all – it will be so amazing to look back on.


43 – Baby Journal

Following on from that, track your baby’s first years of life!


44 – Project Notebook

Are you working on something big right now? Plan it all out and keep on track!


45 – Self-Care Notebook

Self-care is so important. Keep ideas for what you can do to treat yourself!


46 – Things To Do

Do you feel like you’re wasting time because you don’t know what to do? Make lists of things to do when you’re bored, angry, sad etc.


47 – One Word/Sentence A Day

Make note of one thing every day!


48 – Event Planning

Always plan ahead for parties. ..


49 – Holiday Planning

… and holidays too!


50 – Music Notebook

Do you listen to a lot of music? Make note of your favourite bands, songs, playlists and more!



51 – Happiness Journal

Fill it with all things that make you happy what could be better!?


52 – Collection Journal

Keep track of your stickers, stamps, washi and more by putting a sample of each into its own journal.


53 – Favourites Notebook

Fill a journal with all your favourite things!


Phew! Well I hope I’ve given you some help and inspiration on how to fill those empty journals you’ve been hoarding. If I have, I would love to know, so tag me on Instagram (@hayleyremdeart) and use #hayleyremdeinspired to get the chance to get your creations featured in my stories!

Easy Tips to Start Journaling with Any Notebook|Perfectly Penned

Are you interested in journaling, but not necessarily into the dot or grid journals that everyone uses?

That is okay!

Journaling can be done in ANY notebook – there are no limits when it comes to bullet journaling.

Perhaps you can’t get a dotted or grid notebook in your area, or maybe you’ve got loads of blank or lined notebooks already at home and don’t want to waste them.

Well do not worry, bullet journaling is a rule-free journaling experience with absolutely NO limits. Bullet journaling can be done in any notebook, including lined journals (which you probably have laying around anyway) and blank journals.

The origination of the bullet journal actually has nothing to do with the dots on the page. Bullet journaling refers to the bullet method of organizing information which is a method utilizing bullet points and other symbols to organize information on a to-do list.

To learn more about bullet journaling basics, check out this article on the basics or this challenge for beginners.

So, we now know that bullet journaling has nothing to do with the notebook.

Let’s answer the question, can you journal in any notebook? Yes! If bullet journaling has nothing to do with the notebook and there really are no rules about how to bullet journal, why would the notebook you use matter?

Now that we’ve answered the question “Can you journal in any notebook?” we need to talk about just how to journal in these notebooks.

There are so many bullet journal Instagram accounts and blogs out there that focus on dotted or grid notebooks, so it can seem impossible to learn how to journal in other notebooks. Here we will discuss what seems so difficult.

Perfectly Penned Lined Notebook

Can You Bullet Journal On Lined Paper?

The short answer to this question is yes, of course, you can bullet journal on lined paper.

According to Ryder Carroll, the originator of the bullet journal method, bullet journaling does not refer to the dots on the page, but the method used to organize information.

The term “bullet” simply refers to organizing information using bullet points. That being said, of course, you can bullet journal in a lined notebook!

Examples Of Bullet Journal Spreads For Lined Paper

Now you have an idea of how to bullet journal using lined paper, check out these awesome examples of journaling on lined paper!

Image source: Its Sarah Ann

Its Sarah Ann did an awesome job creating a future planning layout using lined paper. She was even able to incorporate colour and doodle art!

Image source: Bringing the Sunshine

Here is a very basic bullet journal using lined pages. She used the basic bullet method to organize her days and fit her journal to her needs!

Image source: Page Flutter

Page Flutter does an awesome job of discussing journaling in a lined notebook and provides some seriously awesome examples! Here is an example she shows off of a daily to-do layout on lined paper.

How to Bullet Journal with Lined Paper

Since bullet journaling is all about the method used to organize information and not the paper, there is no real answer to this question. At least, there is no answer that is any different from how to bullet journal in a dotted notebook.

Despite this lack of difference, the lines may present certain difficulties in designing and executing layouts which a dotted notebook might not produce.

For example, in a dotted notebook, dots fill the page allowing you to easily connect them to draw shapes. In a lined notebook, there are only horizontal lines which are often further apart than the dots are. This makes drawing certain lines and shapes more difficult.

All hope is not lost, though. There are dozens of ways to solve the vertical line dilemma. One of the first ways is to eyeball any diagonal or vertical lines you want to make. Bullet journaling doesn’t have to be perfect and neither do your lines.

A second way to solve this issue is with a ruler. Rulers can help you to draw straight lines even though there are not dots or gridlines to assist in this process.

The third and final way we will discuss here is to get stencils. There are SO many stencils out there these days that can help you to draw boxes and various shapes, even grids, for your bullet journaling experience no matter what journal you use.

Can You Bullet Journal On Blank Paper?

We’ve talked about why you can journal in a lined notebook, now let’s discuss journaling on blank paper. While journaling on blank paper may be more difficult that lined, dotted, or grid paper, it is still very possible.

Again, bullet journaling is less about the paper and more about the journaling. SO, why not try out journaling in a blank paged notebook. Some more artistic journalers may even find they prefer the look of their art on a blank page than they do on a dotted page.

Examples Of Bullet Journal Spreads For Blank Paper

Now that we’ve established that bullet journaling can be done using blank paper, check out these awesome examples of journalers doing just that!!

Image source: Little Coffee Fox

Here is a prime example of someone using a blank notebook and still getting an amazing bullet journal layout done! You can’t even tell that there are no dots or lines here!

Image Source: @noteandwish

Here is another amazing layout with no dots or lines! Check out how this layout utilizing multi-media and most likely a ruler, to be a normal bullet journal layout!

Image source: @byclairee

Here is one more amazing layout all done without any dots!! I imagine Claire drew lines in pencil to write on then erased them when she was done!

How to Bullet Journal with Blank Paper

As is the case for bullet journaling on lined paper, journaling on blank pages might be more difficult simply because there are no dots or lines there to guide you. That does not mean that it is impossible. There are several ways to combat journaling and still get the look you want on blank paper.

The first method I have to offer you isn’t realistic but it is an option. If you can’t get a dotted notebook, but you want the look of a dotted notebook, try using a ruler to draw dots in yourself. Advantages of this are the control over the spacing of the dots. However, this process is incredibly time consuming and in the end, it may be worth investing in a dotted notebook.

The remainder of the tips I have parallel the tips I mentioned for lined notebooks.

First, you can use tools such as stencils, rulers, etc. to draw lines and various shapes easily. Second, you can simply eye-ball everything.

This third tip is more unique to the blank pages than to lined pages. When it comes to writing out words, it can be useful to draw everything out in pencil first, including lines to write on. Drawing lines with a pencil using a ruler can help you to write straight, you can then erase the lines and no one ever needs to know!

Related Questions

Here are some questions, briefly explored, which you might have after reading this article!

How to use the bullet method

The bullet method is a really simple method. At the most basic level, this method simply refers to using bullets to list items on your to-do list. You may also use other symbols to organize this information better. Learn more over at Ryder Carroll.

How to bullet journal

Bullet journaling is really easy. All you need is a notebook (any kind) and some kind of writing utensils (often pens and markers). Then you keep a daily record of your-dos, crossing them off as you go.

Learn more about getting started with bullet journaling by clicking here and get some awesome bullet journaling inspiration by checking out the bullet journal round-ups I’ve created.

Can you bullet journal using printables?

Yes! Printables can often be cheaper and easier to use than creating your own. You can find these layouts free or buy them online. Find layouts that fit your needs. You can then paste them into a notebook or hole punch them and put them in a binder. Simple!

What if I don’t have time to make a bullet journal?

There are a few ways to get around this. First, keeping your bullet journal simple and quick to use is an easy effect way. Second, try using printables or pre-made bullet journal style planners. If you’d still prefer something a little bit more like a custom bullet journal, I can make you one! I create custom bullet journal style planners to fit your needs and bullet journaling wants. Check out these custom journals over at the Jihi Elephant Store.


Bullet journaling has exploded in popularity and is usually seen done in dotted notebooks. Not everyone likes or has access to dotted notebooks, so can you journal in lines or blank notebooks? The answer is yes!

We’ve concluded that bullet journaling actually has nothing to do with the dots on the pages and instead its a to-do list method coined by Ryder Carroll. So there is absolutely no reason why you can’t journal in any notebook! Some notebooks, like the lined and blank notebooks, require some extra methods or tools. Using rulers and stencils can help you get straight lines without using the dots.

Bullet journaling doesn’t have to be done in a dot notebook, bullet journal in any notebook you would like!

The Best Journals for Art Journaling and Mixed Media

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What are the best journals for art journaling?” is one of the most frequently asked questions here at Artjournalist.

It’s a question I am asked so often, I finally decided to put together a list of the exact journals I love using – updated with all of my favorites based on current journals available in 2019.

The journals and sketchbooks featured in this list always prove to be my favorites, year after year. Some of them simply continue to get better because they add new journal sizes, shapes, and paper types!

This Journal List Comes From 5 Years of Testing *Almost* Every Possible Art Journal

In making this list of what I consider to be some of the best art journals, I want you to know I personally have tested at least 45 different notebooks, sketchbooks, and journals in the past 5 years.

Every single one of these recommendations comes from experience.

Yeah, I’m a crazy notebook addict like that!

These are the journals that have proved to do well in all sorts of situations. They work great for regular everyday use, but they are also good choices for long trips and traveling.

I took several factors into consideration to ensure a well-rounded assortment of notebooks. I want to make sure these journals can meet the needs and creative dreams of almost anyone who enjoys art journaling – no matter how experienced you may be or what type of art supplies you like to use.

No matter which of these journals in my top list you pick, I promise you it is one I really put through some harsh conditions. Some of them I used before I even really understood what to do with things like gesso and matter medium.

If you take a look at some of my art journal failslike the one below, you’re sure to understand I’ve really put the different notebooks and journals to the test!

In testing some of these I’ve done everything wrong. Thankfully, doing everything wrong is how I know which ones are really truly the best ones to pick!

My dog when she was a puppy even decided to try and eat one. She didn’t do much damage to the journal, only a couple of small bite marks, which is more than I can say about other books she tried to eat or about 25 pairs of my kids shoes…

Needless to say, the ones I am recommending are really the journals that stand up to the test of time and some pretty harsh conditions!

Understanding What Matters Most When Buying an Art Journal

Before I go straight into sharing my favorite art journals, I think it is important to understand on what to look for in a good art journal.

This way, if you happen to be looking for a new art journal, you know what features to look for!

Hopefully once you understand these things, you will be able to tell very quickly whether a notebook will work for art journaling.

I know I am always tempted by new notebooks anytime I see them at the store. Understanding what makes one a good choice can really save you some headaches down the road.

These details all influenced which journals made the cut and which ones did not.

So let’s talk about what matters when you are picking an art journal. Any journal can work, but if you’re going to buy a journal, it helps to know what to look for.

It’s very helpful to know what is going to work. This way you can make less mistakes and make more art that you enjoy creating.

Here’s what I consider when looking at an art journal to buy:

1. Size: Small, Medium or Large?

For myself as well as many artists I know, size is a very important matter. Too smallof an art journal, and you might find yourself feeling limited.

Too bigof an art journal, and you might find it bulky to carry around or travel with easily.

I tend to like the “just right” size of somewhere in-between, but I know this can vary between one person to another.

For this reason, I’ve noted in each journal description if more than one size is available. Many journals are excellent options simply because they do offer multiple sizes and shapes to work in!

2. Paper Quality: Can it Withstand Paint, Glue and Ink?

This is a huge consideration when choosing an art journal. You need paper that can handle things like paint, ink and glue!

In the past, I have bought journals that claimed to be able to withstand some light watercolors, only to learn the pages were not suitable for any sort of water or paint.

If you don’t mind wrinkled pages or work mostly in collage layers, thin paper may not bother you. For me, high quality paper that is able to withstand the test of  watercolors, acrylic paint, and glue without wrinkling is essential.

3. Binding Method: Spiral bound or sewn binding or something else?

It’s a long debated topic amongst people who love to art journal, although most of us love all journals enough that we’ll likely try them all within our lifetime anyways!

Spiral bound journals can allow for more flexibility in moving around the pages. Sewn sewn binding journals can withstand a lot of wear and tear.

4. Price Point: What’s the Best Value for Your Budget?

When I first started art journaling as a teenager, I had a zero dollar budget. I think the benefits of art journaling are so immense, it is something that should be easily accessible to everyone, regardless what their price and budget might be.

While I do list a couple of really nice options that are in the higher price ranges, I also made sure to include several that are typically available for under $15.

5. Personal Experience: Do They Pass the Test of Time?

Each and every one of these journals are ones I have personally tried and loved. The ones I recommend and share below are ones that have stood up to the test of time.

Most of them have even survived a curious hungry puppy and a couple of art journaling loving cats who live here!

I also took into consideration some of the opinions of my friends who love art journaling as much as I do, as well as average customer reviews and ratings.

This helps me take into consideration factors I might not necessarily think as “must have criteria” but ensures a well rounded viewpoint that is not completely biased.

These are My Top Picks for The Best Art Journals

#1: Dylusions Art Journals

FEATURES:Multiple Size and Shape Options Available, Heavy duty quality paper, Sewn binding, Pocket folder for ephemera and collage materials, Elastic closure, Heavy duty chipboard cover

BEST FOR: Acrylics, Watercolor, Inks, Markers

It’s no secret I love these journals – I have gone through three of them just this past year!

With features that experienced artjournalists have been begging for over the years, these journals have an excellent starting price point!

They are made of rugged heavy duty paper and construction that is able to withstand a lot of mixed media favorite products, such as paint, water, inks, and markers.

If you like something super portable, the 5×8 size journal is a very nice option to carry around as a sketchbook that can also withstand wet media.

And yes, the Dylusions journal wins the award for “most likely to be destroyed by a puppy”.

I couldn’t believe my dog tried to eat it – I had it on a bookshelf that I thought was safely out of reach! Fortunately, the damage was minimal.

BEST FOR:Acrylic, Collage, Water based markers, Pens and Ink Moleskine notebooks and journals have always been a popular choice amongst writers and artists.

You really can’t ever go wrong with the Moleskine brand for notebooks. Even if it isn’t suitable for creating with wet media, they are just sort of kinda amazing to write in. I love the cashiers journals for my everyday notes!

#3: Canson XL Mixed Media Pads

FEATURES: Heavy weight slightly textured paper for acrylics and light watercolor applications, Spiral Binding with Tearable Sheets, Affordable Price Range

BEST FOR: Acrylics, Collage, Travel, Working Journals

The paper can withstand most mixed media applications, such as acrylic paints and creating works of many different layers.

If you like to use your journal on the go or would like the ability to separate art pages from the notebook, this gives you a lot of options with the spiral binding.

Multiple paper sizes are available, and if you prefer to work in watercolor, you may also wish  to check out some of their watercolor paper as well!

When I create my own hand sewn journals, I often turn to Canson paper because it can be used for so many different applications.

#4. Strathmore Mixed Media Journals

Features: Heavy duty cover, 90 lb. 100% cotton paper, Smyth-Sewn binding for pages to lay flat.

Best for:Acrylics, Watercolor, Water-based Markers

One thing I will say about this journal is it took me some time to fall in love with it.

The 100% cotton paper is something I was not familiar with working with. However, it quickly grew on me once I realized how well it really worked with some of my favorite acrylic paints.

I also noticed that the cheaper craft paints seem to perform a lot better in this journal than they do in the others, and I suspect it has something to do with the cotton paper.

The pages also lay flat when you open the journal – which is great when creating 2 page spreads.

It does take some breaking in and getting used to due to the sturdy binding style, but it’s also designed to hold up to the test of time!

#5. How About Trying to Make Your Own Journal?

There are a lot of benefits to buying an art journal of course, but making your very own journal can be a lot of fun as well!

It’s not nearly as difficult as it may seem, and if you are on a tight budget, you can likely create it with simple materials you already have at home.

The Elusive Perfect DIY No Sew Junk Journal Prototype

This is a prototype journal I created using some interesting materials. It may not be the prettiest to look at yet (it is a prototype after all, so very “bare bones basic”!) – but that’s the fun part of creating a junk journal!

The journal features pages you can reposition and assembly is easy – no sewing required!

This is one of my favorite journals I have made in the past 5 years of learning to bind my own books – so hopefully you will enjoy it!

And, if you’re up to the challenge for a little more advanced bookbinding techniques, you can always try my Not-So-Stabby Journal or the Sewn Binding Blue Jean Journal technique I share on our site!

There are so many choices for the different things you can use as an art journal, and the journal you ultimately decide upon will of course depend on your personal preferences and the types of art mediums you create with.

There are a LOT of different factors to consider when you’re choosing your art journal, and trying to really find the best ones out depends a LOT on what type of art you like to make and what mediums you use!

Everyone will likely have their own preferences, but hopefully this list of my favorite journals for art journaling will give you a lot of great options and ideas.

Whether you are new to the whole art journal world, or whether you are looking for something new to try, my hope is this post will help you navigate the sometimes overwhelming ocean of notebooks, sketchbooks, and journals available out there!

Share Your Thoughts: Which Journal is Your Favorite?

So many great journals featured in this list of the best art journals – it is only a matter of time and experimenting for you to decide which one you like best!

Do you have a favorite art journal? What are your thoughts? I’d love to hear what art journals you consider to be the best of the best in the comments section below!

Sharing is caring!

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90,000 What is a low-cost airline and how low-cost airlines work

Low-cost airlines, low-cost airlines, discounters, low-cost and low-cost airlines – all these are the names of the same cheap type of air transport, which appeared long ago in the West, and is now actively developing on the Russian market. Its essence is the ability to fly cheaper, sacrificing comfort and unnecessary services.

At first, when young low-cost companies needed to loudly declare themselves, tickets for 10, 5, or even 1 € often went on sale.Now you can hardly count on such generosity, but the opportunity to fly for 15-30 € remains today.

What’s the catch, why is it so cheap?

No catch, you can really fly abroad for the price of a modest lunch in a Moscow restaurant. You just need to know what low-cost airlines are saving on and understand how to use this knowledge to their advantage.

Briefly, the low-cost airlines’ approach to pricing can be described as follows: “we only give you the opportunity to fly, you pay for the rest”.The principle is competent and really helps to reduce costs, so many classic airlines began to apply it. For example, airBaltic, the national carrier of Latvia (like Aeroflot in Russia), offers such attractive ticket prices that it can easily be classified as a low-cost airline.

There are also fanatical low-cost airlines. In pursuit of total cost cuts, they seem to forget that they have passenger planes and people fly them. The seats on the planes of such companies are like in the subway at rush hour.Delays, late arrivals, check-in and baggage problems are the norm rather than the exception. And the process of filing and considering a complaint is so exhausting that it is easier to forget about complaints and not spoil your nerves.

But most modern low-cost airlines still choose a more “humane” business model, similar to that of traditional airlines.

What low-cost airlines save on


Airport tax is a fee for servicing an aircraft, but it is taken, of course, from passengers.How to reduce the amount of the fee and, accordingly, the price of the ticket? Fly to cheaper airports. Which airports are cheaper? Those that are older and farther from the city.

For example, the Hungarian low-cost airline Wizz Air uses the Katowice airport in Poland as one of its bases. And this airport is located 100 km from the nearest city of interest to tourists – Krakow. In general, even non-tourist Katowice is 30 km from there. Of course, public transport is developed here, and you can leave without any problems – but this is extra time and money.

Fortunately, low-cost airlines do not always have to resort to this option. Often their bases are old airports, which, in order to somehow survive, set minimum airport taxes.

These airports are usually located within the city, and tourist destinations can be reached quickly and conveniently. For example, Zhuliany airport in Kiev, from where Wizz Air flies. Or Don Muang Airport in Bangkok, which was left out of business after the opening of modern Suvarnabumi Airport and has now become the base for several Asian low-cost airlines.

Another way to reduce airport tax is to reduce the cost of the airport infrastructure. Can you imagine how much all these buses, which carry passengers to the planes, cost? And add here gasoline, maintenance, the salaries of drivers and mechanics. Boarding sleeves are a cheaper alternative to buses, but they cost money. Therefore, in the main hub of Air Asia – the LCCT terminal at Kuala Lumpur International Airport – passengers walk from the gate to the plane on foot.

However, some low-cost airlines, in order to stand out from the competition, choose more convenient airports.And, for example, the Spanish discounter vueling basically flies only to the main airports at all destinations.

Flight times and frequency

Not only passengers but also airlines pay for parking at the airport. Therefore, most low-cost airlines prefer to keep their aircraft not on the ground, but in the sky. Landing, people coming out, people coming in, taking off. And so the whole day. Like a minibus, only the interior is cleaned in between. As a result, low-cost airplanes “spend the night” only at their hub airports.

When buying a ticket, pay special attention to the departure and arrival times

Airport tax often depends on the time of arrival of the aircraft. It also has its own seasonality. Cheaper at night than during the day; during the peak tourist season it is more expensive than at other times. And the schedule of most low-cost airlines is based on these price fluctuations. Therefore, when buying a ticket, pay special attention to the time of departure and arrival.

Aircraft fleet

New machines are always given a three- or even five-year warranty.Simply because a good-quality car rarely needs repair in the first years of operation. It’s the same with airplanes.

To avoid the cost of repairing and maintaining a large staff of technicians, low-cost airlines try to fly only on new aircraft and only on one model. After the planes have served 5-6 years, they are sold to other airlines. For example, according to, the average age of the planes of the British low-cost airline easyJet is just under 5 years, and the average age of the planes of the national carrier British Air is about 13 years.By the way, this gives a reason to think about which airlines are safer to fly – budget or classic.


The average age of the low-cost airline easyJet is less than 5 years, and of British Airways is about 13 years. This gives reason to think about which airlines are safer to fly – budget or classic

Another obvious way to save money is to pack more passengers onto the plane. Therefore, low-cost airlines often order airplanes with more seats in their cabins than in the aircrafts of classic airlines. Behind the narrow aisles lies another way to make money – to sell tickets for seats with more legroom at a much higher price.

Sale period and ticket refund policy

It is unprofitable to drive an empty plane back and forth. Any airline is interested in having its planes filled with passengers by 100%. But in reality, according to IATA, the average world occupancy rate is about 70%, and every airline knows about it. They try not to talk about this out loud, but the prices for air tickets are set so that even 70% of passengers ensure the profitability of the entire flight.In other words, by buying a ticket, you pay for yourself and for half an empty seat on the plane.

The other side of this coin is that the airline knows that its flight will almost certainly pay off, but at the same time 20-30% of empty seats will remain on the plane. Why not sell out tickets for these seats and earn more? This is how regular discounts and promotions appear with low-cost airlines and classic airlines.

Airfare prices are set so that even 70% of passengers ensure the profitability of the entire flight.In other words, by buying a ticket, you pay for yourself and for half an empty seat on the plane

Early ticket sales are another way to save money. You buy a cheap ticket today with a departure date in six months. You are happy because you have saved. And the company is happy because it will use your money for free for six months. It turns out something like an interest-free loan. Moreover, a loan that does not need to be returned. Because most low-cost airlines do not allow you to return your ticket.Even a simple change in the departure date or passenger surname can cost more than the original ticket price.

However, even with a non-refundable ticket, you can get back at least part of the money. For example, if you do not show up at the airport, many low-cost airlines, including Air Asia, will refund you (even in a month and a half) the amount of the airport tax. In addition, most companies have tariff plans, according to which it is still possible to return a ticket. You will have to pay extra for such an opportunity, but, nevertheless, this is a good option if you are not at all sure about the dates.

How to buy a ticket and check-in for flight

The same economy principle applies here as in online stores. It is expensive to maintain stationary offices and their employees. Therefore, low-cost airlines sell their tickets on the Internet on their own sites. At the same time, classic airlines often sell tickets through an agent network, and each agent, of course, makes a markup.

Paying salaries to employees at airport check-in counters is also expensive. Therefore, online check-in for a low-cost airline is free, and at the airport – for money.

To maximize your savings, buy low-cost airline tickets and check in online.

Meals on board

No low-cost airline provides free meals for passengers in flight. This is another manifestation of the principle “we only give the opportunity to fly, you pay for the rest”.

In fact, eating on a plane on short flights is more of a way to entertain the passenger, or at least distract him from the flight. Indeed, is it really so difficult not to have a 2-3 hour flight? Especially if you had a snack at home or at the airport before your flight.

In order not to pay for a mediocre meal on the plane, like for dinner in an expensive restaurant, take something to eat with you. For example, dried fruit with nuts or a packet of cookies. Formally, airlines prohibit taking food on board. In practice, flight attendants never pay attention to this.

If you are still sure that you will get hungry, order food in advance on the low-cost airline’s website. So it will cost at least half the price of buying it on the plane.

Read also: 7 truths and 1 myth that you should not eat and drink before the flight

Onboard entertainment

Modern airplanes provide a variety of ways to have fun in flight. The monitor in the back of the seat in front makes it possible to listen to music, play games or watch a movie (more and more films with Russian translation and even films shot in Russia appear). Such aircraft are used by some low-cost airlines such as flydubai. But you will have to pay for the headphones and for each movie.

At the same time, in the last six months alone, several dozen airlines have announced the abolition of senseless bans on the use of electronic devices on the plane. And you will probably take one or more gadgets with you.Therefore, in order not to overpay – just charge your laptop, tablet or e-book before the flight. And don’t forget the charger, new planes already have power outlets.

Seat Selection

Low-cost airlines manage to make money even on such trifles as a seat on the plane. A classic airline always gives you the opportunity to choose a seat at check-in on the website or ask the girl at the check-in desk to sit you at the window. Low-cost airlines do not provide such an opportunity.

By default, the online check-in system will most likely give you an aisle seat. If you want to sit by the window, pay extra. If you buy more than one ticket, the system can scatter you and your fellow travelers to different parts of the cabin. If you want to sit next to it, pay extra. Need more legroom – pay even more and sit by the emergency exit or in the front row. However, this is not only a feature of discounters; classic airlines have also been selling legroom for a long time. But low-cost airlines have a greater legroom problem because their planes tend to be heavily seated.

Low-cost airlines manage to make money even on such trifles as a seat in the cabin

Low-cost aircrafts are not always 100% full. Often there are a few empty seats, and if you politely ask the stewardess, you will be transplanted without any problems. The exception is unoccupied “elite” seats at the beginning of the cabin or at emergency exits: you will almost certainly not be transferred to them. If there are no free seats, you can always ask other passengers to switch seats.


The most noticeable difference between low-cost airlines and regular airlines is the baggage policy. If a classic company always includes the carriage of one piece of carry-on baggage and one piece of checked baggage in the ticket price, then at a low-cost airline you can count on only carry-on baggage. At the same time, the surcharge for the transportation of a suitcase can be twice the price of the ticket itself.

Avoiding baggage fees is not easy, but possible. To do this, you need to be able to pack all things in your hand luggage, put them in your pockets or put on yourself.The task is not as difficult as it seems. It is generally accepted that carry-on luggage is, at best, a briefcase or a small bag. But in fact, it is usually allowed to take luggage with dimensions up to 55 × 40 × 20 cm into the cabin. And this is a loosely packed 40-liter backpack, with which, if you wish, you can even go on a hike. The standard weight limit is up to 8 kg. If you subtract the weight of the backpack itself, you get about 6.5 kg of things. It’s a lot. For comparison, a T-shirt weighs about 200 grams, jeans and sneakers about 0.5 kg each.

The additional charge for the transportation of a suitcase can be double the price of the ticket itself

When packing all things for a trip in your hand luggage, remember about the prohibitions on the transport of liquids on the plane. Their total volume should not exceed 1 liter, and the volume of each package should not exceed 100 ml. At the same time, all liquids must be packed separately in a transparent bag.

For the frugal traveler, we recommend reading Skyscanner’s review of special clothing to help you avoid baggage fees.

If you clearly understand that only carry-on baggage is not enough, pay for baggage in advance on the airline’s website. This will not avoid costs, but cut them in half or even more.

More on the topic: How to travel light and save on baggage fees


A ticket for a low-cost airline flight will be really cheap if you pack all your luggage in your hand luggage, do not order food and choose a seat on the plane, but buy a ticket and check in for the flight online.

If you are looking to save money but are not willing to sacrifice comfort – try to buy tickets for classic airlines at promotions and sales and sign up for the Skyscanner newsletter so you don’t miss out on the best deals.

Read also: 15 interesting abandoned airports in the world

90,000 Empty Square and the Power of SDN | Networking Magazine / LAN

On October 28, Moscow hosted the third international Ethernet forum organized by the Journal of Network Solutions / LAN. The key issues at the forum were the construction of data center network infrastructures, as well as the transition to programmable networks and virtualization of network functions.

The Gartner Magic Quadrant for Data Center Networks, published in April 2014, does not include a single company in the Leaders segment. According to Damir Artykov, head of the group of technical consultants of the network solutions department at HP Russia, this suggests that while in this area, where technologies are developing very rapidly, there is some mismatch between the market needs and the capabilities of vendors.

According to an HP specialist, the development of a new data center architecture is stimulated by the consolidation of large data centers, server virtualization, as well as the growing popularity of cloud models for the provision and consumption of services. The data center consolidation process affects almost all large companies. An illustrative example is HP itself: before 2011, it had more than 70 data centers around the world, today, after consolidation, there are only six. From a network architecture perspective, the trend towards consolidation means higher levels of performance and scalability, as well as business / operational continuity during the actual data center consolidation process.


Nick Williams, Senior Product Manager at Brocade, presented the next-generation data center architecture (or “Data Center on Demand”) at the Ethernet Forum. At the lower level is the physical infrastructure, the network part of which is made up of switches and routers. Above are virtualization technologies, including network and network function virtualization (NFV). Above them are controls that configure the underlying infrastructure and interact with applications, receiving instructions from them for such configuration.At the very top are control and orchestration systems (see Figure 1). Brocade identified six core technologies for such infrastructures: Fiber Channel and Ethernet fabrics, core routing, SDN, NFV, and cloud platform orchestration.

Figure 1. The structure of a new generation data center, or “data center on demand”.
Figure 2. An example of implementing a
Ethernet fabric into an existing network.

Ethernet factories are one of the technical solutions for implementing a new network architecture. According to Brocade, this is an essential element of a data center on demand. The classic three-tier architecture (access – aggregation – core) is outdated and unable to meet the new requirements – in particular, it is poorly suited for transferring traffic in the horizontal direction (“West – East”) between servers, and this direction is becoming dominant in the data center.The factory is just optimized for the transmission of “horizontal” traffic, it allows you to form many active paths with load balancing between them. All switches in a fabric are managed in the same way and constitute a single logical switch, which, among other benefits, provides the opportunity to reduce operating costs (OPEX).

Nick Williams emphasizes that although the control of the factory is carried out in a new way, it interacts with other elements of the network using standard technologies.Therefore, this solution fits well with the existing network, which allows it to be implemented in stages (see Figure 2).


Virtualization technologies are rapidly gaining popularity due to the fact that they allow you to increase the utilization rate of resources, quickly deploy new services, and simply and efficiently implement various schemes for ensuring fault tolerance. According to Damir Artykov, the most critical process for networks, which imposes new requirements on their architecture, is the migration of virtual machines, their relocation from one server to another.For example, the VMotion procedure requires L2 connectivity for the servers between which the virtual machine is being moved. Such connectivity is relatively easy to provide within a single data center, much more difficult – between geographically distributed data centers.

There are several options for solving this problem. For example, an Ethernet LAN can be stretched between data centers – over dark fiber or transport infrastructure with wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM).However, this option is mainly applicable to point-to-point schemes, when remote sites are connected by optics or protected DWDM channel. This condition is not always feasible, therefore, according to HP, customers are showing greater interest in the organization of overlaid L2 networks.

Such networks can be organized using MPLS / VPLS technologies over a routed (L3) network. HP offers another option, its Ethernet Virtual Interconnect (HP EVI) technology. It allows you to provide L2 connectivity over your existing transport network (Internet, private IP network, or MPLS infrastructure) without changing it and without considering L3 network dependencies.Using the EVI solution, you can connect up to eight geographically dispersed data centers.

Damir Artykov considers the advantages of using L2 networks effective support for virtualization systems and geographic redundancy. In addition, the implementation of virtualized L2 backbones potentially achieves much higher bandwidths than previous technologies implemented using STP or L3 mechanisms for traffic flow control.

This does not mean that the need for L3 technology is disappearing. But they, according to HP, are becoming more focused on providing remote user access to data center resources. These technologies are critical to building VPNs that provide the required level of confidentiality, integrity, and availability of information across distributed enterprise networks. An interesting trend is the growing interest in dynamic VPNs, through which remote (spoke) devices communicate with a central (hub) to establish secure VPN tunnels.These technologies greatly simplify the deployment and management of IPsec VPN tunnels, which can significantly reduce operational costs while ensuring security.

Speaking about network virtualization, Nick Williams reminds that this concept is not new: “We have been using virtual VLANs for 20 years, but in the new conditions this technology has serious problems with scalability (a maximum of 4000 VLANs are supported, which is not suitable for large cloud providers ) and mobile load support.New technologies involving the construction of superimposed virtual networks remove these restrictions. ”

According to Nick Williams, the two main protocols for encapsulating traffic in such networks are VXLAN and NV-GRE. Using them requires a controller such as VMware NSX. Another option offered by Brocade is the formation of virtual fabrics within Ethernet fabrics using the TRILL protocol. There can be up to 16 million such virtual factories. The advantage of the latter solution, says Nick Williams, is the absence of a controller.

The concept of “network virtualization” is multifaceted, including the virtualization of network devices. For HP solutions, there are two options. The first is the formation of one logical switch from several physical ones. HP calls this solution the Intelligent Resilient Framework (IRF). With such a combination, in essence, a network fabric is obtained with a single management, active use of all communication channels in load balancing mode and recovery time of less than 50 ms.IRF technology allows, for example, to move from a classic three-tier architecture to a two-tier architecture, increasing the performance, scalability and reliability of the network (see Figure 3).

Figure 3. An example of moving from a classic three-tier architecture to a two-tier architecture.

The second option is “mirrored” to the first: on the basis of one physical switch, several logical devices are formed, for example, for different departments of the enterprise.These logical devices at HP are called contexts, and the technology itself is called Multitenant Device Context (MDC). Interesting possibilities are opened by the joint use of IRF and MDC: for example, by combining two physical switches into an IRF fabric and thus obtaining a fault-tolerant high-performance platform, then you can “cut” it into the required number of contexts.


According to Boris Germashev, Regional Director of Extreme Networks for Central and Eastern Europe, Russia and the CIS, SDN’s main strength lies in its new approach to bridge the gap between the business and the network.“First of all, customers do not think about SDN or OpenFlow, but about how they can solve their business problems. And then they select technologies, – he says. “Business has become more dynamic, and the traditional static network is no longer suitable for it.”

Customers want the network to become simpler, “understand” what is happening in it, adapt to the requirements of applications and services, while it is desirable not to depend on a particular vendor and consume network services in the same way as cloud services. According to an expert at Extreme Networks, SDN provides an opportunity to realize this near-perfect picture.The main benefits of the new approach are reduced network maintenance costs and increased business agility.

At the same time, Boris Germashev debunks the myth that SDN is an opportunity to reduce capital costs through the use of cheap switches. Indeed, white boxes are being actively promoted for SDN networks, in addition, independent suppliers of network operating systems for such switches have appeared, but so far, according to Boris Germashev, the corresponding solutions are not cheaper than traditional devices.In addition, he warns that version 2.0 of the OpenFlow protocol is coming soon, which is likely to impose more stringent requirements on switches. The technology itself is becoming more complex, in addition, it is necessary to process more and more flows, therefore the switches must be high-performance and sufficiently functional.

Without diminishing the importance of SDN technology, Damir Artykov urged to consider it as complementary to traditional network technologies, not replacing them.In his opinion, SDN is most relevant at the edge of the network, where new applications and services are constantly appearing, and requirements are often changing. It increases flexibility by allowing applications to program the network themselves.

HP recommends that customers prepare now for the upcoming SDN implementation and purchase network equipment that supports SDN technologies, such as the OpenFlow protocol. The entire line of HP Networking equipment is SDN – SDN Ready, which will significantly reduce costs in the future by gradually introducing new technologies.The company’s portfolio includes more than 50 network devices with OpenFlow support and a commercial controller. In addition, the HP SDN App Store has production-ready applications that you can test and use online right now.

Obviously, SDN technologies will coexist on the same network with traditional network technologies for a long time. Therefore, it is very important to provide support for hybrid systems. For example, Brocade offers a hybrid port approach.Thanks to this mode, the same port can be used both for traditional routing or switching, and for operation using the OpenFlow protocol. This allows you to integrate OpenFlow into already deployed networks and thereby make the transition to a programmable network. In addition, the hybrid port mode allows you to efficiently use the existing uplinks for the programmable network without the need to allocate separate ports for these channels.


The key to the success of SDN, according to Boris Germashev, will be open innovations implemented in projects such as OpenDaylight, OpenStack and OPNFV, as well as multi-vendor support.“No matter how many good developers there are in a particular company, there are still more of them outside of it, so it is difficult for a single vendor to compete with the power of the open source community,” he said.

The OpenDaylight project aims to design and develop an “open source” SDN controller. At the same time, almost all major manufacturers in one way or another cooperate with this project, offering their solutions based on OpenDaylight and expanding the capabilities of the controller. “We are adding to the OpenDaylight controller what we consider important – Wi-Fi management, application traffic analytics, policy status, integration with applications such as Lync,” says Boris Germashev.

In the fall of 2014, Brocade introduced the Vyatta commercial controller based on the OpenDaylight platform. This is a key element of her portfolio of solutions. SDN supports a variety of physical and virtual network architectures with switches, routers, firewalls, VPN gateways, and load balancers from multiple vendors. Brocade promises to update Vyatta regularly as the OpenDaylight code evolves. Specifically, the commercial controller is slated to support the Cisco OpFlex Group Policy Model and Protocol, which will appear in OpenDaylight’s Lithium release scheduled for next year.Vyatta can be deployed as a virtual machine based on any popular hypervisor, Brocade says. The company also points out that any application developed for Vyatta can be ported to any other controller based on OpenDaylight.

According to Damir Artykov, the key direction of SDN development is integration with cloud infrastructure management systems. To provide interoperability between the SDN controller and the cloud infrastructure management system (based on OpenStack software), HP has developed the Virtual Cloud Networking application, the use of which provides a complete solution for cloud infrastructures.This solution provides both the management of network elements (via OpenFlow and NetConf) and interaction with the cloud infrastructure management system (see Figure 4).

Figure 4. An example of integrating an SDN controller with a cloud infrastructure management system based on OpenStack software.

OpenStack is today, perhaps, the most common platform for managing virtualized resources of the cloud platform (network, servers, storage).Most vendors support it. For example, Brocade has been offering an OpenStack plug-in for its Ethernet fabrics for over a year now, and plans to offer support across all major data center products.


SDN still has many unresolved issues. Only the OpenFlow protocol is more or less standardized, but the SDN concept is much broader than OpenFlow. Under the SDN flag, vendors offer a lot of proprietary developments that, of course, increase the functionality of the solutions, but call into question the value of an open, standardized approach.

Google’s data center infrastructure is built on SDN principles. This technology, based on OpenFlow, is used in test segments of GENI projects as well as in the experimental Internet2 network. AT&T has invested $ 7 billion this year to move to SDN infrastructure. And it’s not the only provider investing in software-defined networking. The Ethernet Forum has presented many examples of using SDN to solve specific problems (see Figures 5 and 6).

Figure 5. Using SDN to prevent the negative consequences of DDoS attacks.
Figure 6. Traffic control via SDN.

The TCP / IP protocol stack has evolved over several decades. Apparently, SDN is expecting something similar. According to many experts, even if today you are not planning to implement SDN yet, in three to five years you will almost inevitably use certain elements of the new approach.Therefore, when choosing a switch today, other network equipment or software, you need to clearly understand whether you can use it in a few years as part of an SDN network.

Alexander Barskov is the leading editor of the Journal of Network Solutions / LAN. You can contact him at: [email protected]

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One and a half tons of empty hassle: Soviet predecessors of the Gazelle

At the end of the twentieth century, the Soviet Union did not even think about creating special vans for delivering light small-scale cargo to shops and warehouses.Traditionally, this work was carried out by the most ordinary clumsy and uneconomical trucks. The fact is that in Soviet times, there were mainly large retail outlets, and then no one heard about small entrepreneurs, the main consumers of such equipment. There were, of course, Latvian RAF vans based on the GAZ-24 with a carrying capacity of up to 1 ton, but they belonged to a different, more compact class and, say, were not suitable for cargo transportation.

The first Soviet special delivery van developed at the Moscow institute NAMI

The idea of ​​creating in the USSR special compact and maneuverable vans for transporting small goods in large cities arose only with the beginning of perestroika, when our officials and engineers for the first time in their lives got acquainted with foreign spacious and economical delivery vehicles.


True, by that time, back in 1966, the Yerevan Automobile Plant (YerAZ) began to produce primitive delivery vans YerAZ-762 , which was a 70-horsepower RAF-977 minibus with a completely empty windowless body for transporting small loads.

One of the first ErAZ-762 delivery vans for the delivery of manufactured goods

Starting next year, the Scientific Automotive Institute (NAMI) for an incredibly long time and tediously developed a special low-frame one-ton model ErAZ-3730 , which entered production only in 1980.For the first time in the history of the domestic automotive industry, it showed typical signs of a delivery vehicle: a half-hood layout, an engine of optimal power (85 hp), a roomy body with side sliding doors and a raised roof.

Isothermal distribution van ErAZ-37301 for the southern regions of the USSR

Patriotic road to nowhere. First act

In the summer of 1983, the Soviet government, realizing the “special need” for light delivery vehicles, instructed US to start developing a family of 1.5-ton general purpose vehicles with a gross weight of up to 3.5 tons, which included two types of light vans, a truck and special versions.To activate works abroad, similar cars Renault, Mercedes-Benz, Ford and IVECO were purchased.

Part of this work was carried out by the Ulyanovsk Automobile Plant (UAZ), and the Ulyanovsk Motor Plant (UMP) was engaged in the creation of new diesel engines. To organize the serial production of new vehicles, it was decided to build a large assembly plant with an annual capacity of 40 thousand vehicles in the hot city of Kirovabad, Azerbaijan SSR.

The first experienced 1.5-ton delivery van NAMI-0267 in the USSR.1984

In 1984-1985, two vans NAMI-0267 with all-metal bodies and a raised roof position were assembled at the institute’s pilot plant. They were built according to the classical scheme with rear driving dual wheels of small diameter and a half-hood layout. The useful volume of a monocoque body with one side sliding door and two rear hinged doors reached 11 cubic meters.

Van truck NAMI-0267 with a high body and a right sliding door

The vehicles were equipped with an experienced four-cylinder 70-horsepower NAMI diesel engine with a working volume of 2.45 liters, a five-speed manual gearbox, a suspension on small leaf springs and 15-inch tires.The maximum speed reached 110 km / h.

At the same time, a 1.7-ton truck NAMI-3305 , identical in overall design, appeared with a cab from a van and an aluminum side platform 3.5 meters long, which developed a speed of 100 km / h. The wheelbase of these machines and all subsequent versions was 3.2 meters.

Experienced trucks NAMI-3305 with an onboard platform and an awning. 1985

Tests of a light truck NAMI-3305 at the Dmitrovsky auto testing ground

The vehicles underwent short tests at NAMI and at the test site in Dmitrov, and then there was vigorous activity on their modernization, adaptation to specific operating conditions and delivery for export.

Upgraded van NAMI-0267 of the second series with front axle shifted forward
Van NAMI-0267 of the second series with rear doors opening at an angle of 180 degrees

This is how the NAMI-0267 van of the second series appeared at the institute, in which for optimal redistribution of the total mass over the wheels, the front axle was shifted forward ten centimeters relative to the body.The NAMI-3305 truck underwent a similar operation.

Upgraded truck NAMI-3305 with front wheels advanced

The NAMI-0267 version of the third series with ventilation of the cargo compartment was developed jointly with the Ulyanovsk Automobile Plant and assembled in several copies.

Tests of the modified pre-production van NAMI-0267 of the third series

After the complete transfer of these works to Ulyanovsk, he received a modest UAZ-NAMI marking, radial tires, an improved interior, and in the 1990s it was demonstrated in expositions of new equipment at VDNKh in Moscow.

Exhibition vans UAZ-NAMI with simple body decorations

In addition, the development of its own version UAZ-3727 with a new 2.4-liter diesel engine with a capacity of 77 hp, which was based on the power unit of the Italian delivery vehicle IVECO, fell on the shoulders of UAZ. Trial vehicles, adapted for operation in southern latitudes, were tested in the Caucasus, and then the technical documentation was sent to an automobile plant under construction in Kirovabad, where they were renamed KiAZ-3727 .But then the Karabakh crisis flared up. In 1986, when the construction of the plant stopped, the advertised epic with cars of the rare KiAZ brand failed, not yet born.

Ulyanovsk version of the UAZ-3727 with a modified diesel engine from the IVECO van Experienced van KiAZ-3727, never produced at the Kirovabad Automobile Plant

Meanwhile, the Bryansk Automobile Plant (BAZ), which specialized in the development and production of secret wheeled armored vehicles, came to the fore.During the years of destructive conversion, he lost all military orders, suffered huge losses and was ready to fulfill any order for which huge empty production workshops remained for the annual production of up to 40 thousand vehicles. The decision to deploy in Bryansk the production of UAZ-3727 vans, created for KiAZ, was made in February 1989.

It is significant that the first few cars assembled in Moscow, Ulyanovsk and Bryansk, as well as the ephemeral products of KiAZ, formed a monotonous boring and rather “grayish” family of identical vans, no different from each other.All had a simple design of a radiator grille with a rectangular grille and rounded headlights, and their only difference could be considered different and rather confusing digital markings.

To the Anglo-Saxons with a bow

This situation was reversed when in October 1988 a small British design company IAD (International Automotive Design) joined the work on light vans, which, along with design, was engaged in assembling prototypes and small batches of “own” cars.At the same time, licenses for units and components that did not exist in the USSR were purchased in the West.

The best Soviet van BAZ-3778, assembled abroad. 1990

The first van with an updated exterior was assembled in the UK in December 1990 and bore the local IAD Multi-2500 marking, which was replaced in Bryansk with BAZ-3778 . It was a single-sided car with a Soviet 92-horsepower engine of the UMP design, a five-speed gearbox and an English independent front suspension with transverse springs and springs.For the first time, a kind of smoothed front fascia with round headlights, reminiscent of wide-open eyes, appeared on it. Without cargo, the van weighed 1930 kg and developed a speed of 110 km / h.

Single-sided van BAZ-3778 with an updated exterior

The next year in Bryansk it was planned to assemble the first batch of 100 vehicles and start their serial production. In reality, the opposite happened.The collapse of the USSR led to the breakdown of very fruitful cooperation with the IAD company, to which the Soviet side owed 4.5 million pounds. After resolving financial problems in 1993, the company handed over to the BAZ all that it had left from the future Russian vans – technical documentation, 20 sets of body parts and equipment. And in the same year, the first van assembled in the Russian Federation with an English accent appeared.

With renewed vigor into a new impasse. Second act

By this time, in Bryansk, taking the BAZ-3778 model as a basis, they created their own range of light vans, which consisted of seven basic models assembled exclusively from domestic units and parts.According to the requirements of the factory technologists, everything was strengthened and modified, as evidenced by the letter D in the marking.

The most common were inexpensive single-sided vans BAZ-3783D with a low all-metal body with a capacity of about nine cubic meters and a side sliding door.

Modified single-sided van BAZ-3783D with a low body. 1993

Multipurpose chassis BAZ-3783DM with the same body was used to create special vehicles of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and fire protection.They installed equipment of several types of ambulances and police vehicles, one communication vehicle and two police vehicles, which were assembled by order in single samples or in small batches.

Ambulance on the BAZ-3783DM chassis with a low body Patrol police car on the chassis BAZ-3783DM

The second group was headed by an 11-cubic van BAZ-3782D with all single-sided wheels and an elevated roof position, as well as a rare variant BAZ-3782DS with a dual-sided rear busbar.

Modified single-sided van BAZ-3782D with a high body. 1994
BAZ-3782DS van with a high body and rear gable wheels. 1995

Chassis BAZ-3782DM with the most spacious bodies served to accommodate special equipment. The whole range was closed by the BAZ-3782DA minibus, assembled in one copy.

Ambulance on BAZ-3782DM chassis with high body

All vans were equipped with a four-cylinder 2.45-liter gasoline engine UMZ-4173 with a capacity of 92 hp, a four-speed gearbox, front independent suspension and disc brakes. The uncomfortable and noisy cockpit had folding seats, but there was no power steering. Their maximum speed did not exceed 100-105 km / h.

Bryansk vans turned out to be too heavy, bulky and expensive.With the declared carrying capacity of all machines of one and a half tons, according to the results of third-party tests for the payload of the BAZ-3782D car, only 1035 kg remained, and its curb weight turned out to be 310 kg more than that of the imported BAZ-3778 model.

In the difficult 1990s with their deep problems and reforms, high production costs, lack of own units and parts led to the curtailment of work on light vans. In the period from 1994 to 1996, the Bryansk plant collected only 157 one and a half, and then returned to armored vehicles.Completion of special bodies continued until 1997.

Epilogue to the glory of “Gazelle”

Well, what about our Gazelle? Then she was just born, but her roots go back to the mid-1980s, when the first samples of NAMI vans appeared. To analyze the prospects of future delivery trucks, the technical documentation for them was handed over to authoritative specialists of the Gorky Automobile Plant, who issued positive conclusions. As a result, already in 1988, having started the development of the future Gazelle, GAZ left in force all the conceptual and constructive solutions of the cars that we described here.Such a “friendly operation” allowed the plant to preserve its time and its image and in 1994 to begin the serial production of its own lorry, known as the Gazelle.

The title photo shows a BAZ-3778 one-and-a-half-ton van assembled in 1990 by the British company IAD

90,000 battle for minds – Look At Me

According to the latest research by TNS Russia, the monthly audience of ELLE magazine in Russia reached 730,940 people, which is the highest indicator among the audiences of all fashion magazines in Russia (NRS-Russia, December 2009 – April 2010).Behind him are Vogue, Marie Claire, L’Officiel and Harper’s Bazaar. I wanted to check these measurements for myself: to what extent I reflect public opinion. 🙂

For five years I followed all the above-mentioned publications and not only on duty. However, now I can afford to forget about my professional interests and look at them from the side of a simple reader. This view is new to me, and I decided to make the experiment open to avoid bias.

It is important to note that we are not talking about any evaluations of publications, because it is pointless to dispute their quality and status (especially confirmed by TNS).This article is just a personal opinion about the June issues of five magazines and nothing more. The experiment did not include any special sequence for studying these publications, and their descriptions are also given in a free order.

The only exception I made as a reader was that I first read all the editorial columns in a row. However, this is perhaps the strongest impression that I have experienced during the whole experiment. The word of the editor, which tells about some rather mediocre moment in the life of the editor himself and / or his friends, reminds me of a text written 10 minutes before the release of the issue.No, I do not indulge myself with the thought that most editors write it in advance – this is almost bad manners in editorial life 🙂 But if the thought of such a text is very mediocre and not always transparently associated with some newfangled word or phenomenon, and for most readers it is not is of no practical value, it is best to leave the page blank. By the practical value of the editorial column, I mean a fairly wide range of incentives, for the sake of which a separate page is allotted to this text array, and sometimes more than one.For example, read a number cover to cover. Or think about the eternal. In an extreme case, to see from the side where you are wrong, but rather on the contrary – to confirm your case. If there is absolutely nothing to say, you can at least express your opinion about an actual significant event or person – such an opinion should always be with the editor of a fashion magazine, right?

As a result, after reading the letters of the editor in all the selected editions, I wanted to read on only three of the five: Vogue, Bazaar, L’Officiel.And it was Vogue that was the first. Strange, isn’t it? 🙂

Vogue is fashion. When you read Vogue, you absolutely know exactly what you are reading about. I thought for a long time: fashion or style? But after a cold calculation and logical analysis, I had to admit that it is still fashion. And whether the reader can create a style out of this – his own style – depends only on him. And it even seems to me that the L’Officiel slogan “About fashion – from official sources” would be more suitable for Vogue, if they considered it necessary to use it at all…

Vogue feels the philosophical solidity of each material, perhaps due to the fact that there are often fewer of them than, for example, in L’Officiel. Such a regularity of the syllable attracts, I want to think that every word has been verified more than once. Most often it is.

Since these five magazines are highlighted by TNS in the “fashion magazines” group, it is worth evaluating the fashion block of each heading. Perhaps the most accessible for the general reader is that in Marie Claire: often here in the collection of bows there are items from the “store opposite”, and therefore may well serve as a guide to action.The rest of the magazines are replete with haute couture and pret-a-porter creations, which most of their readers simply cannot afford, and it is not possible to find something similar in the mass market.

However, while studying Marie Claire, I didn’t leave the feeling that I had “read it somewhere before”, or rather “I read about the same thing last year”. However, in Marie Claire, roughly in the middle of the magazine, there were always one or two pseudo-intellectual or hot-social materials that were always interesting to me and justified the purchase.For example, in this issue, such material was “Light of Reason” about the hadron collider. Because, having delved into this story before its launch this year, I firmly believed that a modern woman should know about this large-scale project at least from the stories of her favorite gloss, as well as how these two beautiful words are written: first – without “n” after “a”, and the second – with two “l” :).

Marie Claire is a magazine about everything and nothing. Despite the fact that this is one of only three rating magazines, which have a slogan written on the spine, designed to reflect the positioning of publications, with a deep study of the next issue of Marie Claire, its positioning becomes as vague as the editorial concept of the magazine.

L’Officiel is for me, first of all, new names and classic stories. Of course, Vogue also opens up audiences for newcomers to the fashion industry and not only, but there are immeasurably more of them in L’Officiel. At L’Officiel, you can feel the staging of everything, right down to the photos of jars of cosmetics. The magazine is pleased with the block about other types of art, except for fashion. In it and in all other materials, one can not only feel, but even see the idea: what exactly the editors wanted to say with each material, and sometimes any of its components.The visual series of this edition excites me the most, and, despite the lack of philosophicality inherent in Vogue, until now I have always deliberately followed the acquisition of the next issue of L’Officiel.

By the way, as far as I understand, the June issue of L’Officiel is the last one where Evelina Khromchenko was the editor, so I would not discount her participation in editorial policy, no matter how praised the newly-made editor, who was previously responsible for the fashionable block: it was no better and no worse than that in Vogue or Harper’s Bazaar.

Harper’s Bazaar was the hardest thing for me. This publication is not “about us” and not “about us” at all. The point is not that the publication should “descend” to “mere mortals”, but that both the literary and visual style of the magazine is somehow aloof and cold. Perhaps this is a gloss that you can leaf through while waiting for a beautician’s appointment and leave it on a table in a beauty salon without regret.

Men’s pop magazines are made according to the principle: “Each material should be so long that you can read it in the toilet and not sit too long.”It’s about the same feeling of “fast-life”, so forgive me, Harper’s Bazaar left me.

By chance, the winner of the rating – ELLE magazine – turned out to be the last one in my hands. “Company executives and independent experts associate the rapid growth of ELLE’s audience with the successful restart of the magazine, its qualitative renewal and a large-scale advertising campaign, which the HFS / IMG Publishing House has been carrying out since last autumn.” However, I cannot say that for me this magazine has somehow changed over the years! Rather, the quote above is just a marketing statement.

ELLE has always had an extremely useful and practical fashion block in terms of identifying trends and silent “how to do it” lessons. And an absolutely luxurious beauty block. However, the first half of the magazine gave me two thoughts. Firstly, for some reason I had an association with Cosmopolitan, only in a more adult and noble version. Secondly, I remembered that I had read this particular magazine for the longest time. But for some reason I have not done this for a long time … Do they also grow out of ELLE?

My personal rating, of course, did not coincide with the TNS data, however, from the market point of view (remembering my working past), I can say that it is 90% objective: ELLE really took the best from Vogue and remained close and understandable to the general reader – those who probably read Cosmo 5 years ago.Of course, the icon of fashionable gloss Vogue could not be further than the third place, the second, of course, is absolutely fair. Marie Claire, perhaps, can completely replace ELLE for a more practical reader, but, most likely, it will supplement it for that third of readers who can afford to read another magazine. However, I have some doubts about the fairness of L’Officiel’s position. Of course, I can be accused of bias, and I did not compare the data of this study with the previous ones, but it seems to me that the “Fashionable Sentence” on Channel One could not but affect the increase in the audience of this magazine.Well, let that be my only doubt. For the fact that Harper’s Bazaar would be in fifth place in the ranking was absolutely predictable for me.

So, I have not lost anything, and my intuition, as usual, did not disappoint me: I regularly buy L’Officiel (I hope it will not lose its charm with the new editor) and almost always buy Vogue (however, if L’Officiel and will lose this charm, then he has a wonderful replacement) …

By the way, today I did one more good deed – I subscribed to the electronic version of Vogue Russia, thus contributing to the preservation of forests on the planet 🙂 Which I recommend to you too to do, especially since such a subscription is cheaper than the glossy version, and personally my fingers are already so used to the keyboard that the thrill of flipping smooth pages is a thing of the past for me 🙂

Hadoop for business

Hadoop features: what your business can use technology for

Hadoop is suitable for security and risk management, marketing optimization, financial analysis, scientific and marketing research, website indexing, data lake analysis – a large amount of unstructured information collected by a company.

According to the Syncsort study, 71% of companies are using Hadoop not only to solve new big data problems, but also to improve their work with the types of information they have been using for many years.

Hadoop for data lake analysis

“Data Lakes” – unsystematic information that the company collects from various sources for further analysis. Such data may be useful in the future or are legally required to store.

When information is stored in different sources and formats, it is not available for analysis, modeling, forecasting, and therefore useless for the company.With Hadoop, collected data can be distributed and structured, analytics set up to build models and validate assumptions.

Hadoop for processing data from social networks

There are data sets on social media that are important to analyze in order to understand customer needs. Hadoop helps extract information to enrich customer profiles: identity, marital status, interests, education, social status, etc.

Analytics helps you manage a company’s reputation, target advertising to the right audience, and improve the effectiveness of social networks as a sales channel.

Hadoop for Brand Attitude Analysis

Hadoop can collect and analyze the opinions and emotions that users express in social networks, blogs, online reviews, reviews. This helps to understand how people relate to the products and services of the company or its competitors, to assess the reputation in the market, to adjust the promotion of the product, and to predict sales.

Hadoop for processing customer behavior data

Hadoop can be useful for collecting and evaluating data about engagement and customer behavior on a company website.The platform collects data from where users come to the site, to which web page, by what search query, where they go, how much time they spend on the site, what they buy and which pages they leave.

By analyzing this information, companies can optimize the user’s journey to purchase, increase page conversion, make the website and shopping cart more convenient for an online store, and predict which products users will buy.

Hadoop for Security and Risk Management

Hadoop analyzes server log data and helps respond to security breaches.

Server logs are generated by the computer and collect network performance important to safety and regulatory compliance. Hadoop is suitable for error extraction, system crash counting, corporate network usage, and cyber attacks.

Hadoop is used to identify the causes of security breaches, assess and model risks, and detect network intrusions. This helps to develop ways to defend against intruders.

Hadoop for geodata analysis

Retail, automotive, manufacturing and retail companies may, with the consent of customers, collect data on their movements through smartphones and tablets, then store and analyze the information.This allows us to predict customer visits, make offers to users taking into account their geolocation, and build optimal routes for transport. Hadoop will help you store, optimize, and process a huge amount of geodata.

Hadoop for processing data from the Internet of Things

Hadoop is suitable for processing data from various IoT devices. These can be personal IoT, for example: fitness trackers that give information about the user’s location and habits, or smart home devices.

IoT is also used in urban ecosystems and industry to support the production process and infrastructure management, monitor vehicles and goods, and develop smart engineering systems such as electricity, gas and water supply.

Processing data from IoT systems allows companies to reduce costs, improve product quality, optimize production and increase sales.

Hadoop to create a corporate data center

Using Hadoop, they process and analyze arrays of internal company data obtained in the course of work or interaction with customers.

For example, retailers analyze data on purchases, warehouse balances, assortment of stores. Transport companies analyze the movement and speed of vehicles, the time of transportation. Banks predict and assess the number of transactions, customer flow, and the risk of fraudulent activities.

You can also create a corporate data center based on Hadoop, from which users will take information for work.

How companies use Hadoop

According to the results of iDatalabs research, the technology is more often used by companies working in the fields of software, IT-technologies and services, recruiting, education, healthcare.

90,000 Ukrainian magazine will come out with a blank cover in protest

There is no photograph on the cover of the September 28 magazine (issue available on sale Thursday). The accompanying inscription reads: “We came out with an empty cover, because they are trying to shut us up, and you are deprived of your right to know the truth.”

As the editor-in-chief of the edition, Vitaly Sych, noted, the editorial board of “Correspondent” took such a step for the first time.According to him, the staff of the publication is confident that the bill on libel will destroy freedom of expression, since “it will force many journalists to abandon any criticism of the authorities, which may later be called libel.” The journalist also called on other Ukrainian publications to join the protest and come out with white covers. Online publications may display black banners.

Meanwhile, the editor-in-chief of the Forbes.UA portal Leonid Bershidsky said that he did not intend to post “a big black oryasin about the libel law” on his website.On his Facebook page, he wrote that “there are a million ways to silence a journalist in a power prone to lawlessness,” and all of them are easier and cheaper than trying to prove libel in court.

The bill on the return of criminal liability for libel was adopted by the Verkhovna Rada in the first reading on 18 September. The document provides for punishment in the form of a fine of up to 10.5 thousand dollars and imprisonment for up to five years for “disseminating deliberately false information discrediting the honor and dignity of another person or undermining his reputation.”Parliament will return to consideration of the bill this week.

On September 25, an all-Ukrainian protest action against the new law started. The action was supported by the country’s leading online publications, including Ukrainskaya Pravda,,,,, TVi, LigaBusinessInform, Telekritika and others.

Information and news weekly “Correspondent” has been published by the Ukrainian holding KP Media since 2002. The publisher’s website says the magazine “does not support any parties or blocs,” and its editorial policy “meets Western standards for independent journalism.”The circulation of “Correspondent” is 50 thousand copies.

90,000 Moisture for potatoes – “Agrotechnics and Technologies” magazine – Agroinvestor

Magazine “Agrotechnics and Technologies”

Read the issue

Food production has always directly depended on the availability and distribution of water resources in the area.Currently, the planet on irrigated areas, which occupy 17% of the amount of agricultural land, produces about 40% of all food for humanity. Thanks to irrigation, the yield of agricultural crops increases significantly. Moreover, it becomes possible to obtain several harvests per year, and therefore, the need for plowing additional areas for agriculture is reduced.

However, not all crops respond equally well to irrigation. This is due to their biological properties, economic purpose and response to certain soil and climatic conditions.For example, with full irrigation and the observance of other elements of agricultural technology (soil preparation, fertilization, plant protection, etc.), the yield of sunflower will increase by about 50%, wheat – by 70%, sugar beet – by 100%, and potatoes will respond to such intensification by increasing the yield by 250%.

This valuable tuberous plant is considered unique also because, along with peanuts, onions and carrots, its “dietary productivity” is especially high: the energy value of potatoes grown using 1 cubic meter.m of water is 5600 calories. For comparison, the corresponding volume of corn contains 3860 calories, wheat – 2300 calories, and rice – 2000 calories. In addition, this crop volume, grown using 1 cu. m of water, contains 150 g of protein and 540 mg of calcium, which is two times higher than the yield of protein or calcium from the corresponding volume of corn or wheat.

Water Management

Modern high-yielding potato varieties are sensitive to soil moisture deficits and require frequent surface watering.For example, medium-late varieties with a growing season of 120 days consume 500-700 mm of water per season. Therefore, the task of “water management” is to maintain the required soil moisture during the season and to prevent its fluctuations (under- and waterlogging).

The water content of potatoes is 90-95% of the leaf material and 75-85% of the tuber material. When the water content in the soil decreases to 60-65% of the available moisture (the difference between the total field moisture capacity and the wilting point moisture), the culture experiences stress.However, excess water also leads to negative consequences. Due to excessive waterlogging during the formation of seedlings, potato seeds begin to rot in the soil, and the stalk becomes sparse. There is also a high probability of developing rhizoctonia (especially against the background of low temperatures). With a lack of moisture at this stage of growth, the stalk will be thinned as a result of slowing down the process of suberization of the wound surface (in the case of cut seeds). In addition, the susceptibility to rot caused by the bacterium Erwinia carotovora increases.

Excess moisture at the stage of setting stolons (underground lateral shoots on which tubers develop) can cause physiological disorders in them (brown and / or empty center), increase susceptibility to verticilliosis, and also lead to the loss of NO3 ions in the root layer.

If, during this phase of development, the potato does not receive moisture, then its growth rates will stop, the rate of fertilizer assimilation will decrease and the likelihood of developing common scab will increase.

During the formation of tubers, excess moisture is fraught with physiological disorders and an increase in the likelihood of late blight. In addition, excess water during this period leads to an increase in the size of the lentils, turning them into a gateway for infection. Also, excess moisture increases the likelihood of developing rot (fusarium, pythium, late blight).

If the tubers are experiencing a large liquid deficiency, they begin to develop disorders of the vascular system (Jelly ends, glandular spot, etc.)and in some varieties, the strengthening of the peel slows down. Another lack of moisture threatens with a decrease in the rate of formation of the productive mass of a crop and an increase in the yield of ugly tubers. The dying off of tops and the development of Alternaria are also not excluded.

At the stage of harvesting potatoes, excess moisture in the soil increases the susceptibility of tubers to mechanical damage (compression-shear). And due to the fact that the moist soil sticks to the tubers, the likelihood of rot during storage increases.From a lack of moisture during harvesting, hard lumps are formed in the soil, which are poorly sifted. When hitting earth clods and the surface of the equipment, dark spots form on the tubers, which can be seen only after peeling off the peel.

Since potatoes react to waterlogging and lack of moisture differently at different stages of development, it is necessary to comply with irrigation rates at each stage of growth. If during the vegetative development of the culture, the setting of stolons and the formation of tubers, the soil should be moistened by 75-85% of the PPV (full field moisture capacity), then after the ripening of the tubers, the moisture content should be reduced to 60-65%, and during harvesting it should be slightly increased to 65-70%.

In order to select the correct irrigation regime, it is necessary to understand the term evapotranspiration (ET). Evapotranspiration is the sum of evaporation from the soil surface and evaporation from the leaf surface as a result of plant respiration. The value of ET depends on environmental factors and characteristics of the culture. It grows as solar radiation, temperature, wind speed and leaf surface development index increase. ET decreases in proportion to the increase in relative humidity, as well as in the case when the stomata of plants are closed as a result of stress.

As a rule, irrigation systems are designed in such a way as to implement in 24 hours the application of a volume of water in mm, equal to the maximum ET in a given area for a given crop. For example, in the conditions of the Krasnodar Territory, the maximum ET is 11 mm, in the conditions of central Russia – 5-6 mm. (Average ET values ​​can usually be found at local meteorological stations.) Sometimes the irrigation rate is significantly higher than the daily evapotranspiration. For example, this is done in order to store water in the root layer for several days.As a rule, this is necessary when using self-propelled linear machines, as well as positional irrigation (with machines such as the Dnieper, Volzhanka). In this case, it is necessary to take into account the presence of moisture in the lower layers of the soil and not forget about its susceptibility to erosion.

Significantly reduce soil erosion at high irrigation rates with sprinklers that provide low instantaneous rainfall (amount of water in mm) delivered by the sprinkler at any given time).Thus, modern machines manufactured by the American firms Nelson (Rotator sprinkler) and Senninger (I-Wob sprinkler) have a spray diameter of up to 18 m. At the same time, the area on which the liquid falls is five or more times larger than the area that can be treated ordinary sprinklers of the “spray” type or slotted units (DDA-100 of the Volgograd irrigation equipment plant, “Kuban” of the Krasnodar machine-building plant “Raduga”). Moreover, the droplet released by the new aggregates is large enough not to be blown away by the wind, and has low kinetic energy, so it does not destroy soil aggregates.The greatest irrigation efficiency can be achieved by installing your own weather station, as well as placing soil moisture sensors in different parts of the field.

Better than rain

At present, almost all large processors, for example, the Fritolei company (a manufacturer of chips in Russia, has two factories in the Moscow and Rostov regions), demand from their suppliers potatoes grown in irrigated areas. In this regard, Russian potato growers faced a dilemma of which irrigation technology to prefer.

The optimal irrigation method is the one that will provide the agricultural producer with the greatest return on investment. Therefore, before choosing an irrigation method, the investor should take into account not only the size of the investment, but also factors such as the presence and distance from the field of a water source, the existence of local infrastructure, trained machine operators, etc.

Currently, the following methods are used to grow crops irrigation: gravity, drip irrigation and sprinkling.

The gravity method has two approaches: furrow, when irrigation water is directed along furrows (ditches) to irrigated crops, and estuary, in which irrigation water is supplied to a certain area (usually bounded with earth) by continuous flooding.

In the Soviet Union, hydraulic engineers used to say: “There are two ways of irrigation – estuary and“ correct ”. The fact is that gravity irrigation was used only by poor agricultural enterprises. On the one hand, this method of irrigation does not require high-tech materials, on the other hand, it has a lot of disadvantages.These include uneconomical consumption of irrigation water, uneven irrigation across the site, large losses of water when supplied to the final destination, the need to periodically carry out work to protect the soil from salinity and constantly take measures to protect the soil from water erosion. In addition, with this method of irrigation, it is impossible to apply protective agents and fertilizers.

Drip irrigation is most often used for irrigation of perennial crops (orchards, vineyards) or crops with high profitability (as a rule, these are vegetables: tomatoes, peppers, watermelons, melons, etc.).e). In order to supply the plants with water, plastic pipes with holes (emitters) are brought to them, which are arranged in such a way that water flows out of them in the form of a drop at intervals of 10-20 seconds. This is enough for a permanently wet drop-shaped spot with a diameter of 25-35 cm and a depth of 40-50 cm to form in this place in the soil (depending on the texture of the soil).

For potato irrigation, drip irrigation is also suitable, but it must only be used with one condition.Before harvesting, you must remove all pipes or carefully dig up the tubers. Otherwise, the pipes can entangle the working parts of the potato digger or potato harvester.

The advantage of drip irrigation over other methods is the economical use of water, which is supplied directly to the zone of the plant root system, and not to the aisles. The disadvantages include high capital and daily costs, problems with the disposal of pipes damaged during harvesting.

Sprinkler irrigation is considered the most effective irrigation technology. This method is suitable for all crops, as it mimics the natural process of rain. Here are just tomatoes after the phase of pinking the fruit should not be irrigated from above. This can lead to the development of fungal diseases. To avoid unpleasant consequences, it is worth using a special option on the sprinkler, which allows you to drain the supplied moisture into the row spacing. Depending on the type of equipment used to deliver water to plants, several types of sprinkling are distinguished.

Sprinkling with the use of self-propelled circular wide-grip machines (pivots) is the most common method of irrigation in industrial agriculture due to low labor costs and the ability to use it on large areas.

This method is applicable to all field crops. For example, all American farmers (with the exception of Maine farmers, as it is located near the Atlantic) use it to irrigate potatoes.

Pivots can work in fields with a slope of up to 15%.A corner watering wing can be used to water the field corners. Using this device on an arable land of 64 hectares, it is possible to irrigate almost the entire territory (63 hectares), while without using this device, the pivot will cover only 53 hectares.

Due to its good uniformity, this type of irrigation is suitable for carrying out chemigation (application of fertilizers and plant protection products through the irrigation system). In addition, the inlet pressure at the pivot is relatively low – 2.5-3 atm.

There is also a towed version of the pivots.It is usually used as a temporary irrigation tool until money has been accumulated for more serious technology. Its plus is that one machine can serve several fields, but additional time is spent on turning the wheel brackets and towing. While this method of irrigation is used by units.

In all countries in industrial agriculture, along with the use of pivots, self-propelled linear machines are widespread. This method of irrigation is used on all types of crops.In particular, 50% of potato growers use it in Russia.

When irrigating, such a machine can use water from hydrants or from an open channel. Compared to circular installations, linear machines are more laborious to maintain, but they can irrigate almost the entire area of ​​farmland (up to 99%).

Another method of irrigation – sprinkling from a self-propelled reel with a water cannon – is most often chosen by farmers who are just starting to introduce irrigation in relatively small areas (the optimal area for such an installation is 30-40 hectares).

To ensure optimal irrigation and movement, the pressure at the inlet to the machine should be about 6-7 atm. This increases the energy consumption for pumping the liquid or leads to the need for laying large-diameter supply pipes, since the frictional head losses are reduced in the large pipe.

This technique is labor intensive (it needs to be moved to the next position more often) than the above types of machines. Also, for the operation of a self-propelled reel, a rather large (in comparison with circular wide-grip machines) area is required for the movement of the machine in operating mode across the field (tramlines).When choosing this technique, farmers should think about the uniformity of irrigation of the field with a changing or gusty wind.

Other types of equipment also require considerable labor – portable pipes and pipelines on wheels (such as Side Roll or Volzhanka), which are used on all crops. The use of these systems is difficult in the second half of the growing season, when the stalk (especially tall crops) becomes too tall.

In the United States, older potato farms use this irrigation method to keep Mexicans busy after planting and before harvest (so they don’t go home to Mexico).In Russia, however, pipelines on wheels in almost all farms are out of order.

From which they are watered

At present, in the industrial farms of the USA, Europe, Australia and Asia growing potatoes, the most widespread are self-propelled sprinklers due to their high uniformity (90-95%), versatility (in relation to other crops in crop rotation), low labor costs when covering large areas (from 1 to 200 hectares) and the possibility of using chemigation.

Russian farmers also prefer self-propelled vehicles. Despite the fact that pivot irrigation machines require less costs both for installation and for further operation, often enterprise managers opt for linear machines due to the fact that their farms already have a ready-made infrastructure (canal, underground water supply system with hydrants ). This may also be because their fields have a strictly limited rectangular shape (forest belts, capital roads, etc.)e). At the same time, the agrarians agree that they would prefer circular machines on newly introduced lands for irrigation.

The Prikubansky farm (Krasnodar Territory) grows 1300 hectares of potatoes, onions, carrots, beets and radishes, which are very demanding on moisture (the irrigation rate is 9-30 mm). “We made the choice in favor of linear machines in 2006, because we already had the infrastructure – underground highways and hydrants, which we inherited from Soviet times,” says the director of the enterprise Oleg Chichmarenko.“However, three years later, when we purchased several circular machines, we realized that in the future we would only use them. In our conditions (depending on the type of crop, its profitability, etc.), investments in irrigation using this type of technique pay off very quickly – within two years. For comparison, the cost of installing linear machines will pay off in about 2-4 years (see table “Comparison of costs for installation and use of different irrigation systems”).

By the way, there are not so many companies in the world that produce circular and linear machines.First of all, these are large American companies – Valley Valmont, Lindsay Zimmatic, TL, Reinke (Oleg, it is better not to mention yourself in the text. At the end of the article, it will be indicated that you are an employee of Reinke). Currently, due to the exchange rate difference between the dollar and the euro, their equipment is cheaper than the units of the European companies RKD, Shamartin group, 2IE, Bauer.

With the help of circular machines in the farm “Svetlana” (Vladimir region, a supplier of potatoes for the company “Fritoley”) over the past three years, several hundred hectares for irrigation have been put into circulation.“Without irrigation on our lands, you can get 12-25 tons of potatoes per hectare. And you may not get it, since we have sandy soils. Therefore, back in 2003, we purchased self-propelled reels, which paid off in two years, and then bought more circular machines, – says Andrey Sinitsyn, head of the farm. – Despite the fact that these tools do not cover the corners of the fields, they are good because they are undemanding to the relief, they can irrigate both every day and once every two or three days. In addition, one person can serve 10-15 of these machines.Thanks to these units, we have a yield of 35-40 tons of potatoes per hectare. ”

And here are the farmers who grow their products on lands with an open network for sprinkling (at present, the networks created in the Soviet Union in 1970-1990 and designed for sprinkling with DDA-100 machines, which are aggregated with the DT-tractor, still exist and are in operation. 75) and those who rent old equipment are afraid to invest in the creation of the capital infrastructure necessary to operate circular and lateral machines.They are not confident that their investment will be able to pay off. And the reason for this is not so much the level of profitability of the cultivated crop, as the fear of becoming a victim of raiders or local scrap metal collectors.

Feed in the “rain”

Recently, large fattening farms (cattle, etc.) began to look for ways to increase the return on their feed-producing lands by irrigation. Thanks to irrigation of forage lands, it is possible to achieve 4-5 cuttings of perennial grasses instead of 1-2 on dry land.
In practice, farmers have determined that the productivity of perennial grasses when irrigated can reach 50-75 t / ha of green mass. And the harvest of corn for silage due to irrigation increases several times from a unit of area.

Elite Arable Land

From 1990 to recent times in Russia there has been a massive degradation of agriculture and its elite fund – irrigated land.

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