3 in 1 fax machine: All-In-One Printers & Multifunction Laser Printers


Advantages of Multifunction Printers | Small Business

Most printer manufacturers offer multifunctional models that provide the capabilities of multiple machines in a single unit. These devices often include print, scan, copy and fax capabilities in the form of one all-inclusive machine. Originally marketed for home and small business users, many manufacturers now offer larger and more robust models for medium to large business use. Understanding the advantages and disadvantages of a multifunction printer helps you make an informed decision when purchasing new equipment.


A multifunction printer offers the convenience of additional features you may not have purchased otherwise. For example, if you normally do not send or receive many fax messages, you may not have invested in a separate fax machine. However, a multifunctional printer that includes fax capabilities allows you to send or receive the occasional fax without an added expense. In addition, the ability to scan an image and then print that image using the same machine offers another level of convenience by saving you the time of walking to two separate devices.

Space Savings

Perhaps one of the greatest advantages of a multifunctional printer includes the space savings offered by the device. Rather than having to find space for a printer, a copier, a fax machine and a scanner, you can have the same functionality in a single machine. This space savings may benefit those trying to make the most of their home office space or those working with significant space constraints.

Cost Savings

Another advantage of a multifunctional printer includes the cost savings of purchasing one device that performs multiple functions. Although the purchase price for an all-in-one printer may exceed that of a traditional printer, the overall cost typically remains less than purchasing multiple machines. Therefore, you can benefit from increased functionality without paying for each feature. In addition to the savings associated with the original purchase price, maintaining one device costs less than maintaining multiple devices.

Power Savings

Multifunction printers typically require one cord to power the entire device. Not only does this reduce cable congestion, it lowers the electricity required to run the device. This power savings also leads to increased cost savings.


The biggest disadvantage of a multifunctional device becomes apparent when a problem occurs. Due to the multifunctional nature of the device, a problem with the printer may cause all features to fail. For example, a problem with an ink or toner cartridge may prevent you from printing, copying and receiving faxes. Another disadvantage of a multifunctional printer includes the potential lack of quality or performance when compared to single function devices. For example, the fax machine on a multifunctional device may not offer the same features as those offered by a standalone fax machine.


Writer Bio

Mindi Orth began writing in 1996 as a technical writer for a consulting firm. She has experience in business documentation and has authored training and instructional materials. Orth holds a Bachelor of Arts in English from Baldwin-Wallace College.

Fax Machines and Copiers | Newegg

Send secure information and make immediate copies of received transmissions with fax machines and copiers. Traditional fax machines keep transmissions secure and make sure they go to the intended recipient. Streamline information processing with machines that combine fax and copying functions, so users can make duplicates of important faxes upon receipt. Choose basic machines for sending and receiving, or go with all-in-one options that include copying, emailing and printing for complete office setups in one location. Consider caller ID and speed dial functions for businesses that send faxes to the same numbers frequently. A wireless fax machine provides simple connectivity over networks without requiring cables.

Laser Fax Machines Combine Multiple Functions

Reduce the need for multiple machines with multifunction fax machines and copiers. All-in-one devices combine print, fax, copy and scan functions, providing single-unit setups that reduce the need for separate printers, flatbed scanners and facsimile machines. Bluetooth® and Wi-Fi® connectivity functions let users access the machines and save scanned and received information on the network or to cloud-based services. Multifunction printers (MFPs) use the printer for processing received text and images. The built-in fax digitizing tools double as scanners for creating digital files. The scanner unit quickly sends the information to the phone number entered for fast data transmission. Some multifunction laser printers include telephone handsets for quick verification calls. Choose models with dual trays that let users make copies and receive faxes without changing the paper.

Send and Receive Information Securely

Laser and color fax machines include security features that keep information safe. With storage ranging from 1GB to 1TB, these devices store numerous sent and received documents for retrieval and protect against lost pages. Models with password protection require users to enter the correct information before receiving transmissions, keeping sensitive documents out of the hands of unintended recipients. Fax machines resist hacking and cannot receive viruses, making them a secure option for offices. Caller ID features on some wireless fax machines make sure that users know exactly who sends each transmission. Speed dial and memory functions store frequent recipients and help users send faxes to the correct numbers quickly.

Streamline Specialized Workstations

Create specialized workstations with a combination of multifunction laser printers and document scanners that digitize and save text and graphics. Create memory cards or CDs and share information with specific clients. Add a specialized scanner that handles business and ID cards, slides or film, depending on the industry and office requirements. Quickly transmit blueprints and other oversize documents with a large-format scanner that digitizes and scales the information, and send it to foremen and offices for a quick turnaround on requirement changes. A mobile scanner creates digital files outside the office, which users can print and send with a laser fax machine when they return. Look for portable fax machines for offsite use that provide secure transmissions with only a telephone line connection. These smaller models provide quick communication without uploading, downloading and scanning for industries that require timely responses.

The Best Fax Machine in 2021

Best Fax Machine Shopping Guide

Since fax machines are still an essential part of the business world, even in the era of smartphones, there are a few things you should know when shopping for one.

Features To Look Out For

All fax machines tend to have the same basic role: you can send one or more printed pages using a fax number. However, this is the basic function these fax machines initially came out with. Now the technology has evolved by heaps and bounds and there are more features that you should look out for, depending on your requirements.

All-in-one functionality

While you can always buy a fax machine that does all the tasks a fax machine is supposed to do and nothing else, you can also buy an all-in-one scanner/printer/fax machine. This will help you save money and space by having one solution for all your needs.


Many fax machines today also come with built-in WiFi so you can easily send documents directly from your smartphone, computer or tablet to a specific fax number. This is a lot like wireless printing, an amazing convenience that will leave you hooked for life!

Speed dial and memory

Anyone who has used fax machines in their life knows that faxing can take a while. Even if you get the fastest fax machine in the world, it will still go one page at a time, which can be troublesome if you have multiple pages to send and a deadline to meet. However, this problem has been combated by newer models that have managed to cut down on the time that a fax takes by having local storage for numbers that are often used and offer speed dial for them. If you know you’re going to be sending faxes to the same numbers then you can rid yourself of the inconvenience of redialing by getting the best fax machine equipped with features like memory and speed dial.

Caller ID

You’ll be surprised to know that caller ID doesn’t exist on every fax machine, even though it should since it can make it easier to see who’s sending you a fax. If you’re using your fax machine to receive an abundance of faxes daily then you should consider investing in a model that supports caller ID.

What Is The Difference Between Fax Machines vs. Internet Faxing Services?

When you’re shopping for a fax machine online, you might come across internet faxing services. But what is it and how is it different from physical fax machines?

Well, we’re glad you asked. Internet faxing services help you fax documents from the internet straight to your machine. While this does sound great, there are always pros and cons to everything; physical fax machines and internet faxing services both. Lucky for you, we have everything you should know:

Fax machines

Fax machines are designed to use traditional phone lines in order to establish what we call a one-to-one connection. They can be pretty loud and heavy while also being reliable and secure, making them the best partner for every business. If you opt for a physical fax machine, you will have to bear the cost of ink, paper and a phone line. However, this way you won’t have to worry about your cost per page being higher over the long term than you could expect with a web faxing service.

Internet faxing services

These services charge a per-use fee in order to send electronic documents to other fax machines. Even though you can opt for an internet faxing service because of its convenience, it can be less secure and far more expensive than physical fax machines. Moreover, most online faxing services also tend to make you sign a user agreement that violates your privacy. This way they get the permission to read the documents you fax. So if you’re a private person or just sending confidential documents, this can be an issue for you.

Tips You Should Know

If you’re looking to fax a document that is printed on both sides then you will have to send each side as an individual fax. Since most fax machines don’t happen to support double-sided faxing, you will have to take the longer route for this. The first step would be to fax one side of a double-sided document and then the other in order to send the complete document to the recipient.

When buying a fax machine, keep in mind that you should be noting down the measurements of various models while making sure you have enough room on your workstation to accommodate the device. Since it can be pretty boxy and bulky, it can take up a decent amount of space and you might even need to buy a printer stand for it. Although this doesn’t get in the way of you buying a fax machine, these decisions need to be made before you’ve done the deed.

Moreover, if you are looking to send a fax to a phone number that has an extension line then make sure to include that extension when you dial the number on your fax machine. Although there are most modern machines that can understand and fully support additional numbers when dialing a phone number, you should always make sure to put in the correct sequence so that your fax reaches the person you had intended it to reach and not anyone else. You don’t want your confidential fax to fall in the hands of the wrong person now, do you?


Do I need a landline for a fax machine?
It is possible to not have a landline phone line and still have a fax number. You can use an online fax service to host a fax number that will be accessible through the internet. However, in order to use a physical fax machine or a computer with fax software, it is necessary to have a landline phone line.

Can I fax from a printer without a phone line?
You can plug the fax machine into a phone jack in order to send a document using a WiFi printer. The only possible way you can fax from a wireless printer when you don’t have a phone line is when you have a special fax machine. This should have a setting that lets you connect to your mobile cellular network.

How do I fax without a fax machine?
Just simply use an online faxing service or an mobile app called eFax available on the Google Playstore for Android and the Apple App Store for iOS.

This app can help you send and receive faxes directly from your smartphone or tablet without ever having to use a fax machine.

Pros and Cons of All-in-One Printers

Buying a new printer for your small or mid-sized business might seem like a relatively straight-forward task until you realize the vast number of options associated with the decision: Should you opt for a standalone printer or one of those all-in-one machines? Inkjet or laser? Color or monochrome? Do you need collating, two-sided printing, or large input trays? What about wireless?

Many small and mid-sized businesses today are opting for laser printers for large volume jobs, as opposed to an inkjet they might have at home for the occasional photo printing. At the same time, the multifunction printers can also handle scanning, copying, and faxing. Here are some of the pros and cons of a laser-based all-in-one printer.

Pros of all-in-one printers

Buying a multifunction laser printer can save your company space, money, and aggravation.

“Many small businesses simply don’t have the room for three or four dedicated machines for printing, scanning, copying, and faxing — nor do they likely have the funds to purchase three or four separate devices,” says Keith Kmetz, vice president of hard copy solutions at IDC, a Framingham, Mass.-based technology research and advisory firm. An all-in-one printer “consolidates all these important office features into one box, so you can better manage all your document management activity in one place.”

Having just written a report on all-in-one printers, Kmetz says he found space-saving issues “come up a lot in small business and home-based offices” and any measures to cut costs are important considerations for small businesses, especially in an ailing economy. “You could spend many thousands of dollars for a dedicated printer, flatbed scanner, copier, and fax machine,” he says, “compared to only a couple hundred dollars for a reliable multifunction machine.

Having one machine that does it all also makes it easier for maintenance, such as downloading just one driver update (opposed to up to four of them) and purchasing “consumables” such as ink or toner, paper, and other supplies. One machine also consumes less power than three or four printers.

“Any time you can integrate multiple functions in one device you’re taking advantage of less space, lower costs, and fewer hassles when it comes to drivers and support,” confirms Michael Gartenberg, vice president and research director at New York-based Jupiter Research, which was acquired in 2008 by Forrester Research.

Cons of all-in-one printers

As with any converged device, a clear downside is if something goes wrong with your product you’ll likely be without everything while it’s being repaired or replaced. In other words, if the scanner in your all-in-one device fails to work and you send it out to be fixed, you’re now without a printer, copier, and fax machine, too. Such is the problem when “putting all your eggs in one digital basket,” as Gartenberg puts it.

“Indeed you’ll lose all functionality while your multifunction printer is being serviced,” explains Kmetz. But if you have more than 100 or 150 employees, he says, chances are you have more than one all-in-one printer, “so it won’t be too catastrophic. ” On that note, it’s recommended to have a networked multifunction unit (wired or wireless) for offices with many PCs.

When it comes to quality, Kmetz, who says he’s been following the multifunction printer market for the past 15 years, says there isn’t a clear difference between standalone products and multifunction ones anymore. “Multifunction printers used to be a generation or two behind its single device counterpart when it came to quality but this is not the case anymore,” Kmetz says.

Gartenberg agrees. All-in-one printers, he says, “have come a long way — the quality has caught up to the convenience for the most part — so it boils down to your comfort level with the pros and cons, the cost per copy and what you plan on using it for.”

The 3 most common printer types

Whether you have a brick-and-mortar or Internet based business, you’ll surely need to print out some documents at one time or another. The question is, do you even have a printer? There are an increasing number of businesses who don’t. Considering how everything is setup on the Web nowadays, it kind of makes one wonder what type or printers are being used in the offices these days?

These three printers below are the most common printers found in offices these days.

Multi Function Printers (MFP)

Multi Function Printers are also commonly known as all-in-one printers. With this type of device, your printing, scanning, faxing and photocopying needs are covered! These printers usually come in a variety of sizes with many being small enough to fit onto a small desk.

Aside from the multi function features that MFPs have, these are the common benefits that business owners can gain from this type of printer.

  • They take up less room.
  • They are usually lower in cost. Though it may seem expensive compared to the other types of printers, if you consider buying a fax machine, scanner, photocopier and a printer, you’ll find that buying an MFP is actually a lot more affordable.

Inkjet Printers

Inkjets print documents by spraying ink onto paper, and can usually produce prints with a resolution of 300dpi (dots per inch) with some actually able to print documents as high as 600dpi. This makes them ideal for printing saller images and reports.

What most business owners like about inkjet printers is the fact that they are usually affordable, making them an ideal device for businesses that just want printers. Since most offices (if not all) have computers, you’ll most likely see inkjet printers in the majority of offices. Here are some more benefits that people like about inkjet printers.

  • Fast printing speeds.
  • Can produce really high quality print.
  • Easy to use.
  • They can produce vivid colors.

Laser Printers

If there’s one very notable feature that you’ll love about laser printers, it would be the printer’s capability of producing very high quality documents. In fact, laser printers can produce copies with a resolution of 600 dpi – 1200 dpi.

One of the main differences that laser printers have is the fact that they use toner (colored or black powder) instead of the inks that are used in most other printers.

Laser printers offer users many enticing benefits including:

  • Very high resolution.
  • Fast results.
  • High volume printing.
  • No smears at all.

What type of printer should my business get?

If you are looking for a new printer, it can be a little confusing as to which you should get. If you don’t have a scanner or fax machine, it would be a good idea to look into a Multi Function Printer. Looking to print smaller or shorter documents or only occasionally? An Inkjet would probably be a better choice. If you need to print on a regular basis, or print in mass quantities a laser printer could be the best choice.

With all the types of printers available in the market, choosing a specific printer to use in your office can be quite confusing. If you need help in choosing which printer to go for, then give us a call and we’ll give you our expert advice on the matter.

How does a fax machine work?

How does a fax machine work? – Explain that Stuff Advertisement

Artwork: The basic concept of fax, short for “facsimile”: the idea is to create a replica of an original document at the other end of the telephone line.

Imagine you’re a fax machine…

Suppose you have an urgent contract you want me to sign and you need to get it to me as quickly as possible. You could mail it, of course, but that will take at least a day to reach me and another day for me to return it. You could use a courier—but, unless we live near one another, we’re still talking about a turnaround time of hours. Or you could send the contract down the phone with a fax machine in a minute or so.

Let’s imagine for a moment that fax machines haven’t been invented, but you still want to use the phone. Suppose you need to transmit a one-page document to me. What can you do? Let’s make the problem really easy. Let’s say the document can be either a totally black page or a totally white one. Now transmitting the document is really easy. You simply pick up your phone, dial my number, wait for me to answer, and then say either “black” or “white”.

Okay, let’s make the problem a bit harder. Suppose the document is a single page divided into four squares and each of the four areas can be either black or white.

Again, it’s fairly easy for you to transmit this document. You ring me up and just say “Black black white black”, “White black white white” or whatever—and I can instantly recreate the document in my mind’s eye at the other end.

Now let’s make the problem much harder. You have to send to me an entire page covered in black-and-white, computer-printed words. Actually, this problem isn’t as hard as it looks. All you have to do is divide the page into thousands of grid squares and then read out, from left to right and from top to bottom, whether each square is black or white. Suppose I’m sitting at the other end of the phone with a piece of paper ruled with an identical grid of squares. As you read out “black”, “white”, “white”, “black”, I just need to shade in all the black squares with a pencil and skip the white ones. By the time you get to the bottom of the page, my shaded-in page will look just like yours. If we make the squares small enough, so each one is slightly bigger than a pinhead, I will magically end up with an exact, readable copy of your page.

Simply speaking, this is how fax machines work.

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How real fax machines work

Well, okay, it’s not exactly how they work! A fax machine is designed to both send and receive documents so it has a sending part and a receiving part. The sending part is a bit like a computer scanner, with a CCD (charged-coupled device) that scans only one line of a document at a time, and only in black and white. Crudely simplified, it looks at each line separately, detects the black areas and the white areas, and transmits one kind of electric pulse down the phone line to represent black and another to represent white (just like saying “black” and “white”, in fact). The phone line transmits this information almost instantly to a fax machine at the other end. It receives the electrical pulses and uses them to control a printer. If the receiving fax hears “black”, it draws a tiny black dot on the page; if it hears white, it moves along slightly, leaving a white space instead.

It takes about a minute or so to transmit a single page of writing (or a complex drawing) in this clumsy but very systematic way.

What happens inside a fax machine?

Ever wondered what goes on inside your machine when you send or receive a fax?

  1. To send a fax, you feed the page into the input slot and it’s pulled in between several pairs of rollers. Larger fax machines have built-in document feeders that automatically feed in multiple pages from a stack, so you don’t have to stand at the machine feeding in pages one at a time.
  2. As the paper moves down, a bright light shines onto it. White areas of the page reflect a lot of light; black areas reflect little or none.
  3. The light reflects off the page into a light-detecting CCD (charged-coupled device).
  4. The CCD turns the analog pattern of black and white areas on the page into a numeric (digital) pattern of binary zeros and ones and passes the information to an electronic circuit.
  5. The circuit sends the digital information down the telephone line to the fax machine at the receiving end.
  6. When you receive a fax, the same circuit takes incoming digital information from the phone line and routes it to a built-in printer.
  7. In a typical personal fax machine, paper is pulled from a large roll inside the machine. (In a larger office fax machine, it usually comes from a plain-paper hopper, similar to the one in a laser printer.)
  8. The thermal (heat-based) printer, operated by the circuit, reproduces the incoming fax on the paper as it moves past.
  9. An automatic blade cuts the page and the printed fax emerges from the output slot.

You can see that there are really two separate machines in one: a fax-sender and a fax-receiver. When you use a fax machine to make quick “photocopies” of documents, the two machines link up together: instead of sending a fax down the phone line, the circuit reroutes the scanned data directly to the printer so you get a copy of your original document.

Inside a real fax

To see how it’s all set up in a real machine, take a look at this patent drawing that shows the layout of a typical Ricoh fax from the 1980s.

Artwork: 1) During scanning, the original document feeds through a series of rollers (green) along the orange-dotted path on the left, past the bright scanning light (yellow, 48). The light reflects the black and white surface of the document along the yellow and black dotted optical path into the scanner (red). The CCD (grey, 36) digitizes the image ready for transmission. When faxes are received, the thermal printer (blue, 29) reproduces them on paper feeding through from the large roll in the center. A paper slicing mechanism (green, 27) cuts the roll into single sheets as it passes by. Artwork from US Patent 4630123: Compact facsimile machine by Shigeru Kadomatsu, Ricoh Co. Ltd, 16 December 1986, courtesy of US Patent and Trademark Office.

Fax groups

Photo: How a fax machine would transmit a picture of the Mona Lisa. Every part of the image becomes either black or white. Not shades of gray, but crude, binary black or white. You can still recognize the picture, but much of the detail has been lost. This matters much less for text documents than for images.

Fax machines come in three basic kinds called group 1, group 2, and group 3. The group number is, broadly speaking, a measure of how fast the machine can send and receive: a group 1 machine sends and receives at the slowest speed (about six minutes per page), group 2 can manage a page in about three minutes, and group 3 zips along at a minute or less per page. When a fax machine first dials another fax machine, there’s a short (typically 15–30 second) period of handshaking where the machines agree on the speed they will use for the transmission. It’s always the slower machine that governs the speed so, even if you have a fast group 3 machine, it will still work at the slowest possible speed if you’re sending faxes to (or receiving faxes from) a group 1 machine at the other end of the line.

Pros and cons of fax machines

The great thing about faxing is that it’s very simple: just put your document in the machine, dial the number, wait for the other machine to reply, and hit the START button. Receiving a fax is even easier: assuming your machine is set to AUTO, you don’t need to do a thing. But there are some drawbacks too. Most fax machines use low-cost thermal printers that burn images into heat-sensitive paper (fax machines like this typically use tight rolls of paper rather than sheets). The paper is quite expensive to use, fades very quickly, and can’t be recycled in the usual way. It also takes a long time to send a fax: if it takes a minute per page, a 30-page document will take over half an hour to transmit.

Another drawback is the crudeness of faxed documents. A fax machine senses areas of black and white by shining a bright light onto the page it’s transmitting and using photocells (light-sensitive electronic components) to measure the light reflected back again. The photocells transmit when they see white areas and don’t transmit when they see black. In other words, they can’t distinguish shades of gray (or what printers call “half-tones”). That means a photograph or artwork sent by fax will lose much of its detail and may even become completely unrecognizable at the other end.

For all these reasons, many people now prefer to send documents as email attachments. They’re quicker and more convenient, you can print them out (or not, as you wish) on decent paper, and you can send and receive things in full-color and shades of gray. Perhaps most importantly, the files you receive by email are generally digital documents that you can edit in other ways, whereas a fax is essentially an analog thing—and all you can do is read it or file it (if you’re very lucky, you might be able to scan it and turn it into an editable document). Some telephone companies also offer fax-to-email services where you’re allocated a unique telephone number. If someone faxes you on that number, the company receives the fax for you at a central computer complex, converts it into an image file (such as JPG or TIFF) or PDF, and then forwards it on to you by email. In much the same way, most computers that have a dialup (fax) modem can also send faxes to people very easily without extra equipment. So, dated though it may be, fax technology is probably here to stay for a few more years yet!

A brief history of fax

Photo: Back in the 1960s, meteorologists started using early fax machines, like this Muirhead Mufax, to receive weather charts from satellites through a radio-broadcast system called Automatic Picture Transmission (APT). Photo courtesy of NASA on the Commons.

  • 1840: Samuel Morse (1791–1872) is granted a patent for a simple electric telegraph that revolutionizes international communication (US Patent 1647: Improvement in the mode of communicating information by signals by the application of electromagnetism).
  • 1843–1850: Scotsman Alexander Bain (1811–1877) develops two different types of primitive document-sending machines, based on the telegraph: one is electromechanical, while the second uses a mixture of chemical and electrical technology. Bain’s ideas are further improved by Englishman Frederick Bakewell (1800–1869), who introduces the idea of rotating cylinders—still used in fax machines to this day.
  • 1865: Giovanni Caselli (1815–1891), an Italian physicist, develops a more practical electromechanical method of sending documents down telegraph wires. He calls his invention a Pantelegraph, a portmanteau of “pantograph” and “telegraph,” because it copies documents (using a pantograph) and sends them by telegraph.
  • 1876: Alexander Graham Bell (1847–1922) files his telephone patent (US Patent 174,465: Telegraphy) on February 14, 1876. Whether he deserves all the credit for inventing the telephone is still disputed, but he certainly helps it to become an essential piece of global communication technology.
  • 1920s: Western Union, RCA, and Associated Press develop rival wirephoto technologies, which allow photographs to be sent down ordinary phone lines.
  • 1930s: Telex (a way of sending text messages down telephone lines between teleprinter units that look like oversized typewriters) is pioneered in Berlin by Siemens and the German Reich mail service, later spreading to Europe and the rest of the world.
  • 1964: Xerox uses its experience inventing photocopiers (originally called xerography machines) to develop a document-transmitting system called Long Distance Xerography (LDX).
  • 1964: Meteorologists start using Automatic Picture Transmission (APT) to receive charts from a weather satellite on fax machines. The first broadcast, from the Nimbus-1 satellite, is on August 28, 1964.
  • Late 1960s/early 1970s: Thanks to further innovations by pioneers such as Xerox, the first self-contained fax machines begin to appear, though they’re still relatively big (the size of a large modern, office photocopier) and expensive.
  • 1980: Canon, the Japanese electronics company, announces its very first compact fax machine, the FAX-601. During the 1980s, affordable, personal fax machines, virtually all of them made in Japan, power the fax revolution, quickly making telex obsolete.
  • 1990s: The rapid growth of the Internet means millions of people suddenly have access to small fast modems, which enable an ordinary PC to send and receive documents as faxes.
  • 2020: The UK’s National Health Service, which was still using an estimated 9,000 fax machines as recently as 2018, is directed to switch to more modern technology.
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Find out more

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On other websites

  • Fax Machines by Jonathan Coopersmith, Associate Professor of History at Texas A&M University. Engineering and Technology History Wiki, 2015. A very good account of the development of fax technology, from the 1840s to the present day. For even more detail, see Jonathan Coopersmith’s book, below.


  • Faxed: The Rise and Fall of the Fax Machine by Jonathan Coopersmith. Johns Hopkins University Press, 2015. A fascinating chronological history that places fax in the wider context of communications technology.
  • Fax, Modem, and Text for IP Telephony by David Hanes and Gonzalo Salgueiro. Cisco, 2008. “Chapter 2: How fax works” will give you a deeper technical overview of things like fax modulations, the different stages of a fax call, how information is transmitted in frames, and so on. Later chapters cover related issues like fax servers and store-and-forward fax.
  • FAX: facsimile technology and systems by Kenneth R. McConnell, Dennis Bodson, and Stephen Urban. Artech House, 1999.


  • Axe the fax: Bringing about the end of the outdated hospital machinery by Richard Kerr. National Health Executive, March 2, 2020. The British health service has been directed to get rid of all faxes by March 2020, but hundreds of the things are still believed to be in use.
  • Leeds NHS trust has 345 fax machines. I want to get rid of them by Richard Corbridge. The Guardian, October 25, 2018. Fax machines might seem charming and retro, but in hospitals, where their use is still very widespread, they can be positively dangerous.
  • In High-Tech Japan, the Fax Machines Roll On by Martin Fackler. The New York Times, February 13, 2013. Fax is a dependable and reassuring technology—and the Japanese see no good reason to let it go.
  • The Age of the Fax Machine Is (Finally) Coming to an End by Nicholas Jackson. The Atlantic, 2 August 2011. One writer who particularly hates fax machines!
  • Who still uses fax machines (other than Mia Farrow fans)? by Stephen Moss. The Guardian, 14 July 2009. Why we should celebrate the fax machine as it quietly slips into history.
  • Burning Question: Why Are Faxes Still Around? by Eric Hagerman. Wired, 22 December 2008. Faxes still have their uses, especially when other technologies fail us.
  • Fax—the technology that refuses to die by Paul Rubens. BBC News, 15 December 2003. Why does faxing remain popular when email has made it obsolete?
  • The fax machine uprising by Giles Turnbull. BBC News, 24 June 2002. How fax machines played an important part in a campaign to cripple digital privacy laws.


  • Facsimile transceiving apparatus by Peter Mason et al, Xerox Corporation, 4 March 1975. One of the earliest modern-style fax machines, in which a laser beam scans a document and transmits it by video to another location.
  • Compact facsimile machine by Shigeru Kadomatsu, Ricoh Co. Ltd, 16 December 1986. Describes a modern fax machine with all the components built into a single desktop case.
  • Network fax machine using a web page as a user interface by Xiaoan Hou et al, Ricoh Co. Ltd, 20 February 2007. Describes a modern web-based fax server operating over a local area network (LAN).


  • Secret Life Of Machines: The Fax Machine by Tim Hunkin. A 30-minute clip from the excellent series by the quirky British cartoonist. His human demonstration of faxing is quite similar to the one I’ve described above.

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What is an All-In-One Printer?

What Does All-In-One Printer Mean?

An all-in-one printer is a device made up of multiple peripheral functionalities and capabilities, including printing, copying and scanning.

All-in-one printers provide centralized document management for large and small enterprises. Manufacturers segment all-in-one printers by page-per-minute (PPM) speed, and cost varies by output quality and usage.

Techopedia Explains All-In-One Printer

All-in-one printers include one or more of the following features and components:

  • Printing
  • Copying
  • Scanning
  • Faxing
  • Stapling
  • Duplexing
  • Hole punching
  • Color and/or black and white printer compatibility
  • Extra paper trays
  • Photo organization software
  • Optical character recognition (OCR) software

USB or parallel port all-in-one printer types are as follows:

  • Small Office, Home Office (SOHO): Small units with print, copy, scan and fax functionality, basic finishing (stapling, duplexing, hole punching) and USB connections.
  • Office: Mid-sized units that serve as centrally networked office systems with integrated security, full features, document storage, advanced finishing (stapling, hole punching, offset mode), custom software and advanced network scanning, including email, Server Message Block (SMB), Network File System (NFS) and File Transfer Protocol (FTP).
  • Production: Large and expensive units with high-quality output and advanced finishing. Serve as centrally located network printers that may not include advanced functionalities and also may be known as print on demand (POD) or digital presses.

All-in-one printers also have basic input/output (I/O) features:

  • Input: Built with network drivers for different operating systems, page description languages, parallel connection/printing types, direct interpreters and USBs.
  • Output: Built with printing speed/technology, paper formats, dot-per-inch (DPI) resolution and duplex and direct printing.

Fax Relay Troubleshooting Guide


Components used
Overview of Fax and Fax Relay Technology
Fax basics
Fax Relay Basics
Tuning notes
fax rate command
fax-relay ECM disable command
fax NSF command
fax protocol command
1.Identifying and localizing the problem
2. Checking the connection
3. Checking for slippage and other errors in digital interfaces
4. Checking the fax interface type
5. Confirming that the fax codec is loaded during fax calls
6. Disable fax relay and change pass-through codec
7. Checking packet loss in VoX network
eight.Disable ECM Fax Relay (Cisco VoIP Only)
9. Enabling T.38 Packet Reservation (only for T.38 packets over VoIP)
10. Setting the fax NSF command to all zeros
11. The last stages of elimination
T.30 messages
Fax Relay Debug Commands
Fax analyzers
Contact Technical Support Center (TAC)
Additional information

This document is a basic troubleshooting guide for Cisco Fax Relay.The technical complexities of faxing and fax relaying are not covered in detail, but the information provided is sufficient to resolve most common fax relay problems. An overview of Cisco fax and fax relay is also provided.


Readers of this document should be aware that several methods are used to place fax calls over a packet telephony network in Cisco IOS ® :

  • Cisco proprietary fax relay standard.

  • T.38 Fax Relay

  • Fax Pass-Through

  • Fax transmission acceleration

  • Fax storage and transmission T.37

There are also three main packet telephony technologies in use today, collectively known as Voice over “X” (VoX):

  • Voice over IP (VoIP)

  • Voice Frame Relay (VOFR)

  • Voice over ATM (VoATM)

This document focuses on the Cisco proprietary fax relay standards for Cisco IOS gateways operating over VoIP networks.T.38 fax relay and other VoX technologies are also covered in this document.

Components used

The information in this document is primarily based on Cisco IOS Software Release 12.2 (5), but the information in this document may apply to other versions of Cisco IOS Software.

Some debugging information is from a Cisco IOS gateway that worked with Cisco IOS Software Release 12.2 (7). This is stated in the Debug section of the document.

The information in this document was created from devices in a specific lab environment.All devices used in this document were started with a clean (default) configuration. On a production network, the potential impact of all Cisco IOS commands should be investigated prior to using them.


For more information on document conventions, see Cisco Technical Tips Conventions.

Most modern fax machines are Group 3 compliant.Fax Group 3 is a standards-based technology consisting mainly of ITU Recommendations T.4 and T.30. T.4 describes how the fax image is encoded by the fax machine, and T.30 discusses the fax negotiation and communication protocol in detail.

Group 3 fax machines were intended for use on public switched telephone networks (PSTN). Since PSTN was designed for human speech, Group 3 uses analog encryption or modulated signals, just like an analog modem.Both analog modems and fax machines are digital devices that must use a modulated analog signal to transmit digital information over the PSTN. This modulated signal can usually be heard as different audio tones.

VoX network gateways initially process voice and fax signals in the same way. Both types of calls cause the gateway to load the configured voice compression codec into the digital signal processor (DSP).For more information on DSPs, see Voice Hardware: Digital Signal Processors (DSPs) C542 and C549.

Voice compression codecs are usually highly compressed codecs, so less bandwidth is used for each voice call. Highly compressed codecs such as G729 and G723 are optimized for voice and compress speech to a low bandwidth (8 kbps, no overhead for G.729) and support high quality, but G.729 and other highly compressed codecs cannot be optimized for fax. In fact, modulated fax transmissions usually do not pass correctly with these codecs, and fax transmission and reception are interrupted as a result. For more information on compression codecs, see VoIP Support – Bandwidth Consumption Per Call.

Faxes can be successfully transmitted using codecs with a lower compression ratio or no compression at all (for example, G.726 and G.711 without echo cancellation and voice activity detection). This method of sending faxes using the voice codec is commonly referred to as in-band fax or fax pass-through . upspeeding technology (acceleration) allows the gateway to initially download the configured voice compression codec to the DSP for making voice calls and change it to a low compression codec when fax tones are detected.

For in-band fax transmission, the initial modulated signal is encoded and compressed with a codec on the originating router and transmitted over the VoX network as if it were voice sampling.At the terminal gateway, unpacking, decoding and subsequent playback of the audio fragment are performed on the facsimile machine. Relaying fax data works differently. This protocol interrupts the modulated signal, extracts the digital data, and then transmits the digital data over the data network in data packets. On the receiving side, digital data is extracted from the packet, modulated and reproduced.

Fax Basics

A fax call can be divided into two parts: fax negotiation and page transfer.

Half-duplex fax negotiation occurs at the start of a fax call. Modulated over V.21 with High-level Data Link Control (HDLC) data frames are transmitted at 300 bps. These data frames are sent in a standard sequence between source and destination fax devices. During this exchange, the two fax machines exchange their capabilities and negotiate the characteristics of the fax session before performing page transmission.The figure shows a diagram of a traditional call to a fax machine via PSTN.

Some negotiable features are page rate, error correction mode (ECM), resolution, page encoding, and scan time. Page speed (training) is an important negotiation that determines the speed at which a fax will send its data. Faxes are attempted to be transmitted at the highest possible modulation rate based on the initial exchange of parameters.Fax machines will re-tune to a lower speed if the high speed transmission fails.

Page Forwarding occurs when the training portion of the fax negotiation phase has been completed using previously negotiated parameters. The page information is encoded into scanned lines at a standard resolution of 203H x 98V dpi. Fax images are usually compressed and encoded using Modified Huffman (MH) or Modified Read (MR) coding.MH typically compresses at a ratio of 20: 1. MR encryption typically provides 20 percent better compression quality than MH, and is slightly less robust.

The page is being transmitted at a speed exceeding the 300 BPS at which the call parameters were negotiated. The speed used to transfer the page is confirmed during the workout. Here are some of the common speeds used when faxing a page:

Note. These V.XX specifications, used for fax page transmission (V.27ter, V.29, V.17) and fax negotiation (V.21), are specifications that define how digital data should be sent over an analog telephone line … Data modems can also use these specifications, even though most data modems have moved to much faster speeds.

Fax Relay Basics

Fax relay is a technique used to address the drawback of high compression rate speech codecs (G729, g723, etc.)that occurs when these codecs try to transmit fax traffic.

If the fax call is recognized as a normal voice call, the DSP in each gateway switches to voice mode, in which the voice must be received and processed. During a call, if a fax answer (CED) or a call tone (CNG) is heard, the DSP does not interrupt voice processing. This allows the tone to continue over the VoX call leg.

A regular fax machine, after generating a CED or receiving a CNG, transmits a T.30 DIS as part of the fax confirmation. This process usually takes place on the destination fax machine. The terminal gateway DSP will then determine the sequence of HDLC flags when the DIS message is triggered and trigger the switch to relay fax data. This means the voice codec is unloaded and the fax codec is loaded to process the current fax request.

A notification is also sent to the DSP on the other end of the VoX network so that the DSP on both ends of the fax call channel uses the fax codec.The notification mechanisms differ depending on the fax relay protocol used. Using a downloaded fax codec, the DSP demodulates HDLC T.30 frames, extracts fax information and transmits it between routers using one of the following fax relay protocols:

  • Cisco Fax Relay Standard for Fax Relay with VoIP is the default mode for faxing over a VoIP network, and Cisco Fax Relay is the default fax relay type.This feature, supported in Cisco IOS Software Release 11.3 and later, is widely available and uses RTP to transfer fax data.

  • T.38 standards-based fax transmission for VoIP – T.38 is supported in Cisco IOS Software Release 12.1 (3) T and later on select platforms. The feature can be enabled with the fax relay protocol t38 command configured for a peer-to-peer VoIP connection using UDP for fax data transmission.

  • Supplement D FRF.11 based on standards for VoFR and VoATM technologies.

It is important to understand that unlike in-band faxing or fax passthrough, fax relay converts T.30 fax tones into special HDLC (demodulation) frames, transmits information over the VoX network using fax relay, and then to the receiving end translates the bits back into tones (modulation). Fax machines at each end send and receive tones without knowing that the Fax Relay demodulation / modulation process is in progress.

Cisco Fax Relay and T.38 Fax Relay are also different from T.37 fax storage and transmission. T.37 provides a standards-based method to allow a VoIP gateway to receive the following data:

Most Cisco Voice Gateways currently support two ways to carry fax traffic over IP

  1. Fax Pass-Through – in fax pass-through mode, gateways do not distinguish between fax and voice calls

  2. Cisco Fax Relay – in fax relay mode, T.30 terminate at gateways

Cisco Fax Relay and T.38 Fax Relay is also different from T.37 fax storage and transmission. T.37 provides a standards-based method to allow a VoIP gateway to receive the following data:

  • A fax from a fax machine redirects it to an SMTP-enabled mail server. The mail server can then deliver the fax to the user as an e-mail message.

  • An e-mail message from a mail server that is modulated into a fax signal received by a conventional fax machine.

The diagram shows a fax relay over a VoX network. Fax connection to source and destination gateways can be done directly to the FXS ports of the gateway, either via PBX or PSTN on E1, Basic Level Interface (BRI), FXO, or E&M port

Fax relay is enabled by default on VoIP / VoFR / VoATM platforms such as the Cisco 3810, 2600, 3600, and 5300. If voice calls are successful between two routers, fax calls can also be made, but when fax relay is not working or efficiency needs to be improved , you can use the following special fax relay commands that are used before troubleshooting:

Fax rate command

Command fax rate is configured for a VoFR or VoIP dial-up access point in configuration mode.The default is fax voice frequency and is not checked in the configuration of each dial-up endpoint.

Command fax rate

 vnt-3660-23 (config-dial-peer) #  fax rate? 
  12000 FAX 12000 BPS
  14400 FAX 14400 BPS
   2400 FAX 2400 BPS
   4800 FAX 4800 BPS
   7200 FAX 7200 BPS
   9600 FAX 9600 BPS
  disable Disable Fax Relay
  voice Highest possible speed allowed by voice rate 

The fax-rate voice setting command limits the fax transmission rate to the bandwidth of the codec.This limitation implies that if the AP is configured to use the G.729 voice codec, which compresses the voice stream to 8 kbps, the voice fax rate setting will prevent fax calls from exceeding the codec’s bandwidth. Fax transmission will be limited to 7200 bps, even though it may have been 14400 bps or 9600 bps initially during training.

A common complaint is that successfully transmitted faxes take twice as long when connected via PSTN after a while.If you used the default fax voice rate settings for a low bandwidth codec such as g729, such delays are to be expected. With the fax rate command, you can configure fax transmission to use more bandwidth than the compression codec allows. The fax rate 14400 command allows fax calls to use 14400 bps regardless of the voice codec installed. This configuration resolves the problem of long execution times.

The main task of the fax rate command in VoX networks is to provide a certain bandwidth used for each call. The fax rate voice is the default because it ensures that voice and fax calls use the same bandwidth over the VoX network. Consider this when changing the fax speed to a value that exceeds the bandwidth of the codec. In addition, some fax machines are more stable at speeds other than the default.In this case, the command fax rate can be used to test operation at different speeds.

Note that according to the given output data of the router, using the fax rate command you can also disable fax relaying. An acceptable troubleshooting technique is to disable fax relay and configure high-bandwidth codecs such as the G711. This technology is described in the Troubleshooting section 6.Disable fax relay and change pass-through codec.

“fax-relay ECM disable” command

The fax-relay ECM disable command is available only for Cisco proprietary fax relay standards and is used to disable error correction mode (ECM) negotiation between two faxes. ECM ensures error-free transmission of fax pages. This function is only present in advanced models. Unfortunately, ECM has low immunity (about 2 percent) to jitter and packet loss, but when the negotiated feature is enabled it can lead to increased fax failures on lossy VoX networks.Incomplete output from a fax terminal is a symptom of packet loss failure.

If both fax devices are negotiated in the fax negotiation phase, ECM is enabled, but when relaying faxes, the routers demodulate the fax tones to their true HDLC frame format. As a result, routers have the ability to intercept and overwrite the ECM state frame field. If a fax reports ECM support, the router may change this setting so that another fax thinks ECM is not supported.Both devices must then turn off ECM mode, which implies fax data transmission using the T.4 data standard.

The reliability of fax communications is significantly improved when ECM is disabled, even with higher packet loss (about 10 percent) and latency. This command also automatically enables Cisco IOS Packet Loss Concealment, which repeats the lost scan lines to simulate all data received by the fax device.

Note that while ECM can increase the success rate of faxes on lossy VoX networks, basic network problems will remain and must be resolved before others occur.

Disabling ECM is a standard configuration step for a VoIP dial peer. As noted in the command description, currently only works for VoIP dial peers. It can be configured for VoFR and VoATM, but will not disable ECM mode.

Command fax-relay ECM disable

 vnt-3660-23 (config-dial-peer) #  fax-relay ECM? 
disable Disables ECM mode for fax relay 

Command “fax NSF”

Command fax NSF is used to prevent the transmission of native fax capabilities.Since using the Fax Relay of the router demodulates and decodes fax tones based on the T.30 specification, proprietary proprietary transactions or encryption disrupt fax relaying and disrupt fax transmission. Certain brands of facsimile machines use the manufacturers’ own codes to indicate additional capabilities, which helps the manufacturer to distinguish its products from others. This capability notification occurs when the optional Non Standard Facilities (NSF) field is used during fax negotiation.

When you issue command fax NSF , the router overwrites NSF, so only standard fax transmissions are performed. Vendor-specific features that are not part of the standard Group 3 requirements that interrupt Cisco fax relay cannot be used. Typically, this command will set all NSFs to zero and this should fix problems caused by the NSF field.

Command fax NSF

 vnt-3660-23 (config-dial-peer) #  fax NSF? 
 WORD Two-digit country code + four-digit manufacturer code
vnt-3660-23 (config-dial-peer) #  fax NSF 000000 

Command fax protocol

Command fax protocol is required to set which protocol will be used for VoIP (T.38 or Cisco fax relay).

Command fax protocol

 vnt-3660-23 (config-dial-peer) #  dial-peer voice 3 voip 
vnt-3660-23 (config-dial-peer) #  fax protocol? 
cisco Use Cisco proprietary protocol
system Use choice specified in global fax protocol CLI
t38 Use T.38 protocol 

Parameter cisco configures Cisco fax relay.Parameter t38 disables Cisco fax relay and enables the T.38 protocol. Some voice platforms, such as the Cisco 5350 and 5400, only support the T.38 protocol. For proper negotiation, T.38 must be explicitly configured on platforms where Cisco fax relay is installed by default. The system parameter allows the dial peer to inherit the fax relay protocol that is globally configured with command voice service voip .If nothing is configured on command voice service voip , the default setting is Cisco fax relay.

The default setting of command fax protocol is a system parameter. Because the system default is Cisco Fax Relay, VoIP dial-up endpoints will always default to Cisco Fax Relay unless there is another explicit global setting.

Command fax protocol


voice service voip
 ! --- Remember that if the settings are missing  fax protocol , then! --- Cisco fax relay is set by default.Any addressable endpoint that occurs! --- here will use Cisco fax relay as the  fax protocol .

dial-peer voice 3 voip
destination-pattern 1000
session target ipv4:
 ! --- Note that when  fax protocol  is not configured for! --- this VoIP dial peer, the default is  fax protocol system ,! --- which automatically tells the peer endpoint to inherit! --- the configuration fax from the above  voice service voip .


These steps are shown to resolve most fax relay problems over VoIP, VoATM, and VoFR. Information that is specific to a particular encapsulation type or relay type will be flagged.

1. Identification and localization of the problem

The first step in troubleshooting Fax Relay problems is to reduce the problem to its simplest form.Many problems arise in situations where multiple fax machines cannot transmit fax traffic. The easiest way is to isolate the two problematic faxes and concentrate on a simple topology. Determine how these devices are connected to each other, and first solve the problem with this pair. In addition, you should draw up a complete topology diagram and determine how the fax machines are connected to each other.

Troubleshooting problems one at a time minimizes confusion and allows you to take a methodical approach to troubleshooting.It is also possible that solving this problem will resolve other fax relay problems on the network. Most fax relay problems arise from incorrect VoX configuration or network design. They lead to major connection problems and loss of physical line or packets, as well as jitter problems.

After identifying and isolating the problem, the following steps are required to verify the basic VoX configuration and monitor the network status.

2.Checking the connection

Basic fax connectivity problems can occur as a result of the following factors:

  1. Normal voice connection problems.

    Check that regular voice calls can be made before examining the fax connection. If there is no telephone connected, disconnect the fax and connect a regular telephone. If you cannot make a regular voice call, the problem may be VoX-related and can be resolved as a normal voice problem before you start troubleshooting fax transmission problems.

  2. Dial Peer Configuration Issues:

    • Dial Peer Mismatch.

      After verifying that you can successfully complete a bi-directional voice call over the VoX network, issue command show call active voice brief and mark the dial peers that match each voice call.

      Note. If you have VoIP trunks, you must be able to see all call legs using the command show call active voice brief .In some flavors of Cisco IOS Software Release 12.2, there is a bug in command show call active , so fax calls going through the VoIP trunk are not visible. When command show call active fax brief is executed, the call is displayed in the list. For more information about this issue, see Cisco Problem IDs CSCdx50212 (registered customers only) and CSCdv02561 (registered customers only)

      Verify that the configured dial peer is a negotiated dial peer.

      In the output of this command, you can see that the outbound VoIP call leg uses dial peer ID 100.

      Command show call active voice brief

       ms-3640-13b #  show call active voice brief 
      Total call-legs: 2
      1218: 51710253hs.1 + 415 pid: 400 Answer 400 active
      dur 00:01:08 tx: 3411/68220 rx: 3410/68200
      Tele 3/0/0: 43: TX: 68200/6820 / 0ms g729r8 noise: 0 acom: 2
       i / 0: -51 / -44 dBm
      1218: 51710396hs. 1 +272  pid: 100 Originate  100 active
      dur 00:01:09 TX: 3466/69320 rx: 3467/69340
        IP rtt: 56ms pl: 64730 / 0ms lost: 0/1/0
       delay: 69/69 / 70ms
      Total call-legs: 2 

      A common cause of fax relay problems is that a properly configured dial peer is not consistent.Typically, a specific incoming VoIP dial-up endpoint is not configured on the end gateway, and the Cisco IOS Software selects the first suitable (default) VoIP dial-up endpoint as the dial-up endpoint. The settings for this inbound dial-up endpoint may not match the settings for the outbound dial-up endpoint of the outbound gateway.

      Identical configuration of inbound and outbound VoIP dial-up endpoints is not always required. However, if you encounter a fax relay problem, ensure that the destination router has a dedicated inbound VoIP dial-up endpoint and that its configuration matches the outbound VoIP dial-out endpoint configuration on the outbound router.This configuration for routers connected to ISDN is an example of ad hoc, negotiated VoIP dial peers for the outbound destination pattern “5 …” in the outbound gateway and the inbound destination pattern in the inbound gateway.

      Outbound Gateway

      Incoming gateway

       ! --- PSTN Incoming Call Point:
      Dial-peer voice 1 pots
      Incoming called number.Direct-inward-dial
      Port 1/0: 15
       ! --- VoIP Outbound Call Peer:
      Dial-peer voice 2 voip
      Destination-pattern 5a € ¦
      Session target ipv4:
      Fax rate 14400
      fax protocol t38
       ls-redundancy 0
       hs-redundancy 0
       ! --- Outgoing PSTN Call Point:
      Dial-peer voice 10 pots
      Destination-pattern 5a € ¦
      No digit-strip
      Port 2/0: 15
       ! --- VoIP Incoming Call Point:
      Dial-peer voice 20 voip
      Incoming called-number 5a € ¦
      Fax rate 14400
      fax protocol t38
       Ls-redundancy 0
       Hs-redundancy 0

      For more information on consistent outbound and outbound dial peers, VoIP and POTS, seeFor more information, see Understanding Mapping Inbound and Outbound Addressable Endpoints on Cisco IOS Platforms.

      Another way to check the consistency of the APs is to run the command debug voip ccapi inout . The output of this command includes message ssaSetupPeer , which contains a list of all dial peers corresponding to the called number. Next comes the message ccCallSetupRequest with the originating dial peer option indicating the selected originating VoIP dial peer.When multiple VoIP dial peers are defined for the same destination, the first call may fail and try to use a different dial peer. In this case, the debug will display another ccCallSetupRequest .

      debug voip ccapi inout – outbound gateway

       .Jun 4 21: 06: 43.461:  ssaSetupPeer  cid (19)
       peer list: tag (400) called number (5074)
      ...Jun 4 21: 06: 43.461:  ccCallSetupRequest 
       (Inbound call = 0x13,  outbound peer = 100 ,
        dest =, params = 0x62F1CC70 mode = 0, * callID = 0x62F1CFD8,
        prog_ind = 0) 

      On the inbound voice gateway, the first line of the call trace debug voip ccapi inout (see below) is message cc_api_call_setup_ind with parameter peer_tag , which refers to the inbound VoIP inbound endpoint on the VoIP gateway.

      debug voip ccapi inout – incoming gateway

       .Jun 4 21: 06: 43.461:  cc_API_call_setup_ind 
       (vdbPtr = 0x62F07650,
       callInfo = {called = 5074, called_oct3 = 0x80,
       calling = 5075, calling_oct3 = 0x0,> calling_oct3a = 0x83,
       calling_xlated = false,
       subscriber_type_str = Unknown, fdest = 1,
         peer_tag = 400 , prog_ind = 0}, callID = 0x635F72D0) 
    • Misconfigured dial-up endpoints on one or both sides

      After confirming that the correct dial-up endpoint was found (in this case, the dial-up endpoint 100 for the outbound gateway and the dial-up endpoint 400 for the inbound router), the correct configuration must be confirmed in the configuration addressable endpoint for fax.Standard errors to check for on both sides of the connection:

      • Fax relay is disabled ( fax rate disable command used for dial peer) when using a low bandwidth codec.

      • The addressable endpoint on the voice gateway is configured to relay Cisco faxes, and the other voice gateway is the Cisco 5350/5400. The Cisco 5350/5400 only supports T.38, hence the negotiation will fail.

      • The default dial-up endpoint that was used as inbound on the end gateway and the default settings do not match the outbound dial-up endpoint on the outbound gateway.

    • Wrong companding type

      USA companding type – µ-law; for Europe and Asia – A-law. You can issue command show voice call to see what value is currently configured.If for the BRI or E1 port the companding type in the router does not match the companding type in the connected device, calls are completed with success or failure, but the voice is distorted so that the subscriber cannot be identified, and there are strong noises at low frequencies.

      In Cisco IOS Software Release 12.2 (3), the compand-type command is not enabled for BRI ports, and the compand type is set to the default. For more information about this issue, seeCisco problem IDs CSCdv00152 (registered customers only) and CSCdv01861 (registered customers only).

  3. Other underlying connectivity issues outside of dial-up endpoints include:

    • Cisco IOS software incompatibilities on gateway pairs.

      Recall that the Cisco IOS software versions do not always have to be the same, but if you encounter problems, it is recommended that you check the versions first.

    • Compressed Real Time Transport Protocol (cRTP).

      There are several known issues with cRTP. Hotfixes are available to resolve these issues, so it makes sense to disable cRTP when problems arise to see if a Cisco IOS software update is needed.

    • Verify that Cisco IOS Software and VCWare are compatible on the Cisco AS5300 Voice Gateways.

  4. Problems connecting fax via PSTN.

    If voice calls work in both directions, and faxing does not work in at least one direction, check that the PSTN faxes between the two devices is normal. In other words, make sure faxes are successfully faxing over the PSTN without going through the VoX network. If this is not the case, the problem may be with the fax device and must be addressed before attempting to resolve the fax relay problem.

3. Check for slippage and other errors in digital interfaces

If routers use digital T1 or E1 connections to relay fax data, these connections should be checked for errors. Fax relay is very sensitive to digital interface errors, especially slippage. Errors can be subtle on voice calls, but they can cause fax to fail.

Command show controller T1 (E1) 1/0

 vnt-3660-23c #  show contr t1 1/0 
T1 1/0 is up.Applique type is Channelized T1
Cablelength is long gain36 0db
No alarms detected.
alarm-trigger is not set
Version info Firmware: 20010805, FPGA: 15
Framing is ESF, Line Code is B8ZS,  Clock Source is Line. 
Data in current interval (132 seconds elapsed):
0 Line Code Violations, 0 Path Code Violations
  0 Slip Secs , 0 Fr Loss Secs, 0 Line Err Secs,
0 Degraded Mins
0 Errored Secs, 0 Bursty Err Secs, 0 Severely Err Secs,
 0 Unavail Secs

The T1 or E1 controllers in the outbound and inbound gateways should function without error.If an error occurs, repeat command show controller ( T1 , E1 and 1/0 change) several times during the call to determine if the number of errors is increasing. The most common slippage problem is a sync issue that results in sync errors.

In packet voice networks, it is usually sufficient to acknowledge that the router is synchronizing from the line. If it is not, make sure the clock source line command is executed at the controller level.In VoATM or TDM networks, when the timing hierarchy is established and the routers need to transmit timing over the network, there are other factors to consider. The synchronization plan will provide more information on synchronous clock generation.

On 26xx / 366x routers, when using the AIM VOICE card, the controller displays “controlled slippage” until the network-clock-participate and network-clock-select commands are issued.

On the Cisco MC3810 platform, you must configure the network-clock-select command and issue the show network-clock command to verify that the configuration took effect.

On the Cisco 7200VXR platform, command frame-clock-select is required for voice cards. This command is especially important for 7200VXR voice gateways because, by default, the internal TDM bus is not controlled by the local clock. Since E1 lines are usually synchronized with the telephone network, the result is latent timing errors and occasional fax transmission errors.See Cisco Fault ID CSCdv10359 (registered customers only) for more information.

On C4224 MFT cards, when they can be synchronized from the line, for the t1 x / y controller, the command clock source loop-timed must be issued. This setting separates controller sync and system-wide sync. You must then enter the command network-clock-select . In this case, the command network-clock-select 1 t1 x / y will be used.

For more information, see the Catalyst 4000 Access Gateway Module White Paper for Cisco IOS Release 12.1 (5) YE2

4. Checking the type of fax interface

On some platforms, including the Cisco 3660, 5300, 5350, 5400, and 5800, the router is installed by default on a fax interface type modem. The global configuration command fax interface-type modem forces fax calls to the modem (typically for T.37) rather than DSP. For Cisco fax relay to work, the fax call must be sent to the DSP, that is, it must be configured using the fax interface-type vfc command.

Command fax interface-type

 vnt-3660-23c (config) #  fax interface-type? 
modem Use modem card
vfc Use Voice Feature Card

vnt-3660-23c (config) #  fax interface-type vfc 
You must reload the router 

Make sure to reboot the router, otherwise the command will be ineffective.Fax calls on Cisco fax relay (or T.38) platforms will fail, so it is important to verify this command.

The fax interface-type vfc command was not required in Cisco IOS Software versions earlier than 12.2. The problem is usually found when you upgrade one of the voice gateways to Cisco IOS Software 12.2 or later.

5. Make sure the fax codec is loaded during fax calls

Each fax machine displays the remote fax machine ID on the LCD at the end of the fax negotiation phase.Fax devices are unlikely to communicate if the fax codec was not loaded successfully. On the other hand, if the ID of the remote fax machine is not displayed, further debugging is required in this area.

There are two ways to ensure that the voice gateways detect fax transmission and successfully download the fax codec.

  1. Run command debug vtsp all and trace the call with debug voip ccapi inout .Debugging methods are detailed in the Debugging section of the document.

  2. Run the command show voice trace . Show commands consume less router resources than debug commands and are preferred for live networks. This is an example of the output of command show voice trace for an ISDN interface.

Command show voice trace

 BrisVG200gwy01 #  show voice trace 1/0: 15 
1/0: 15 1
1/0: 15 2
1/0: 15 3
1/0: 15 4
1/0: 15 5
1/0: 15 6
1/0: 15 7
1/0: 15 8
1/0: 15 9
1/0: 15 10 State Transitions: timestamp (state, event) ->...
63515.264 (S_SETUP_REQ_PROC, E_TSP_ALERT) ->
63515.264 (S_SETUP_REQ_PROC, E_CC_BRIDGE) ->
63515.332 (S_SETUP_REQ_PROC, E_CC_CAPS_IND) ->
63515.332 (S_SETUP_REQ_PROC, E_CC_CAPS_ACK) ->
63515.348 (S_SETUP_REQ_PROC, E_CC_CAPS_IND) ->
63515.348 (S_SETUP_REQ_PROC, E_CC_CAPS_ACK) ->
63515.356 (S_SETUP_REQ_PROC, E_CC_CAPS_IND) ->
63515.356 (S_SETUP_REQ_PROC, E_CC_CAPS_ACK) ->
63518.660 (S_SETUP_REQ_PROC, E_DSP_GET_RX) ->
63518.660 (S_SETUP_REQ_PROC, E_DSP_GET_TX) ->
63521.028 (S_SETUP_REQ_PROC, E_DSP_GET_RX) ->
63521.028 (S_SETUP_REQ_PROC, E_DSP_GET_TX) ->
 ! --- Fax ringing detected:
63529.356 (S_LFAX_WAIT_ACK, E_PH_CODEC_ACK) ->
 ! --- Fax codec is loaded into DSPs:
63529.356 (S_LFAX_DOWNLOAD, E_pH_CODEC_FAX) ->

6. Disable fax relay and change the codec to pass-through codec

The previous steps have stabilized the operation of voice calls, PSTN faxes, and all digital interfaces on the way of relaying faxes are working without errors.This action determines whether faxes can be transmitted when fax relay is disabled. For VoIP / VoATM / VoFR Addressable Endpoints, enter the following:

Command fax rate disable

 vnt-3660-23 (config) #  voice-port 2/0: 15 
vnt-3660-23 (config-voiceport) #  no echo-cancel enable 
vnt-3660-23 (config) #  dial-p voice 3 
vnt-3660-23 (config-dial-peer) #  fax rate disable 
vnt-3660-23 (config-dial-peer) #  codec g711ulaw 
vnt-3660-23 (config-dial-peer) #  no vad 

Make sure these commands are entered for both gateways.These commands disable fax relay, disable echo cancellation, and force a high bandwidth codec without VAD when calling. The router then samples the tones as it would for a normal voice call, and uses the high bandwidth codec (G.711) to make the most accurate samples. A tone repeated on the other side of the channel will be as accurate as possible. Warning for this step. Since G.711 is a 64 kbps codec, each call will use up to 80 kbps (for VoIP) with the added transmission protocol overhead.

If the test is successful, then two tasks have been completed. First, if the bandwidth used for each call is not a big issue on the network, there is a workaround to solve the problem of end-to-end fax relaying. Second, and more importantly, if bandwidth savings are important, the problem can be resolved in the fax gateway software and a ticket should be submitted to the TAC.

If this test fails, then what is causing the fax relay error is likely causing this test to fail.The first thing that comes to mind is that the network can experience significant jitter or packet loss.

7. Check for packet loss in the VoX network

The easiest and most accurate way to determine if packet loss is present is to do the following:

  1. Disable VAD on VoX Addressable Endpoints.

  2. Place a voice call between the ports to which fax devices are connected. (Fax devices can serve as regular telephones; a handset can be connected to the same port as the fax device).

  3. When the call is made, do the following:

    1. Run command show voice dsp . The output shows that one of the DSP channels is configured with the downloaded codec. Typically, the “TX / RX-PAK CNT” column shows that the counters of the transmitted and received packets are equal, therefore, no packet is lost. If the counters are different, the packets may be lost. Issue the show voice dsp command multiple times at 30-second intervals to determine if the difference increases and packets are dropped.

    2. Issue command show voice call summary to see which port (and timeslot) is associated with a given voice call. Enter terminal monitor and issue command show voice call with the desired voice port (and timeslot) to get detailed DSP statistics. View the counter values ​​in the “*** DSP VOICE VP_ERROR STATISTICS ***” output section. They are usually 0 or less than 20. If the counter is greater than 20, check for packet loss.

If your network has a high enough packet loss rate, you should not expect trouble-free retransmission of fax data. It is possible to disable ECM, but further verification may be necessary to fully ensure QoS so that voice and fax relay traffic is prioritized and not lost in congestion. The Additional Information section contains more information on how to troubleshoot voice quality issues.

8.Disable ECM Fax Relay (Cisco VoIP only)

For packet loss and high jitter networks, disable ECM to improve the quality of fax relay calls. Run fax-relay ECM disable (described in more detail in the Settings section) to disable ECM so that most erratic sync and packet loss issues can be resolved.

Run fax-relay ECM disable to improve fax relay performance on lossy networks, this command is also recommended for basic troubleshooting.Even if there is no noticeable jitter on the network, this command can sometimes help identify fax relay problems. This command is available when working with VoFR and VoATM addressable endpoints, but currently only works for VoIP.

Note. This command also activates the packet loss concealment function.

Command fax-relay ECM disable

 vnt-3660-23 (config-dial-peer) #  dial-peer voice 3 
vnt-3660-23 (config-dial-peer) #  fax-relay ECM disable 

9.Enable T.38 Packet Reservation (T.38 for VoIP only)

If T.38 for VoIP is used as a fax relay protocol, T.38 packet reservation can be enabled by configuring this command on the appropriate APs in both gateways:

Packet reservation T.38

 vnt-3660-23 (config-dial-peer) #  fax protocol t38 
   Ls-redundancy X Hs-redundancy Y 

where X> 0 and Y = 0 (changes only in Ls reservation)

If you are using a Cisco proprietary fax relay standard, an alternative or additional option to disable ECM is to change the fax relay protocol to T.38 so that the T.38 packet reservation function can be tested. This feature can mitigate the impact of packet loss, but note that reserving T.38 packets significantly increases the amount of bandwidth used, and it is desirable to reduce packet loss whenever possible.

10. Setting the fax NSF command to all zeros

The fax NSF command can be useful for fax models that replace the NSF field in fax communication to perform proprietary encryption.This command allows a router that is relaying faxes to override the settings made by fax machines that try to use their own encryption Before the fax NSF command was available, fax relay did not work on these brands of fax machines. Typically, the fax NSF command is used to set the NSF field to all zeros, which causes standard fax communication on both sides of the link. This command has worked successfully with several brands, such as Harris and Lanier, and is recommended for fax relay failures.

Command fax NSF

 vnt-3660-23 (config-dial-peer) #  fax NSF 000000 

11. Last stages of elimination

If the previous troubleshooting steps did not resolve the fax relay problem, the problem may require a more complex solution. There are additional steps to take before contacting the Cisco Technical Assistance Center (TAC)

  • Investigate which brands and models of fax machines are failing and examine them for known issues.

    Crash and reliability issues occasionally occur, which are issues with some brands of fax machines. For example, a search in the Bug Toolkit (registered customers only) for Pitney Bowes fax showed an error with the Pitney Bowes fax machine and Cisco fax relay (CSCdu78373 (registered customers only)). The bug does not belong to Cisco IOS software, but is incompatible with the Pitney Bowes fax signaling protocol when Pitney Bowes 9920s or 9930s faxes are connected on each side of the link.A workaround is to disable native protocol on fax machines, or disable fax relay and use a higher bandwidth codec.

    Known Issues

    Known Issues include unexpected behavior or software defects. This table contains information about known issues for fax support on Cisco voice gateways.

    If you have a CCO account, you can search for known issues using the Cisco Bug Toolkit.To access the Bug Toolkit, do one of the following:

    Table 1 Known Difficulties

    Fault code

    Short description



    VAD introduces severe errors in fax pass-through.

    When Cisco Voice Gateways are configured for fax pass-through, you must turn off Voice Activity Tracking (VAD) on all VoIP dial-up endpoints associated with fax calls.

    To disable VAD on the VoIP dial-up endpoint, use the following commands:

      config terminal
    dial-peer voice XXX voip
    no vad 



    Any Cisco gateway device that originates a fax relay call (RTP packets with 96 payloads) on the WS-X4604-GW in gateway mode fails.

    This issue has been fixed in 12.1.5YF3. When switching to gateway mode, the software now detects 96 payload types and starts pass-through mode.


    Faxing 5-30 pages fails in pass-through on a VG248 sending a fax to a WS-X4604-GW operating in gateway mode.

    This failure only occurs with software image 12.1.5YF2 on WS-X4604-GW.To avoid this error, use 12.1.5YF1, 12.1.5YF3 or later.


    On Cisco Catalyst 6000 switches, when a modem or fax tone is detected, the call switches to pass-through with 10ms (134 byte) packets.

    The fax pass-through frame size must be 214 bytes. The fax transmission will not be interrupted even if the packet size is not correct.



    Fax transmission is interrupted if WS-X4604 / VIC-2FXS (only) in fax pass-through mode sends a fax to WS-X6624-FXS gateway with Cisco CallManager 3-1-2c_spA load A00203010026. WS-X4604 / VIC-2FXS displays this in gateway and toll-by-pass modes.

    Failure occurs with software images of versions 12.1.5YF2 and 12.1.5YF3 on WS-X4604-GW and will be fixed in software version 12.2 (7) X.


    Fax transmission is interrupted if WS-C4224V / VIC-2FXS (only) in pass-through mode sends a fax to WS-X6624-FXS gateway with Cisco CallManager 3-1-2c_spA load A00203010026.

    This glitch occurs in software image 12.1.5YE2 and 12.1.5YE4 on WS-C4224V and will be fixed in software version 12.2 (7) X.

  • Use the search tools to find known fax transmission problems in the Cisco IOS Software release in which the problem occurs.

    In the previous step, you searched for a specific brand of fax to find a known problem between certain brands of fax devices and Cisco fax relay software. The next step is to perform a general search, as there may be fax relay errors in the installed Cisco IOS Software release.

    For example, if fax relaying using VoFR does not work in Cisco IOS Software Release 12.1 (2) T, you can troubleshoot errors using the Bug Toolkit in the CCO.In this example, the following values ​​will be used:

    • Basic version: 12.1

    • Edition: 2

    • Function / Component: VoFR

    • Keyword: fax

    One of the bugs is Cisco bug ID CSCdr65984 (registered customers only) called “fax does not work in vofr.” This error resulted in the interruption of all fax relays in VoFR, Cisco IOS Software needs to be upgraded to a version that resolves this error.

  • Eliminate hardware failures.

    In some cases, it is easier to get rid of the problem by eliminating the potential sources of the problem one by one. Replace various hardware parts and use alternate IP connections between gateways. When optional equipment is available, the following actions can help:

    • Using different ports on the router.

      If your existing configuration includes two gateways connected to the PBX or PSTN using E1 or T1, and if FXS ports are available, try connecting fax devices directly to the FXS ports on the voice gateways.This procedure will help to get rid of the problem later when the problems of possible E1 board failure, phone side problems, or E1 sync problems or cable problems disappear.

    • Try different hardware.

      If you have another voice gateway with an available FXS port, try connecting it directly with an Ethernet crossover cable to each voice gateway and send a fax using a fax device connected to the FXS port.This procedure will help determine if there are any problems with the VoX network (queuing, prioritization, fragmentation).

  • Use the debug commands on the router to determine the problem.

    See the “Debug” section for details on the debug commands received when troubleshooting fax relay problems.

T.30 messages

Debug reports can be difficult to understand if the user does not have experience with the messages that normally occur when sending a fax.This is a graphical representation of the main T.30 transactions that were displayed when faxing one page.

A detailed description of these transactions is outside the scope of this document, but there are basic definitions for the underlying transactions that are present in fax relay. The list is alphabetical for quick retrieval and includes messages common when debugging Cisco fax relay. For more information on messaging or information on messages not listed below, see the T.30.

  • CED (Called Terminal Identification) – 2100 Hz signal sent by the terminal fax device in response to a fax call. This signal temporarily disables echo cancellers that are present in the connection to prepare the data line.

  • CFR (acknowledgment of receipt) – A response that confirms that previous messaging and training has been completed and that faxing of the page can begin.

  • CNG (ringing tone) – 1100 Hz tone that turns on for half a second and off for three seconds. This signal identifies the fax terminal as a non-voice device. The tone also indicates that the sending fax terminal is waiting for a DIS tone from the receiving fax terminal.

  • CRP (command repeat) is a response indicating that the previous command was received in error and needs to be repeated.(optional)

  • CSI (Called Subscriber Identity) – can be used to provide an international telephone number for the called fax terminal. (optional)

  • DCN (Disconnect) – Terminates the fax call and does not require any answer.

  • DIS (Digital Identification Signal) – Determines the capabilities of the called fax terminal.

  • DTC (Digital Transfer Command) – Response to the capabilities identified by the DIS signal. Here the calling fax terminal checks that its capabilities match those provided in the DIS message of the called fax terminal.

  • EOM (end of message) – defines the end of the page of information sent by fax.

  • EOP (end of procedure) – Determines the last page sent by fax and no other pages to be sent.Go to the step of disconnecting the fax call.

  • FTT (Settings Failure) – Used to refuse to receive a tuning signal and to request a re-tune (the need for re-tune usually occurs at low modulation rates).

  • MCF (message acknowledgment) – indicates that the message was successfully received.

  • EOP (Multiple Page Signal) – Determines the end of a completed faxed page and whether the recipient is ready to receive additional pages.

  • NSF (non-standard) – can be used to define special capabilities or requirements that are not defined in T-series specifications (optional)

  • RTN (configuration failure) – Indicates that the previous message was not successfully received. Re-tuning is necessary to continue operation (usually at low modulation rates).

  • RTP (Setting Accepted) – Indicates that a complete message has been received and that additional messages can be sent.

  • TCF (check settings) – send through a system with high T.4 modulation rate (compared to 300 kbps for V.21 modulation used to send T.30 signals) to check settings and establish reception fax pages at a given baud rate.

  • TSI (Transmitting Subscriber Identity) – Identifies the fax terminal making the call. (optional)

Fax Relay Debug Commands

The following are useful commands for debugging fax relay:

debug fax relay t30 all

Debug for Cisco fax relay is enabled with the debug fax relay t30 all command.

Command debug fax relay t30 all

 vnt-3660-23c #  debug fax relay t30 all 
Debugging fax relay t30

This is a copy of the debug data for an unsuccessful fax relay session. This is debug data for an outbound fax gateway using Cisco IOS Software Release 12.2 (7a).

Command output debug fax relay t30 all

 vdtl-3810-3b #
Dec 5 07:49:13.073: 1/2: 62 1281347052 fr-entered (10ms)
Dec 5 07: 49: 17.985: 1/2: 62 1281351950 fr-msg-det CRP
Dec 5 07: 49: 20.105: 1/2: 62 1281354070 Fr-MSG-TX NSF
Dec 5 07: 49: 20.655: 1/2: 62 1281354620 Fr-MSG-TX good crc,
 19 bytes
Dec 5 07: 49: 20.720: 1/2: 62 1281354680 Fr-MSG-TX DIS
DEC 5 07: 49: 22.350: 1/2: 62 1281356310 fr-msg-det TSI
DEC 5 07: 49: 23.045: 1/2: 62 1281357000 fr-msg-det DCS
DEC 5 07: 49: 27.346: 1/2: 62 1281361290 Fr-MSG-TX FTT
DEC 5 07: 49: 28.836: 1/2: 62 1281362780 fr-msg-det TSI
DEC 5 07: 49: 29.531: 1/2: 62 1281363470 fr-msg-det DCS
DEC 5 07:49:29.740: 1/2: 62 1281363680 fr-msg-det bad crc,
 0 bytes
DEC 5 07: 49: 30.362: 1/2: 62 1281364300 fr-msg-det bad crc,
 0 bytes
DEC 5 07: 49: 30.804: 1/2: 62 1281364740 fr-msg-det bad crc,
 0 bytes
DEC 5 07: 49: 30.852: 1/2: 62 1281364790 fr-msg-det bad crc,
 0 bytes
DEC 5 07: 49: 33.868: 1/2: 62 1281367800 Fr-MSG-TX FTT
DEC 5 07: 49: 35.414: 1/2: 62 1281369340 fr-msg-det TSI
DEC 5 07: 49: 36.113: 1/2: 62 1281370040 fr-msg-det DCS
DEC 5 07: 49: 36.515: 1/2: 62 1281370440 fr-msg-det bad crc,
 0 bytes
DEC 5 07: 49: 36.908: 1/2: 62 1281370830 fr-msg-det bad crc,
 0 bytes
DEC 5 07:49:37.559: 1/2: 62 1281371480 fr-msg-det bad crc,
 0 bytes
DEC 5 07: 49: 37.784: 1/2: 62 1281371700 fr-msg-det bad crc,
 0 bytes
DEC 5 07: 49: 37.900: 1/2: 62 1281371820 fr-msg-det bad crc,
 0 bytes
DEC 5 07: 49: 40.133: 1/2: 62 1281374050 Fr-MSG-TX FTT
DEC 5 07: 49: 41.888: 1/2: 62 1281375800 fr-msg-det TSI
DEC 5 07: 49: 42.583: 1/2: 62 1281376490 fr-msg-det DCS
DEC 5 07: 49: 43.173: 1/2: 62 1281377080 fr-msg-det bad crc,
 0 bytes
DEC 5 07: 49: 44.937: 1/2: 62 1281378840 fr-msg-det bad crc,
 0 bytes
DEC 5 07: 49: 45.386: 1/2: 62 1281379290 fr-msg-det bad crc,
 0 bytes
DEC 5 07:49:46.941: 1/2: 62 1281380840 Fr-MSG-TX FTT
DEC 5 07: 49: 48.503: 1/2: 62 1281382400 fr-msg-det DCN
DEC 5 07: 49: 50.631: 1/2: 62 1281384520 fr-end-dcn

Debug data displays T.30 events that occurred on the DSP during fax relay. It is important to remember that the debugging that takes place from the DSP perspective interacts with fax devices, so that any “Fr-MSG-TX” or transmission message is sent from the DSP to the attached fax device.Any message detected by the DSP, or “fr-msg-det” message, is a message received from a connected fax device. This graph shows the direct flow of DSP messages using the debug fax relay t30 all command.

Multiple “bad crc” messages are seen from an aborted fax transaction in debug, followed by a failed configuration (FTT) message from the far end. In debugging, it looks like the problem is in the setup signal as well.Error messages, “bad crc” and FTT (failed configuration) sent from the other side of the link indicate that the signal is broken or not compatible with the Cisco fax relay protocol. Debugging is the result of a fax relay problem with the Lexmark Optra fax device. Lexmark runs V.34 and tries to achieve V.34 speeds. V.34 is not supported by Cisco fax relay and configuration errors occur. Refer to Cisco bug ID CSCdv89496 (registered customers only) for more information.

The T.30 Debug Demo Demo page provides more information on reading debug data and examples of successful debug trace data from a fax recognizer in ECM-mode.

Debug vtsp all

There are also other debug commands that you can use to troubleshoot fax relay problems. This debug data is not easily readable or provides a lot of information, like the T.30 debug data, but it can still be useful.

Voice Telephony Service Provider (VTSP) is an architecture that defines the interface between call control in Cisco IOS and a DSP endpoint connected to standard telephone equipment such as a PBX, fax, or central office using an analog or digital interface …

For T.38 VoIP or fax relay, the debug vtsp all command can provide useful status information from the router.As stated in the troubleshooting section, this debug command can be used to determine if a fax codec has been loaded into the DSP, as shown on the Voice Telephony Service Provider Debug page.

Debug vtsp vofr subframe 3

Another fax relay debug command useful when sending faxes using VoFR and VoATM is debug vtsp vofr subframe 3 . This command issues FRF11 frames that have the Annex D Fax Relay payload type.Even with one fax relay call, there is a significant amount of output from this command, and you need to decrypt the hex codes (the FRF11 specification can help decrypt the hexadecimal code). See Debugging VoFR VTSP page. Examples of decoding a hexadecimal code are highlighted on it.

Additional Debug Commands
  1. To debug T.38 capability exchange issues, use command debug cch423 h345 .

  2. To debug DSP messaging between applications and the DSP, use the following debug commands:

    • debug vtsp all

    • debug voip ccapi inout

    • debug hpi all (on Cisco 5300/2600/3600 and any other voice platforms that use TI c54x DSPs)

    • debug nextport vsmgr detail (on NextPort DSP platforms (Cisco 5400, 5850))

Fax Analyzers

Sometimes you need to go beyond the debugging capabilities of Cisco voice gateways to troubleshoot fax relay problems.Tools such as protocol and fax analyzers are used to see what happens during fax relaying. Fax analyzers such as QualityLogic’s Genoa ChannelProbe / FaxProbe or HP Telegra can be placed between fax devices and a Cisco gateway to monitor events. Protocol analyzers such as Sniffer and Domino can be useful when looking at the fax relay packets exchanged between routers.

The ability to troubleshoot complex problems sometimes requires a set of hardware – an analyzer to capture fax traffic on each fax device and a protocol analyzer to capture fax relay packets.It takes one fax call to reproduce the problem, and the necessary information will be obtained from the connected devices for analysis. The diagram shows where the test equipment is located on the network.

Most fax analyzers have enough documentation and help screens to help determine what happened. The T.30 specification is also very useful. For protocol analyzers, decryption can be a little more difficult, as sometimes the encryption is determined by the manufacturer, or if the software does not have the necessary data to decrypt.For fax relay that uses VoFR and VoATM, Cisco gateways use Annex D standards based on the FRF11 specification. If protocol analyzers are unable to decrypt the frame, decryption can be done manually using the specification. For fax relay and VoIP, fax relay packets use the Cisco proprietary format.

Use the information from Fax Analyzers and Protocol Analyzers to troubleshoot fax relay problems. Some fax relay problems reach this point, and when they do, escalation and DE resources must be used to provide further support.

Also provide any other information regarding this problem.

If this document does not resolve the issue, contact the Cisco Technical Assistance Center (TAC) and provide the following information:

  • Description of the network topology (PDF, Visio, or Microsoft PowerPoint format).

  • Used fax devices, including vendor and model information.

  • History of the problem.

    Helpful information: is the network new, or has it worked for a long time and then crashed. If the network was already working, what changed before the problem occurred? Does the problem occur intermittently? Can the problem be reproducible, and if so, what is needed to reproduce it?

  • Output of command show tech of both fax gateways and all routers in the IP path, and corresponding data for active non-Cisco networking equipment.

  • Two call traces with the following debug flags:

  • Output of the show voice call command pair and show voice dsp .

  • Two traces of fax analyzers connected in monitor mode to the target and source fax device, if available.

  • Results of debugging and troubleshooting performed, if available.

90,000 Wheeler, Price, Faxa – Three Stars of the Week

NEW YORK – Winnipeg Jets striker Blake Wheeler, Montreal Canadiens goalkeeper Carey Price and Dallas Stars forward Radek Faxa are among the three stars of the week in the NHL.


Wheeler became the best in the NHL with 10 (2 + 8) points. In four games, he scored three or more points three times and helped the Jets (17-6-4, 38 points) play 3-0-1 and lead the Western Conference table.On November 27, in a match with Minnesota Wild (7: 2), he scored 3 (1 + 2) points. On November 29, in a game with the Colorado Avalanche (2: 3 O), he was left without scoring points, but on December 1, in a duel against Vegas Golden Knights, he was marked by three assists. On December 3, Wheeler scored 4 (1 + 3) points against the Ottawa Senators (5-0), reaching four points per game for the third time this season (most in the league). The 31-year-old native of Plymouth, Minnesota, leads the NHL with 28 assists and is fourth in the goalscorer contention with 35 points in 27 games.


Price won four wins in four meetings (4-0-0), in which he conceded an average of 1.50 goals and saved 95.0 percent of shots than helped the Canadiens (13-12-3, 29 points) extend their winning streak to five games. He conceded one goal each in the first two games of the week: on November 27 he made 37 saves against the Columbus Blue Jackets (3-1), and on November 29 stopped 27 shots against Ottawa (2-1). Then Price took part in two victorious matches with the Detroit Red Wings (6: 3, 28 saves; 10: 1, 22 saves).The 30-year-old Anahim Lake, British Columbia native, who has won all five games since returning to the ice from injury on November 25, has played 8-7-1 in 16 games this season (2.93 goals conceded average, 90.5% saves , one shutout).


Faxa scored the best five goals in the league (5 + 2 = 7) and earned a plus-7 for utility (shared the lead) in four games and helped the Stars ( 16-10-1, 33 points) win four wins (4-0-0). On November 28, in a 3-0 game against Vegas, Faksa scored his first hat-trick, scoring all three goals in 6:46 minutes in the second period.On November 30, the striker scored 2 (1 + 1) points in a victorious meeting with “Chicago” (4: 3 O), for the fifth time in the championship, gaining more than one point per match. On December 2, he scored a puck in another match with the Blackhawks (3: 2 B), and the next day made a pass in a match with the Colorado Avalanche (7: 2). The 23-year-old Czech native Vitkov is fifth in scoring at the Stars with 16 (10 + 6) points in 26 games.

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The Philips Magic 5 Uncoated Fax Series is rugged, innovative and compact.Life will become easier and more convenient with them. See all benefits

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The Philips Magic 5 Uncoated Fax Series is rugged, innovative and compact. Life will become easier and more convenient with them. See all benefits

Sorry, this product is no longer available

If you are eligible for VAT exemptions for medical devices, you can take advantage of them when purchasing this product.VAT will be deducted from the above price. See your shopping cart for details.

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Multiple copies up to 15 pages

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High resolution printing with photo resolution

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Fax form templates

Templates Forms for faxes

Store up to 15 pages

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You can redial the last 10 numbers

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You can set different ring tones

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Federal Customs Service

Official name:
Federal Customs Service

Abbreviated name:
Federal Customs Service of Russia

121087, Moscow, Novozavodskaya st., 11/5, Teletype 611385 VETO RU


Main building:
121087, Moscow, Novozavodskaya st., 11/5

location map

Building on Sadovo-Sukharevskaya street:
107842, Moscow, Sadovo-Sukharevskaya street., 9, bldg. 2

location map

Reception office of the Federal Customs Service of Russia, reception hours of citizens:
Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday: from 9-00 to 18-00;
Friday from 9-00 to 16-45

Instructions on the organization of access and intra-facility regimes in the customs authorities of the Russian Federation and institutions under the jurisdiction of the FCS of Russia.

Phones and email addresses

Reception FCS of Russia: +7 (499) 449-7675 (for personal reception)

Inquiry telephone service of the Federal Customs Service of Russia: +7 (499) 449-7771 (address, working hours, information telephone of a specific customs authority, information on the procedure for conducting a personal appointment with an applicant, considering an appeal, filing a complaint against a decision, action (inaction) customs authorities or their officials)

Email: fts @ ca.customs.gov.ru (for sending correspondence by state bodies, public organizations, legal entities)

Reference on documents sent to the Federal Customs Service of Russia: +7 (499) 449-7235, fax: +7 (495) 913-9390, +7 (499) 449-7300 (both numbers are for sending faxes), + 7 (499) 449-7305 (fax passing check)

Unified technical support service of the Federal Customs Service of Russia: +7 (499) 449-78-66, e-mail: [email protected]

Call center for the provision of public services : +7 (495) 740-1818 (please note that this phone number is not intended for consulting on border crossing issues and searching for international mail)

Russian Federal Customs Service helpline: +7 (499) 449-7997 (on corruption-related crimes, malfeasance, conflicts of interest among customs officials)

Bank details

Bank details opened by the Federal Customs Service of Russia in the Interregional Operations Department of the Federal Treasury:

INN 7730176610, KPP 773001001,

Name of the bank: OPERATING DEPARTMENT OF THE BANK OF RUSSIA // Interregional operational UFK g.Moscow;

BIK TOFK 024501901

personal account number

Account type

number of the bank account included in the single treasury account

treasury account number


personal account of the main manager (manager) of budgetary funds




personal account of the recipient of budget funds




personal account of the administrator of budget revenues


03100643000000019500 – for accounting and distribution of other income


personal account for accounting of transactions with funds received at the temporary disposal of the recipient of budget funds



Department of Digital Development of the Voronezh Region – Organization

by decree
of the Government of the Voronezh Region
of 29.12.2018 N 1237


1. General provisions

1.1. The Department of Digital Development of the Voronezh Region (hereinafter referred to as the Department) is the executive body of state power of the Voronezh Region, authorized in the development and implementation of state policy in the field of digital development, information technology and communications in the territory of the Voronezh Region.
1.2. The abbreviated name of the Department is DCR VO.
1.3. The Department ensures, when exercising its powers, the priority of goals and objectives to promote the development of competition in product markets in the established field of activity.
1.4. The department is functionally subordinate to the Deputy Prime Minister of the Voronezh Region.
1.5. The Department in its activities is guided by the Constitution of the Russian Federation, federal constitutional laws, federal laws, decrees and orders of the President of the Russian Federation, decrees and orders of the Government of the Russian Federation, other legal acts of state authorities of the Russian Federation, the Charter of the Voronezh region, laws of the Voronezh region, regulatory legal acts the Governor of the Voronezh Region, the Government of the Voronezh Region, other legal acts of the state authorities of the Voronezh Region, as well as these Regulations.
1.6. The Department is the legal successor of the Communications and Mass Media Department of the Voronezh Region, with the exception of obligations, including obligations arising from the execution of court decisions, in the field of mass communications.
1.7. The department has the rights of a legal entity, has letterheads and stamps with its name, a seal with the coat of arms of the Voronezh region, has an independent balance sheet and estimate, has the right to open budget and other accounts in the manner prescribed by law, can acquire and exercise property and non-property rights on its own behalf , to bear obligations, to act as a plaintiff, a defendant, a third party and an interested person in the courts.
1.8. The financing of the expenses for the maintenance of the Department is carried out at the expense of the regional budget, provided for financing the executive bodies of state power of the Voronezh region.
1.9. The Department is assigned the property of the Voronezh region on the basis of operational management.
1.10. The staffing table of the Department is approved by the decree of the Government of the Voronezh Region on the proposal of the head of the Department.
1.11. The regulation on the Department is approved and amended by the decree of the government of the Voronezh region.
1.12. The address of the location of the Department: 394018, Voronezh, pl. Lenin, 1.

2. The main tasks of the Department

2.1. Implementation of the state policy in the field of digital development, communications and information technology on the territory of the Voronezh region.
2.2. Development of digital public administration, including by ensuring the introduction of digital technologies and platform solutions in the areas of public administration.
2.3. Assistance in expanding the range of communication services in the interests of the population and organizations of the Voronezh region.
2.4. Regulatory legal, technical, technological, information and analytical support for the development and use of information and communication technologies in the activities of the executive bodies of state power in the Voronezh region.
2.5. Technical, technological and information support for the creation of e-government infrastructure and the development of the information society in the Voronezh region.
2.6. Development and implementation of a policy for the formation of fundamental databases of the Voronezh region in order to ensure the activities of the executive bodies of state power of the Voronezh region, local self-government bodies of the municipalities of the Voronezh region.
2.7. Ensuring the transition to interdepartmental information interaction in the provision of state and municipal services.

3. Main functions and services of the Department

3.1. The Department performs the following state functions:
3.1.1. Creation and development of state information systems of the Voronezh region on the basis of ensuring their compatibility and interaction with federal and municipal information systems.
3.1.2. Ensuring interaction between state bodies of the Voronezh region and other organizations in the field of informatization in the Voronezh region, including ensuring the functioning of state information systems of the Voronezh region and their compatibility, maintaining and updating state information resources of the Voronezh region.
3.1.3. Creation of conditions for high-quality and effective information support of citizens, state bodies of the Voronezh region, local self-government bodies of municipalities of the Voronezh region, organizations and public associations.
3.1.4. Creation of conditions for the development of the information and telecommunication infrastructure of the Voronezh region, which meets the needs of citizens and organizations in information, as well as the needs of state bodies of the Voronezh region and local governments of municipalities of the Voronezh region in information and information interaction.
3.1.5. Registration of state information systems of the Voronezh region, including software and hardware, designed to process information contained in the state information systems of the Voronezh region.
3.1.6. Protection of information contained in the state information systems of the Voronezh region.
3.1.7. Organization of the creation of a system for providing calls to emergency services on a single number “112” in the Voronezh region, ensuring its operation and development.
3.1.8. Assisting postal operators in expanding the range of services provided to citizens and legal entities.
3.2. The Department provides the state service “Coordination of the operating mode of postal facilities of federal postal organizations on the territory of the Voronezh region”.
3.3. The Department performs other functions:
3.3.1. Participation in the implementation of activities of the Digital Economy of the Russian Federation program in the Voronezh Region.
3.3.2. Ensuring the uninterrupted functioning of computer equipment of structural subdivisions of the government of the Voronezh region, the information and telecommunication network of the executive bodies of the Voronezh region, software and technical development of the regional information and analytical system.
3.3.3. Coordination of the activities of telecom operators in order to achieve the planned indicators of the density of subscriber devices (phones) of the public fixed network, the level of penetration of mobile communications.
3.3.4. Organization and implementation of investment projects aimed at developing the telecommunications infrastructure of the Voronezh region.
3.3.5. Participation in the creation and improvement of the investment attraction system and the mechanism for the development and implementation of projects in the field of informatization in the Voronezh region.
3.3.6. Organizational and software and hardware support for the creation, development and maintenance of the operability of the interbranch integrated geoinformation system of the Voronezh region.
3.3.7. Organization of the use of satellite navigation technologies and other results of space activities in the interests of the socio-economic development of the Voronezh region.
3.3.8. Providing information interaction between structural units of the Voronezh Region government, a territorial body of the federal executive body authorized to solve problems in the field of protecting the population and territories from emergencies.
3.3.9. Conducting an expert assessment of documents used in the planning, creation and organization of work on the protection of information in the activities of state bodies of the Voronezh region.
3.3.10. Implementation of state support for economic entities carrying out scientific, scientific, technical and other activities in the areas of development of communications, information and communication technologies.
3.3.11. Support of projects and programs in the fields of information and communication technologies, communications, ensuring the development of state information systems of the Voronezh region and information and communication technologies in the Voronezh region.
3.3.12. Creation and maintenance of the functioning of the system of interdepartmental electronic interaction, including as an operator of the system of interdepartmental electronic interaction of the executive bodies of state power of the Voronezh region.
3.3.13. Ensuring interaction of information systems of executive bodies of state power of the Voronezh region with information systems of territorial bodies of federal executive bodies, local authorities of municipalities of the Voronezh region, organizations involved in the provision of state and municipal services, using the regional system of electronic interaction.
3.3.14. Providing methodological support for interdepartmental information interaction in the provision of state and municipal services.
3.3.15. Realization of functions of the operator of the system of interdepartmental electronic interaction of the Voronezh region.
3.3.16. Organization and implementation of project activities in accordance with applicable law.
3.3.17. Providing information interaction between the operator of the State Information System on state and municipal payments and executive bodies of state power, local self-government bodies of municipalities of the Voronezh region, as well as state and municipal institutions subordinate to them.
3.3.18. Formation and maintenance of the information system “Register of public services of the Voronezh region” as an operator of the register of public services of the Voronezh region.
3.3.19. Coordination of work on the organization and development of state information systems in the Voronezh region, ensuring the interaction of industry information systems, software development, the formation of state information resources.
3.3.20. Assistance in the implementation of new technical regulations and state standards in the field of information and communication technologies.
3.3.21. Development and implementation of state programs of the Voronezh region in the subordinate field of activity.
3.3.22. Development of legal acts of the Voronezh region in the subordinate sphere of activity and preparation of opinions on draft legal acts in terms of the use of information and telecommunication technologies, communications within their competence.
3.3.23. Providing methodological and advisory assistance to the state authorities of the Voronezh region, local authorities of municipalities of the Voronezh region, organizations for the development of information and communication technologies on the territory of the Voronezh region.
3.3.24. Formation of state information resources aimed at meeting the information needs of citizens and organizations.
3.3.25. Participation in the development and expansion of the postal network.
3.3.26. Submitting to the federal executive body that manages the activities in the field of postal communications, proposals for the improvement and development of the postal network in the Voronezh region, to the government of the Voronezh region proposals for the development and implementation of state information systems of the Voronezh region and organizing the implementation of these proposals.
3.3.27. Organization of the activities of multifunctional centers located on the territory of the Voronezh region.
3.3.28. Providing conditions for the accessibility of multifunctional centers for disabled people located on the territory of the Voronezh region.
3.3.29. Participation in the formation of the budget of the Voronezh region in terms of the costs of exercising the powers and functions of the Department, as well as subordinate institutions.
3.3.30. Acting as the main manager and recipient of budgetary funds in terms of funds provided for the maintenance of the Department and the implementation of the functions assigned to it, including federal budget funds in accordance with applicable law.
3.3.31. Implementation, in accordance with the legislation of the Russian Federation, of work on the acquisition, storage, accounting and use of archival documents generated in the course of the Department’s activities.
3.3.32. Implementation of information systems to support managerial decision-making into the activities of structural units of the government of the Voronezh region and executive bodies of state power of the Voronezh region.
3.3.33. Development of mobilization plans.
3.3.34. Providing mobilization training for the Department, as well as guiding the mobilization training of subordinate institutions.
3.3.35. Implementation of procurement of goods, works and services in the subordinate sphere of activity to meet the state needs of the Voronezh region.
3.3.36. Implementation in the prescribed manner of the functions and powers of the founder of subordinate institutions.
3.3.37. Formation of a unified information technology infrastructure of the electronic government of the Voronezh region.Creation of a single trust space for electronic signatures.
3.3.38. Publishing, within its competence, normative legal acts – orders.
3.3.39. Consideration of citizens’ appeals in accordance with Federal Law of 02.05.2006 N 59-FZ “On the Procedure for Considering Appeals of Citizens of the Russian Federation”.
3.3.40. Creation of conditions for the development of competition in the market of broadband access services (BBA) to the Internet, provided on the basis of wired and wireless technologies.
3.3.41. Carrying out the functions of an operator of state information systems of the Voronezh region.
3.3.42. Implementation of the functions of a state customer in the field of information technology and communications.
3.3.43. Carrying out the function of organizing the maintenance of the information and telecommunications infrastructure of the structural divisions of the government and executive bodies of state power in the Voronezh region.
3.3.44. Implementation, within its competence, of measures to counter terrorism in the established area of ​​activity and control over the state of anti-terrorist security of institutions in relation to which the Department exercises the functions and powers of the founder.
3.3.45. Ensuring the implementation of anti-corruption measures in the Department and subordinate institutions.
3.3.46. Organization and functioning of the system of internal compliance with the requirements of the antimonopoly legislation of the Department’s activities (antimonopoly compliance).
3.3.47. Implementation of internal financial control and internal financial audit.
3.4. The Department performs other functions in accordance with applicable law.
3.5. The Department, in the implementation of the tasks and functions assigned to it, interacts with the state authorities of the Russian Federation, state authorities of the Voronezh region, local authorities of municipalities of the Voronezh region, organizations in the field of informatization, public associations.
3.6. The Department carries out its activities directly and through subordinate institutions in cooperation with federal executive bodies, executive bodies of state power of the Voronezh Region, local self-government bodies of municipalities of the Voronezh Region, public associations, business entities located in the Voronezh Region.

4. Rights of the Department

The Department in its activities for the implementation of the assigned tasks and the exercise of powers to perform functions and provide services in the subordinate sphere of activity is entitled to:
4.1. Request and receive:
– information about activities from subjects of the subordinate sphere of activity;
– reference and information materials from executive bodies of state power, local authorities, organizations.
4.2. Use the information resources of the Voronezh region.
4.3. Create advisory and expert bodies, as well as raise the issue of creating interdepartmental commissions and councils for state regulation in the subordinate sphere of activity.
4.4. Convene meetings on the problems of state regulation in the subordinate sphere of activity with the involvement of heads and specialists of the executive bodies of state power of the Voronezh region, local self-government bodies of municipalities of the Voronezh region, public associations, business entities located in the territory of the Voronezh region.
4.5. Organize and conduct conferences, seminars, meetings, exhibitions, reviews and other events aimed at achieving the goals and implementing the assigned functions.
4.6. To take part in meetings, as well as in the work of collegial bodies created by the decision of the executive bodies of state power of the Voronezh region, on issues of state regulation in the subordinate sphere of activity.
4.7. To involve, in the prescribed manner, for the performance of the assigned functions, scientific, educational institutions, individual scientists, specialists of the executive bodies of state power of the Voronezh region and local self-government of municipalities of the Voronezh region, representatives of federal bodies of state power.
4.8. Monitor the activities of structural divisions of the government of the Voronezh region, executive bodies of state power of the Voronezh region and local government bodies of municipalities of the Voronezh region on the use of communications and information and communication technologies, determine the effectiveness of the use of communications and information and communication technologies in the subordinate sphere of activity.

5. Responsibilities of the Department

5.1. Comply with the requirements of the legislation of the Russian Federation and the Voronezh region.
5.2. To ensure, within the limits of its competence, the implementation of the tasks and functions assigned to the Department.
5.3. Comply with the requirements of the Regulations for interaction of executive bodies of state power of the Voronezh region.
5.4. Defend and represent the interests of the Voronezh region, the governor of the Voronezh region, the government of the Voronezh region in the judiciary and the prosecutor’s office, as well as in interaction with individuals and legal entities, constituent entities of the Russian Federation and local governments within their competence.
5.5. Ensure the safety of official and state secrets, prevent the disclosure of personal data of individuals and other information protected by law.
5.6. Provide clarifications to legal entities and individuals on issues within the competence of the Department.
5.7. Analyze judicial practice, representations and protests of the prosecutor’s office, expert opinions of the competent authorities and prepare relevant documents reflecting the results of the analysis and proposals for improving law enforcement in the subordinate sphere of activity.
5.8. To take measures and make proposals to improve the work of the Department within the framework of their competence.
5.9. Coordinate the activities of:
– subordinate institutions of the Voronezh region;
– executive bodies of state power of the Voronezh region in the subordinate sphere of activity;
– local government bodies of municipalities of the Voronezh region in the subordinate sphere of activity.

6. Management of the Department

6.1. The Department is managed by the head of the Department, who is appointed and dismissed by the Governor of the Voronezh Region.
6.2. Head of Department:
6.2.1. Organizes the work of the Department in accordance with the assigned tasks and functions.
6.2.2. Issues orders on the activities of the Department.
6.2.3. Without a power of attorney, acts on behalf of the Department, represents its interests, concludes agreements (contracts), issues powers of attorney, opens accounts in banks in accordance with the procedure established by law, enjoys the right to dispose of financial resources transferred to the Department for the implementation of the functions assigned to it, and also represents it in all government bodies, local governments and organizations.
6.2.4. Submits the staffing of the Department to the Governor of the Voronezh Region for approval by a resolution of the Government of the Voronezh Region.
6.2.5. Signs documents on behalf of the Department, issued within its competence.
6.2.6. Determines the functions of the structural divisions of the Department.
6.2.7. Distributes responsibilities between the deputy heads of the Department.
6.2.8. Exercises the powers of a representative of the employer for the positions of the state civil service of the Department on behalf of the Voronezh region, with the exception of the highest positions of the state civil service of the category “managers”.
6.2.9. Accepts and dismisses employees who fill positions that are not positions of the state civil service of the Voronezh region.
6.2.10. Approves the job regulations of civil servants of the Department and job descriptions of employees of the Department who fill positions that are not positions of the state civil service of the Voronezh region.
6.2.11. Decides on the encouragement and rewarding of civil servants of the Department.
6.2.12. Submits suggestions for improving the qualifications of civil servants of the Department and on the formation of a personnel reserve.
6.2.13. Solves the issues of secondment of employees of the Department.
6.2.14. Participates in meetings of collegiums, commissions and other government bodies of the Voronezh region.
6.2.15. Organizes interaction with the Voronezh Regional Duma, the Voronezh Regional Court, the Arbitration Court of the Voronezh Region, the Prosecutor’s Office of the Voronezh Region, as well as with federal executive authorities, executive bodies of state power of the Voronezh Region, local self-government bodies of municipalities of the Voronezh Region within the competence.
6.2.16. Solves other issues related to the authority of the Department.
6.3. In case of temporary absence of the head of the Department, his duties are performed by the first deputy head of the Department. In the absence of the first deputy head of the Department, his duties are performed by one of the deputy heads of the Department in accordance with the job regulations.

7. Responsibility of the head of the Department

The head of the Department is responsible for:
– for non-performance or improper performance of the functions of the Department in accordance with the requirements of the current legislation;
– for failure to achieve the main performance indicators of the Department established by a legal act of the government of the Voronezh Region.

8. Reorganization and liquidation of the Department

8.1. Termination of the Department’s activities is carried out through reorganization or liquidation in accordance with the procedure established by law on the basis of the relevant legal act of the Voronezh Region.

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